M Pereira, P Ribas de Farias Costa, E Miranda Pereira, I Russoni de Lima Lago, A Marlucia Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies indicate an association between vitamin D deficiency and obesity. However, there is no consistent evidence of the direction or causal relationship between these conditions. Thus, we analysed the longitudinal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and obesity/adiposity in different age groups. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a systematic review with PROSPERO registry (CRD42016047523). METHODS: Electronic searches were undertaken in Lilacs, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science databases until April 2020...
January 13, 2021: Public Health
Linling Yu, Yan Sun
The strategy of using polymer-grafted media is effective to create protein chromatography of high capacity and uptake rate, giving rise to an excellent performance in high-throughput protein separation due to its high dynamic binding capacity. Taking the scientific development and technological innovation of protein chromatography as the objective, this review is devoted to an overview of polymer-grafted media reported in the last five years, including their fabrication routes, protein adsorption and chromatography, mechanisms behind the adsorption behaviors, limitations of polymer-grafted media and chromatographic operation strategies...
January 5, 2021: Journal of Chromatography. A
Joshua J Davis, Samuel W Foster, James P Grinias
In recent years, a trend toward utilizing open access resources for laboratory research has begun. Open-source design strategies for scientific hardware rely upon the use of widely available parts, especially those that can be directly printed using additive manufacturing techniques and electronic components that can be connected to low-cost microcontrollers. Open-source software eliminates the need for expensive commercial licenses and provides the opportunity to design programs for specific needs. In this review, the impact of the "open-source movement" within the field of chemical separations is described, primarily through a comprehensive look at research in this area over the past five years...
December 24, 2020: Journal of Chromatography. A
Annestasia Simbut John, Mohammad Mizwaruddin Sidek, Lee Yien Thang, Sabita Sami, Hui Yin Tey, Hong Heng See
One of the major drawbacks of electrophoresis in both capillary and microchip is the unsatisfactory sensitivity. Online sample preconcentration techniques can be regarded as the most common and powerful approaches commonly applied to enhance overall detection sensitivity. While the advances of various online preconcentration strategies in capillary and microchip employing aqueous background electrolytes are well-reviewed, there has been limited discussion of the feasible preconcentration techniques specifically developed for capillary and microchip using nonaqueous background electrolytes...
December 31, 2020: Journal of Chromatography. A
Takashi Ohba, Koichi Tanigawa, Liudmila Liutsko
Standards and guidelines for preparedness and response in the case of a nuclear accident cover radiation protection, health management and communication with affected populations. Decision makers use these recommendations to decide on measures that protect people residing around a nuclear power plant that suffers an accident from radiation exposure; for example, sheltering, evacuation and relocation. While technological and radiological criteria exist for these protective measures, studies on past radiological and nuclear emergencies have shown that evacuation and relocation result in serious health effects; this needs to be considered in accident preparedness and responses in the future...
January 13, 2021: Environment International
Tharwat El Zahran, Hala Mostafa, Hani Hamade, Zeina Mneimneh, Ziad Kazzi, Mazen J El Sayed
BACKGROUND: Between October 2019 and February 2020, massive crowds protested in Lebanon against economic collapse. Various less than lethal weapons including riot control agents and rubber bullets were used by law enforcement, which led to several traumatic and chemical injuries among victims. This study describes the clinical presentation, management, outcome, and healthcare costs of injuries. METHODS: A retrospective review of the hospital records of all the casualties presenting to the Emergency Department of the American University of Beirut Medical Center between October 17th, 2019, and February 29th, 2020, was conducted...
January 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
C Hamilton, R Burgul, G Kourkounis, A Howieson, A Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral defects of the talus (OCD) are a well-established pathology within the ankle. They are most commonly associated with ankle trauma and whilst many are asymptomatic, they can have a significant negative impact on the patient, most notably with regards pain and mobility. Treatment of these lesions remains variable across the diverse cohort of these patients. AIMS: Evaluating the incidence of talus OCDs. Evaluating anatomic and morphologic data of the lesions against previous studies...
December 9, 2020: Foot
R Danilkowicz, B Lau, J Kim, K Dai, C Akoh, S Adams, A Amendola
BACKGROUND: Ankle fractures are a common orthopedic injury that frequently involves associated cartilage lesions, soft tissue damage, and a significant inflammatory burden. Despite studies revealing intra-articular pathology in up to 79% of ankle fractures, only 1% of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) procedures undergo arthroscopic evaluation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of ankle arthroscopy performed at time of ORIF for ankle fracture...
January 8, 2021: Foot
Sommer Jarvis, Evgenia Koumadoraki, Nikolaos Madouros, Shayka Sharif, Amber Saleem, Safeera Khan
Osteosarcoma is extremely malignant, and the most common cancer that affects bone. Current treatments involve surgical resection of the affected area and multi-agent chemotherapy, though survival rate is generally poor for those affected by metastases. As treatment for osteosarcoma has remained unchanged for the past few decades, there is a need for further advancements in the understanding of osteosarcoma biology and therapeutics. Thus, reliable animal models that can accurately recapitulate the disease are required...
January 9, 2021: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Elena Iurina, Eva Bailles, Luis Pintor
PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the personality changes in adult patients with drug-resistant epilepsy following surgical treatment. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed, Medline databases, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, with search terms 'personality', 'epilepsy', and 'surgery'. RESULTS: Eleven studies were selected...
January 7, 2021: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Abigail Van Nuland, Anna Ivanenko, Mary Anne Meskis, Nicole Villas, Kelly G Knupp, Anne T Berg
OBJECTIVES: To describe and quantify the nature and severity of sleep disruptions in young people with Dravet syndrome (DS) based upon parent report. METHODS: Qualitative review of available pediatric sleep instruments with parent members of the Dravet syndrome Foundation led to the design of a series of questions customized to DS and other severe epilepsies. The questionnaire was administered as part of an on-line survey that reflected specific sleep-related concerns of parents of children with severe epilepsy...
