Zamira Gibb, Olga Blanco-Prieto, Diego Bucci
Mammalian semen is a physiological fluid composed of a cellular fraction (spermatozoa), and a liquid fraction (seminal plasma). Once delivered to the female genital tract, spermatozoa should be able to capacitate; a process which involves a plethora of biochemical and physiological changes required to fertilize the oocyte. Sperm production (spermatogenesis) occurs in the testes, whereby pluripotent spermatogonia differentiate to form the most morphologically specialized cells in the body. Further maturation of spermatozoa occurs in the epididymis, where they are stored prior to ejaculation...
March 26, 2021: Research in Veterinary Science
Jonathan I Bisson, Laurence Astill Wright, Kimberley A Jones, Catrin Lewis, Andrea J Phelps, Marit Sijbrandij, Tracey Varker, Neil P Roberts
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental health condition that requires exposure to a traumatic event. This provides unique opportunities for prevention that are not available for other disorders. The aim of this review was to undertake a systematic review and evaluation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions designed to prevent PTSD in adults. Searches involving Cochrane, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PILOTS and Pubmed databases were undertaken to identify RCTs of pre-incident preparedness and post-incident interventions until May 2019...
March 19, 2021: Clinical Psychology Review
Hydar Ali
Anaphylaxis is caused by a variety of triggers including Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antibiotics, contrast media and neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs). Traditionally, drug-induced anaphylaxis was thought to result mainly from IgE-mediated histamine release from mast cells. Recently, a G protein-coupled receptor known as MRGPRX2 has been identified and shown to be highly expressed on human skin but not lung mast cells. The demonstration that many NMBDs induce degranulation in human mast cells via MRGPRX2 led to the idea that this receptor contributes to NMBD-induced hypersensitivity reactions...
April 12, 2021: Current Opinion in Immunology
Lital Cohen, Yoav D Livney, Yehuda G Assaraf
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cause of death amongst men in the USA. Therapy of PC has been transformed in the past decade by introducing novel therapeutics, advanced functional imaging and diagnostic approaches, next generation sequencing, as well as improved application of existing therapies in localized PC. Treatment of PC at the different stages of the disease may include surgery, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, although ADT has proven efficacious in PC treatment, its effectiveness may be temporary, as these tumors frequently develop molecular mechanisms of therapy resistance, which allow them to survive and proliferate even under conditions of testosterone deprivation, inhibition of androgen receptor signaling, or cytotoxic drug treatment...
March 19, 2021: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Giacomo Garone, Valentina Ferro, Marta Barbato, Nicola Vanacore, Laura Papini, Stefano Pro, Alessandra Boni, Barbara Scialanga, Raffaella Nacca, Melania Evangelisti, Giovanni Di Nardo, Pasquale Parisi, Umberto Raucci
OBJECTIVES: Acute strabismus (AS) is the most common ocular motility disorder in children. In the emergency setting evaluation, the primary concern is to exclude a potentially dangerous underlying condition, requiring immediate intervention. Our first aim was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and underlying causes of AS in a cohort of children presenting to the emergency department (ED). Our second aim was to identify clinical features associated with a significant risk of underlying neurological emergencies (NEs)...
April 2, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Deepika Kathuria, Akshay D Raul, Pravin Wanjari, Prasad V Bharatam
Biguanides are compounds in which two guanidine moieties are fused to form a highly conjugated system. Biguanides are highly basic and hence they are available as salts mostly hydrochloride salts, these cationic species have been found to exhibit many therapeutic properties. This review covers the research and development carried out on biguanides and accounts the various therapeutic applications of drugs containing biguanide group-such as antimalarial, antidiabetic, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tubercular, antifilarial, anti-HIV, as well as other biological activities...
March 24, 2021: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
David G Standaert, Vardhaman Patel, Sonya J Snedecor, Sandeep Thakkar, Yash J Jalundhwala, Pavnit Kukreja, David Kratochvil, Yanjun Bao, Rajesh Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To estimate the impact of carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension (CLES) on key patient-centered outcomes in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A comprehensive literature review identified relevant studies, from which data were meta-analyzed over 3-month intervals up to 24 months. Patient-centered outcomes of interest included mean (95% CI) changes from baseline (Δ) in quality of life (QoL), measured using PD-specific (PDQ-8, PDQ-39) and generic (EQ-5D) instruments; activities of daily living (ADL), measured in On and Off states using UPDRS Part II; and motor symptoms (i...
March 23, 2021: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Abhishek Mohanty, Shalini Agnihotri, Anurag Mehta, Sudhir Rawal
The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 with its rapid expansion has led to extraordinary implications in our understanding of viral infections and their management globally. In this current scenario of unusual circumstances and public health emergency, the cancer care per se is facing unprecedented challenges. The peculiarity of the SARS-CoV-2 infections is still being uncovered as the pandemic spreads across the populations than showing signs of its curtailment. The review highlights the significance of idiosyncrasy of the SARS-Cov-2 infection especially putting forth the importance of immunosenescence, both in the COVID-19 specific immune response in the infected lungs of the elderly and in the cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2...
March 26, 2021: Pathology, Research and Practice
Shuilin Zheng, Yue Yang, Cong Wen, Wenya Liu, Linghui Cao, Xiangling Feng, Jihua Chen, Hui Wang, Yan Tang, Li Tian, Xiaoyan Wang, Fei Yang
The global prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasing rapidly in recent years, which is now estimated to be over 25%. NAFLD is one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world. At present, with the rapid development of economy and industrialization, many chemicals are released into the environment. These chemical contaminants in the environment might cause harm to human health and result in lipid metabolism disorder during long-term exposure. Moreover, the incentive of many NAFLD cases is unknown, and the environmental risk factors of NAFLD need to be urgently identified...
