Brett T McClintock, Roland Langrock, Olivier Gimenez, Emmanuelle Cam, David L Borchers, Richard Glennie, Toby A Patterson
Ecological systems can often be characterised by changes among a finite set of underlying states pertaining to individuals, populations, communities or entire ecosystems through time. Owing to the inherent difficulty of empirical field studies, ecological state dynamics operating at any level of this hierarchy can often be unobservable or 'hidden'. Ecologists must therefore often contend with incomplete or indirect observations that are somehow related to these underlying processes. By formally disentangling state and observation processes based on simple yet powerful mathematical properties that can be used to describe many ecological phenomena, hidden Markov models (HMMs) can facilitate inferences about complex system state dynamics that might otherwise be intractable...
October 19, 2020: Ecology Letters
Diego A Alonzo, T Martin Schmeing
Depsipeptides are compounds that contain both ester bonds and amide bonds. Important natural product depsipeptides include the piscicide antimycin, the K+ ionophores cereulide and valinomycin, the anticancer agent cryptophycin, and the antimicrobial kutzneride. Furthermore, database searches return hundreds of uncharacterized systems likely to produce novel depsipeptides. These compounds are made by specialised nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). NRPSs are biosynthetic megaenzymes that use a module architecture and multi-step catalytic cycle to assemble monomer substrates into peptides, or in the case of specialised depsipeptide synthetases, depsipeptides...
October 19, 2020: Protein Science
Paul J CaraDonna, Laura A Burkle, Benjamin Schwarz, Julian Resasco, Tiffany M Knight, Gita Benadi, Nico Blüthgen, Carsten F Dormann, Qiang Fang, Jochen Fründ, Benoit Gauzens, Christopher N Kaiser-Bunbury, Rachael Winfree, Diego P Vázquez
Most studies of plant-animal mutualistic networks have come from a temporally static perspective. This approach has revealed general patterns in network structure, but limits our ability to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape these networks and to predict the consequences of natural and human-driven disturbance on species interactions. We review the growing literature on temporal dynamics of plant-animal mutualistic networks including pollination, seed dispersal and ant defence mutualisms...
October 19, 2020: Ecology Letters
Matti Korppi
AIM: A review published in 2015 showed that 331 Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) osteitis cases were globally reported in 1976-2012. The 222 Finnish cases from 1960 to 1988 formed two-thirds of all cases. The present narrative review summarises epidemiological, clinical and immunological findings obtained from this Finnish cohort in relation to data from other countries. METHODS: Six reports including 93 BCG osteitis cases, which were not included in the 2015 review, were identified from PubMed...
October 8, 2020: Acta Paediatrica
Omar Mossad, Daniel Erny
The innate immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly represented by specialized tissue-resident macrophages, called microglia. In the past years, various species-, host- and tissue-specific as well as environmental factors were recognized that essentially affect microglial properties and functions in the healthy and diseased brain. Host microbiota are mostly residing in the gut and contribute to microglial activation states e.g. via short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands...
October 19, 2020: Brain Pathology
S Shinar, W Xing, V Pruthi, C Jianping, F Slaghekke, S Groene, E Lopriore, L Lewi, I Couck, Y Yinon, L Batsry, L Raio, S Amylidi-Mohr, D Baud, F Kneuss, P DeKoninck, J Moscou, J Barrett, N Melamed, G Ryan, L Sun, T Van Mieghem
OBJECTIVE: Type III selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) is associated with a high and unpredictable risk of fetal death and fetal brain injury. Our objective was to describe the prospective risk of fetal death and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes in a contemporary cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies complicated by type III sIUGR managed at nine fetal centers over a 12-year time period. Higher order multiples, major fetal anomalies or other monochorionicity related complications at initial presentation were excluded...
October 19, 2020: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Dan Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhu, Lili Jiang, Xiu Huang, Yangyang Zhang, Xuejiao Wei, Xiaoxia Zhao
Renal fibrosis is characterized by the proliferation of renal intrinsic cells, activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix, processes that lead to the progressive loss of renal function. Renal fibrosis is characterized by the proliferation of renal intrinsic cells, activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts, and septal fibrosis is recognized as a marker for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is a significant public health burden...
October 19, 2020: Nephrology
Matthew Stewart, Perry Hammond, Ishani Khatiwala, Brian Swendseid, Farshid Taghizadeh, Daniel Petrisor, Tingting Zhan, Richard Goldman, Adam Luginbuhl, Ryan Heffelfinger, Larissa Sweeny, Mark K Wax, Joseph M Curry
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The literature on outcomes of end-to-side (ETS) anastomoses for microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck is limited. This series reviews ETS in free tissue transfer (FTT) across multiple institutions to better understand their usage and associated outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of 2482 consecutive patients across three tertiary institutions. METHODS: Adult patients (> 18) who received a FTT from 2006 to 2019 were included...
October 19, 2020: Laryngoscope
Gunilla Brodda Jansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2020: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Sebastan Rutkowski, Pawel Kiper, Luisa Cacciante, Błażej Cieślik, Justyna Mazurek, Andrea Turolla, Joanna Szczepańska-Gieracha
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the effectiveness of virtual reality-based interventions within several fields of rehabilitation, and to investigate whether the outcomes of virtual reality-based interventions, in terms of upper or lower limb function, gait and balance, differ with respect to the virtual reality system used. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE database resulted in an initial total of 481 records. Of these, 27 articles were included in the study. A final total of 20 articles, published between 2012 and 2019, were included in the study...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Apurba K Das, Pramod K Gavel
In this review, we have focused on the design and development of low molecular weight self-assembling peptide-based materials for various applications including cell proliferation, tissue engineering, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, wound healing, drug delivery, bioimaging and 3D bioprinting. The first part of the review describes about stimuli and various noncovalent interactions, which are the key components of various self-assembly processes for the construction of organized structures...
