Immo Fritsche, Torsten Masson
Effectively protecting the climate requires the action of groups. In the present review article, we aim to understand when individuals turn into collective climate actors. We first discuss pertinent models of group-based action and their relevance for explaining climate action. Then, we review recent research on how collective climate action is driven by ingroup identification, social norms, group-based emotions, and collective efficacy. Finally, we focus on when and why people feel a sense of collective agency aiming at inspiring a novel research agenda on collective climate action...
May 15, 2021: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ambika Prasad Patra, M Kumaran
The present paper is a case-based review on rare complications of illegal abortion, i.e., necrotizing fasciitis missed early by the treating gynecologists which landed up into a negligence tort against the physicians. The common complications of the abortion like incomplete abortion, haemorrhage, sepsis, etc. are usually handled successfully by the gynecologists; however, early detection often missed when a rare complication like necrotising fasciitis occurs. Eventually leading to litigations in case of death of the patient...
June 7, 2021: Legal Medicine
Richard Adams, Kaitlyn Goey, Benoist Chibaudel, Miriam Koopman, Cornelis Punt, Dirk Arnold, Axel Hinke, Susanna Hegewisch-Becker, Aimery de Gramont, Roberto Labianca, Eduardo Diaz Rubio, Kjell Magne Tveit, Harpreet Wasan, Richard Kaplan, Louise Brown, Tim Maughan, David Fisher
BACKGROUND: Intermittent systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) may improve quality of life without compromising overall survival (OS). We aimed to use individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) from multiple randomised controlled trials evaluating intermittent strategies to inform clinical practice. We also aimed to validate whether thrombocytosis as a predictive biomarker identified patients with significantly reduced OS receiving a complete treatment break...
May 19, 2021: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Hao Du, Yuqun Xie, Jun Wang
Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a global environmental concern because of their severe threat to biota. However, limited studies on the elimination of MPs pollution were reported. The conventional treatment methods were not suitable for MPs owing to their smaller size than plastic items. Hence many methods for MPs treatment have been examined. This review summarized the recently reported MPs degradation methods including AOPs (direct photodegradation, photocatalytic oxidation, and electrochemical oxidation) and biodegradation, corresponding degradation mechanism as well as current development state...
June 10, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jian Zhang, Ni Zhang, Filip M G Tack, Shinjiro Sato, Daniel S Alessi, Patryk Oleszczuk, Hailong Wang, Xiaozhi Wang, Shengsen Wang
Contamination of water bodies by potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants has aroused extensive concerns worldwide. Thus it is significant to develop effective adsorbents for removing these contaminants. As a new member of carbonaceous material families (activated carbon, biochar, and graphene), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with larger specific surface area, ordered pore structure, and higher pore volume are being evaluated for their use in contaminant removal. In this paper, modification techniques of OMC were systematically reviewed for the first time...
May 30, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Anne Nguyen, Roland Böttger, Shyh-Dar Li
Prodrugs are designed to improve pharmaceutical properties of potent compounds and represent a central approach in drug development. The success of the prodrug strategy relies on incorporation of a reversible linkage facilitating controlled release of the parent drug. While prodrug approaches enhance pharmacokinetic properties over their parent drug, they still face challenges in absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity (ADMET). Conjugating a drug to a carrier molecule such as a polymer can create an amphiphile that self-assembles into nanoparticles...
June 5, 2021: Biomaterials
Jameela Al Salman, Laila Al Dabal, Matteo Bassetti, Wadha A Alfouzan, Muna Al Maslamani, Basem Alraddadi, Ashraf Elhoufi, Faryal Khamis, Eiman Mokkadas, Ingy Romany, Mushira Enani, Ali Somily, Souha S Kanj
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global issue that presents an increasing threat to patients' wellbeing. Although a global concern, the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms is of particular significance in the Middle East. In recent years, this region has seen an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance presenting a major challenge to physicians managing various infectious diseases. METHODS: A Working Group comprising experts in infectious diseases from Arab countries of Middle East assembled to review similarities and differences in antimicrobial practices and management of multi-drug resistant organisms across the region and assess the barriers to achieving cross-regional collaboration...
April 24, 2021: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ahmed S Keshta, Saad I Mallah, Khaled Al Zubaidi, Omar K Ghorab, Mohamed S Keshta, Dalal Alarabi, Mohammad A Abousaleh, Mustafa Thaer Salman, Omer E Taha, Anas A Zeidan, Mahmoud F Elsaid, Patrick Tang
The two genetically similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, have each been responsible for global epidemics of vastly different scales. Although both viruses arose from similar origins, they quickly diverged due to differences in their transmission dynamics and spectrum of clinical presentations. The potential involvement of multiple organs systems, including the respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neurological, during infection necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the clinical pathogenesis of each virus...
April 24, 2021: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Fayssal M Farahat, Omar K Bukhari, Ibrahim A Basfar, Ammar M Alammari, Ahmed Z Zaatari, Asim A Alsaedi, Majid M Alshamrani
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for the elderly and people who suffer from chronic conditions. This study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological characteristics and disease outcomes associated with the occurrence of CAP. METHODS: This retrospective chart review was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Cases with documented clinical diagnosis of CAP during the period from 2016 to 2019 were included...
May 27, 2021: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Abdulaziz S Almutairi, Hassan Abunurah, Abdulkarim Hadi Alanazi, Faraj Alenazi, Hassan Nag, Nafea Saad Almutairi, Michael Wells, Abdullah Alawam, Mohammed M Alqahtani
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often results in pneumonia and can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is one of the most significant causes of death in patients with COVID-19. The development of a "cytokine storm" in patients with COVID-19 causes progression to ARDS. In this scoping review, we investigated the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inducing moderate and severe ARDS outcomes. A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to implement a broad query that captured all the relevant studies published between December 2019 and September 2020...