January 7, 2021: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Lucía Martínez Cuesta, Sandra Elizabeth Pérez
Perforin and granzymes are essential components of the cytotoxic granules present in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These proteins play a crucial role in a variety of conditions, including viral infections, tumor immune surveillance, and tissue rejection. Besides their beneficial effect in most of these situations, perforin and granzymes have also been associated with tissue damage and immune diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that perforin and granzymes released during viral infections could contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases...
January 11, 2021: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
María-Constanza Trillos-Chacón, Juan A Castillo-M, Ingrid Tolosa-Guzman, Andrés Felipe Sánchez Medina, Silvia Marcela Ballesteros
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs. Strategies for preventing CTS in the workplace include interventions such as ergonomics, education, exercise, physical therapy, and occupational health. The purpose of this study was to provide a general overview based on the review of scientific literature regarding strategies used for preventing CTS in working populations. From September to October 2018, the MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS (1990 to December 2017) databases were searched for evidence...
January 13, 2021: Applied Ergonomics
Sanskriti Vats, Sreeja Sudhakaran, Anupriya Bhardwaj, Rushil Mandlik, Yogesh Sharma, Sudhir Kumar, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Humira Sonah, Tilakraj Sharma, Rupesh Deshmukh
Uptake of hazardous metal(loid)s adversely affects plants and imposes a threat to the entire food chain. Here, the role of aquaporins (AQPs) providing tolerance against hazardous metal(loid)s in plants is discussed to provide a perspective on the present understanding, knowledge gaps, and opportunities. Plants adopt complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better tolerance, adaptability, and survival under metal(loid)s stress. Water conservation in plants is one such primary strategies regulated by AQPs, a family of channel-forming proteins facilitating the transport of water and many other solutes...
December 20, 2020: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M Rey-Cárdenas, F Guerrero-Ramos, A Gómez de Liaño Lista, A Carretero-González, H Bote, M Herrera-Juárez, L Carril-Ajuria, M Martín-Soberón, J M Sepulveda, E G Billalabeitia, D Castellano, G de Velasco
Urothelial bladder cancer (UC) is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system and represents a significant health problem. Immunotherapy has been used for decades for UC with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) set as the standard of care for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has completely transformed the treatment landscape of bladder cancer enabling to expand the treatment strategies. Novel ICIs have successfully shown improved outcomes on metastatic disease to such an extent that the standard of care paradigm has changed leading to the development of different trials with the aim of determining whether ICIs may have a role in early disease...
January 5, 2021: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Alexandra T Bourdillon, Heather A Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Probiotics have garnered considerable attention as an intervention for various conditions common to otolaryngology. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature to offer recommendations about the safety and efficacy of probiotic management in otolaryngologic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were queried using pertinent keywords to retrieve relevant studies with particular focus in the recent 5 years...
January 5, 2021: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Maurizio Pompili, Luca Bonanni, Flavia Gualtieri, Giada Trovini, Severino Persechino, Ross J Baldessarini
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of increased suicidal risk in association with psoriasis is growing, but findings concerning atopic dermatitis are inconsistent. METHODS: We systematically reviewed reports of suicidal ideation, attempts, or suicides among subjects diagnosed with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis compared to healthy controls or persons with other illnesses. Reported rates of suicidal ideation and behavior were compared among the groups, using meta-analyses to compare suicidal rates with dermatologic patients versus controls, as well as between dermatological diagnoses...
December 26, 2020: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Octavio García-Depraect, Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Raúl Muñoz, Eldon R Rene, Elizabeth León-Becerril, Idania Valdez-Vazquez, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Luis C Reyes-Alvarado, Leonardo J Martínez-Mendoza, Julián Carrillo-Reyes, Germán Buitrón
Dark fermentation (DF) is one of the most promising biological methods to produce bio-hydrogen and other value added bio-products from carbohydrate-rich wastes and wastewater. However, process instability and low hydrogen production yields and rates have been highlighted as the major bottlenecks preventing further development. Numerous studies have associated such concerns with the inhibitory activity of lactate-producing bacteria (LAB) against hydrogen producers. However, an increasing number of studies have also shown lactate-based metabolic pathways as the prevailing platform for hydrogen production...
December 23, 2020: Bioresource Technology
Jeremy I Webb, Rebecca S Stoner, Irrum Afzal, Chris R Evans, Gareth Scott, Richard E Field
BACKGROUND: The Medial Rotation Knee (MRK) has one of the lowest revision rates of total knee replacement designs in the National Joint Registry. While survival is one metric of performance of implants, patient-reported outcomes, combined with clinical and radiological evaluation, allow more complete analysis. We report the five-year results of a prospective, multi-centre surveillance study of the MRK. METHODS: A 16-surgeon, three-centre series of 520 total knee replacements were performed in 486 patients, comprising 182 males and 304 females...
January 13, 2021: Knee
Jerry Anae, Nafees Ahmad, Vinod Kumar, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Tony Gutierrez, Xiao Jin Yang, Chao Cai, Zhugen Yang, Frederic Coulon
Heavy metal/metalloids (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have caused serious environmental problems, compromised agriculture quality, and have detrimental effects on all forms of life including humans. There is a need to develop appropriate and effective remediation methods to resolve combined contaminated problems. Although conventional technologies exist to tackle contaminated soils, application of biochar as an effective renewable adsorbent for enhanced bioremediation is considered by many scientific researchers as a promising strategy to mitigate HM/PAH co-contaminated soils...
December 29, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
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