October 19, 2020: Soft Matter
Milan Pramanik, Khokan Choudhuri, Prasenjit Mal
In organic synthesis, transition-metal and photoredox-catalysis-based reaction systems are emerging trends for the construction of C-S bonds. Many review articles have recently appeared in this field; however, we present herein an overview of metal-free C-S coupling reactions using thiols or disulfides as sulfur surrogates. The oxidants we have considered include peroxides, tert-butyl nitrite (TBN), DDQ, iodine reagents, and molecular oxygen. In addition, selective electrochemical oxidative transformations are also covered with mechanistic details...
October 19, 2020: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jiabin Luan, Danni Wang, Daniela A Wilson
Communication is one of the most remarkable behaviors in the living world. It is an important prerequisite for building an artificial cell which can be considered as alive. Achieving complex communicative behaviors leveraging synthetic particles will likely fill the gap between artificial vesicles and natural counterpart of cells and allow for the discovery of new therapies in medicine. In this review, we highlight recent endeavors for constructing communication with synthetic particles by revealing the principles underlying the communicative behaviors...
October 19, 2020: Nanoscale
Wanlin Gao, Shuyu Liang, Rujie Wang, Qian Jiang, Yu Zhang, Qianwen Zheng, Bingqiao Xie, Cui Ying Toe, Xuancan Zhu, Junya Wang, Liang Huang, Yanshan Gao, Zheng Wang, Changbum Jo, Qiang Wang, Lidong Wang, Yuefeng Liu, Benoit Louis, Jason Scott, Anne-Cecile Roger, Rose Amal, Hong He, Sang-Eon Park
Dramatically increased CO2 concentration from several point sources is perceived to cause severe greenhouse effect towards the serious ongoing global warming with associated climate destabilization, inducing undesirable natural calamities, melting of glaciers, and extreme weather patterns. CO2 capture and utilization (CCU) has received tremendous attention due to its significant role in intensifying global warming. Considering the lack of a timely review on the state-of-the-art progress of promising CCU techniques, developing an appropriate and prompt summary of such advanced techniques with a comprehensive understanding is necessary...
October 19, 2020: Chemical Society Reviews
Tila Khan, Sanjukta Dasgupta, Nilanjana Ghosh, Koel Chaudhury
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating chronic progressive and fibrosing lung disease that culminates in the destruction of alveolar integrity and dismal prognosis. Its etiology is unknown and pathophysiology remains unclear. While great advances have been made in elucidating the pathogenesis mechanism, considerable gaps related to information on pathogenetic pathways and key protein targets involved in the clinical course of the disease exist. These issues need to be addressed for better clinical management of this highly challenging disease...
October 19, 2020: Molecular Omics
Xiaoxiao Qin, Zhong Zhang, Hongjun Shao, Runguang Zhang, Lingxin Chen, Xingbin Yang
Glycoproteins are closely linked to the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop highly selective, sensitive, efficient detection methods for glycoproteins. To overcome the problems with traditional detections methods, such as mass spectrometry, chromatography-mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, boronate affinity material (BAM)-based sensors have developed rapidly for the specific recognition and detection of glycoproteins because of the advantages of pH-controlled binding/release, reversibility of the reaction, high specificity, and high selectivity, showing their wide application prospects...
October 19, 2020: Analyst
Laura Teixeira Mendes, Bas A C Loomans, Niek J M Opdam, Carolina Lopes da Silva, Luciano Casagrande, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi
PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature to determine whether silane combined with adhesive application improves the repair bond strength of direct methacrylate-based resin composites in comparison to the use of an adhesive alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature up to December 2019 was searched through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Lilacs databases with no publication year or language limits. From 676 potentially eligible studies, 81 were selected for full-text analysis, and 19 were included in the systematic review...
2020: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Sami Akbulut, Mehmet Kolu, Sezai Yilmaz
The most serious complications of liver hydatid cyst disease are fistulization into biliary tract, compression of adjacent vascular structures, anaphylactic reaction, and perforation. Fistulization between liver hydatid cyst and gallbladder tract is an extremely rare complication with only a few cases reported so far. Herein, we aimed to report a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed as having a cholecysto-hydatid cyst fistula. The patient presented to emergency department with signs and symptoms of cholangitis...
May 25, 2020: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Lisanne Jeannine van Hagen, Maaike Muntinga, Yolande Appelman, Petra Verdonk
Taking sex and gender into account in public health research is essential to optimize methodological procedures, bridge the gender gap in public health knowledge, and advance gender equality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of sex and gender considerations in public health research proposals in a Dutch research institute. We screened a random sample of 38 proposals submitted for review to the institute's science committee between 2011 and 2016. Using the Canadian Institutes of Health Research' Gender and Health Institute criteria for gender-sensitive research and qualitative content analysis, we assessed if, and how sex and gender were considered throughout the proposals (background, research aim, design, data collection, and analysis)...
October 18, 2020: Women & Health
Elisa Bizetti Pelai, Fabiana Foltran-Mescollotto, Ester Moreira de Castro-Carletti, Marcio de Moraes, Delaine Rodrigues-Bigaton
OBJECTIVE: To verify the characteristics of the electromyographic signal of masticatory muscles in individuals with TMD and asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out, selecting cross-sectional studies with at least one electromyographic parameter (FM; iEMG; RMS) of the masticatory muscles (anterior temporal, bilateral masseter, and suprahyoid muscles) of individuals with TMD compared to asymptomatic individuals. RESULTS: This review identified 1656 titles, of which 30 articles were included in the final analysis...
October 18, 2020: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
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