April 12, 2021: Environment International
Zoe Brown, Susanna Proudman, Kathleen Morrisroe, Wendy Stevens, Dylan Hansen, Mandana Nikpour
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease characterised by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs and vasculopathy. One of the major contributors to mortality in patients with SSc is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). International recommendations advise annual screening for the early detection of PAH in asymptomatic patients with SSc. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate by systematic review current measures employed for screening for PAH...
April 4, 2021: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Qida Zong, Naijun Dong, Xiaotong Yang, Guixia Ling, Peng Zhang
There has been growing interest in the application of gold nanorods (GNRs) to tumor therapy due to the unique properties they possess. In the past, GNRs were not used in clinical treatments as they lacked stability in vivo and were characterized by potential toxicity. Despite these issues, the significant potential for utilizing GNRs to conduct safe and effective treatments for tumors cannot be ignored. Therefore, it remains crucial to thoroughly investigate the mechanisms behind the toxicity of GNRs in order to provide the means of overcoming obstacles to its full application in the future...
April 8, 2021: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jiayue Shi, Lin Yu, Jiandong Ding
Injectable thermosensitive hydrogels are free-flowing polymer solutions at low or room temperature, making them easy to encapsulate the therapeutic payload or cells via simply mixing. Upon injection into the body, in situ forming hydrogels triggered by body temperature can act as drug-releasing reservoirs or cell-growing scaffolds. Finally, the hydrogels are eliminated from the administration sites after their roles as depots or scaffolds are complete. This review outlines the recent progress of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels, especially those composed of PEG-polyester copolymers, PEG-polypeptide copolymers and poly(organophosphazene)s...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Celia M Dunn, Sumako Kameishi, David W Grainger, Teruo Okano
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have gained immense attention over the past two decades due to their multipotent differentiation potential and pro-regenerative and immunomodulatory cytokine secretory profiles. Their ability to modulate the host immune system and promote tolerance has prompted several allogeneic and autologous hMSC-based clinical trials for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease and several other immune-induced disorders. However, clinical success beyond safety is still controversial and highly variable, with inconclusive therapeutic benefits and little mechanistic explanation...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Yuta Ando, Chelsea Mariano, Keyue Shen
Tumor immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as one of the major pillars of cancer treatment. Cell-based immunotherapies, which utilize patient's own immune cells to eliminate cancer cells, have shown great promise in treating a range of malignancies, especially those of hematopoietic origins. However, their performance on a broader spectrum of solid tumor types still fall short of expectations in the clinical stage despite of the promising preclinical assessments. In this review, we briefly introduce cell-based immunotherapies and the inhibitory mechanisms in tumor microenvironments that may have contributed to this discrepancy...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Adam J Bindas, Subhash Kulkarni, Ryan A Koppes, Abigail N Koppes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of fine motor function that impacts 1-2 out of 1,000 people. PD occurs predominately late in life and lacks a definitive biomarker for early detection. Recent cross-disciplinary progress has implicated the gut as a potential origin of PD pathogenesis. The gut-origin hypothesis has motivated research on gut PD pathology and transmission to the brain, especially during the prodromal stage (10-20 years before motor symptom onset)...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Siyuan Zhang, Si Heng Sharon Tan, Andrew Kean Seng Lim, James Hoi Po Hui
AIMS: Nonunion is a known and much-dreaded complication of paediatric lateral condyle fractures. This systematic review aims to pool together individual studies to find out if the timing of fixation and method of fixation impacts surgical outcomes (postoperative union and elbow ROM) in paediatric lateral condyle nonunion. METHODS: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. All surgical studies with original data on pediatric lateral humeral condyle nonunion were included...
April 12, 2021: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Michael Müther, Michael Schwake, Eric Suero Molina, Juliane Schroeteler, Walter Stummer, Mark Klingenhöfer, Christian Ewelt
BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors of the bone (GCTB) are rare bone tumors, especially in the cervical spine. Generally considered benign, local aggressiveness and metastatic growth have been described. Surgical concepts for GCTB are challenged by complex neurovascular anatomy. Specific clinical management guidelines are non-existent. This systematic review aims to compile existing evidence on the treatment of GCTB of the cervical spine. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library...
April 12, 2021: World Neurosurgery
Michael Ghassibi, Tzu Chuan Yen, Shelby Harris, Zhengye Si, Emily Leary, Theodore J Choma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) becomes increasingly more prevalent as people age, and it is a condition seen frequently by referral center spine surgeons. It can take as long as six months for a proper diagnosis to be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common isolated organism in up to 80% of the affected population. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteomyelitis is typically non-specific (back pain), which can make timely diagnosis challenging...
April 12, 2021: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Apar Pataer, Annikka Weissferdt, Ara A Vaporciyan, Arlene M Correa, Boris Sepesi, Ignacio I Wistuba, John V Heymach, Tina Cascone, Stephen G Swisher
INTRODUCTION: Major pathologic response (MPR), defined as ≤10% residual viable tumor, currently serves as a surrogate endpoint for survival for patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the significance of pathologic response in lymph nodes harboring metastatic tumor in such patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we studied the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on resected positive lymph nodes and determined if the degree of pathologic response in the lymph nodes alone (LN-MPR) or in combination with that of the primary tumor (PT-MPR) was able to predict outcome...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Sofia Pinho, Vânia Rocha, Maria A Vieira-Coelho
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a significant risk factor for mortality and morbidity among patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effectiveness of multimodal smoking cessation interventions in adult smokers diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Relevant electronic databases were searched for clinical trials that combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological smoking cessation interventions for patients with schizophrenia, published up to October 2020...
April 12, 2021: Schizophrenia Research
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