May 26, 2021: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Abdul Rahman Jazieh, Majed Alghamdi, Mohammad Alkaiyat, Sameera M Al Johani, Moussab Damlaj
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients is critical to co-manage their underlying disease and infection appropriately. Our study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of screening patients with cancer for COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All oncology patients receiving care at Department of Oncology at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh were screened using the acute respiratory infection (ARI) survey. Nasopharyngeal and throat swap for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed on patients who have high ARI score (i...
May 26, 2021: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jean-Baptiste Ricco, Hélène Castagnet, Luc Christiaens, Paola Palazzo, Matthias Lamy, Jean Mergy, Pierre Corbi, Jean-Philippe Neau
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: While postoperative stroke is a known complication of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), predictors of early stroke occurrence have not been specifically reviewed. The objective of this study was to estimate the predictors and incidence of stroke during the first 30 days post-TAVI. METHODS: A cohort of 506 consecutive patients having undergone TAVI between January 2017 and June 2019 was extracted from a prospective database. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were analyzed by univariate analysis followed by logistic regression to find predictors of the occurrence of stroke or death within the first 30 days after the procedure...
June 11, 2021: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Qin Chen, Xiang Fu, Xian-Hui Wang, Jing Chen, Jun-Ying Huang, Cheng-Jie Mao, Wan-Qing Zhai, Jie Li, Chun-Feng Liu
OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing adversely impacts stroke outcomes. We investigated whether sleep-disordered breathing during rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep differentially influenced stroke outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients who finished polysomnography within 14 days of stroke onset from April 2010 to August 2018 were reviewed. Patients were divided into four groups according to apnea-hypopnea index during rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep...
June 12, 2021: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Robert G Hart, Lesly A Pearce, Philip B Gorelick, Ben J Connolly, Luciana Catanese
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subdural hematomas are an uncommon, but a serious, bleeding complication of antithrombotic therapies. We update our previous inconclusive meta-analysis to better estimate the risk of subdural hematoma associated with aspirin use. METHODS: For the initial meta-analysis, nine randomized trials published between1980 and 2012 comparing aspirin with placebo/control were considered. Additional data from four large primary prevention trials were added...
June 12, 2021: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Muhammad Junaid, Jun Wang
Nanoplastics (NPs) are plastic particles with sizes ranging between 1 and 1000 nm, exhibiting exceptional qualities such as large surface area, lightweight, durability; therefore, are widely used in cosmetics, paints, electronics, etc. NPs are inevitability released into the aquatic environment where they tend to interact with both, the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and other fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), respectively secreted by organisms (e.g., DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates) and degradation byproducts of organic materials (e...
June 2, 2021: Water Research
Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel, Janet Yee, Rosa María Bermúdez-Cruz
Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that is responsible for many cases of diarrheal disease worldwide and is characterized by its great divergence from the model organisms commonly used in studies of basic cellular processes. The life cycle of Giardia involves an infectious cyst form and a proliferative and mobile trophozoite form. Each Giardia trophozoite has two nuclei and a complex microtubule cytoskeleton that consists of eight flagellar axonemes, basal bodies, the adhesive disc, the funis and the median body...
June 10, 2021: Microbiological Research
Akane Sakaguchi, Wataru Kimura
The adult mammalian heart cannot regenerate after myocardial injury because most cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate. In contrast, cardiomyocytes of vertebrates such as zebrafish and urodele amphibians, but also those of fetal and early neonatal mammals, maintain the ability to proliferate and therefore support regeneration of injured tissue and recovery of cardiac function. Whether evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation exist and, if so, whether they are modifiable to allow cardiac regeneration in adult mammals are questions of great scientific and medical interest...
June 11, 2021: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Sedat Giray Kandemirli, Girish Bathla
Patients with rheumatological diseases may present with neurological manifestations of peripheral and/or central nervous system (CNS). Symptoms may be related to underlying rheumatological disease or CNS effects of immune-modulating drugs. Early diagnosis and therapy may help prevent serious complications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), given its excellent soft tissue details, is the preferred imaging modality when evaluating patients with rheumatological disease and suspected CNS involvement. We present a review of the neuroimaging manifestations of various rheumatic diseases with emphasis on the imaging findings on MRI...
June 11, 2021: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Qinchen Li, Zhize Wang, Jiahe Yi, Haixiang Shen, Zitong Yang, Libin Yan, Liping Xie
BACKGROUND:  Studies have shown that AR-V7 may be correlated with the poor prognosis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), however, clinicopathological characteristics of AR-V7 have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathological features of AR-V7 in CRPC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the clinicopathological features of AR-V7 in CRPC patients. A search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was performed using the keywords prostate cancer, prostate tumor, prostate neoplasm, prostate carcinoma, AR-V7, AR3, androgen receptor splicing variant-7, or androgen receptor-3...
June 12, 2021: Translational Oncology
Fadi Kazahia Khir, Naim Ghazi Battikh, Abdul Rahman Arabi
Chest pain is still representing one of the most common and serious presentations to the emergency department worldwide. ECG is a crucial tool in evaluating patients with chest pain; however, only around 50% of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) will have a diagnostic ECG upon their presentation; the rest may either have a completely normal ECG or what is called nonspecific ST segment and T wave (NSSTTW) changes, hence it is essential to recognize the subtle ECG changes and know its significance. One of the ECG changes that can be easily missed is when the T wave in V1 is upright, especially when it is either a Tall Upright T wave (TTV1) or a New Tall Upright T-wave (NTTV1)...
June 1, 2021: Journal of Electrocardiology
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