Fernando A Villanea, Andrew Kitchen, Brian M Kemp
Bayesian methods have been adopted by anthropologists for their utility in resolving complex questions about human history based on genetic data. The main advantages of Bayesian methods include simple model comparison, presenting results as a summary of probability distributions, and the explicit inclusion of prior information into analyses. In the field of anthropological genetics, for example, implementing Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation is becoming ubiquitous as means to analyze genetic data for the purpose of demographic or historic inference...
August 6, 2020: Human Biology
J Galindo-Ávalos, A Colin-Vázquez, J López-Valencia, J M Gómez-Gómez, L D Bernal-Fortich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of preemptive analgesia with gabapentinoids for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect databases. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) with placebo in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopic surgery were retrieved. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 24 hours and cumulative morphine consumption at 24 hours...
November 2019: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
A Martínez-Hernández, S Nieto-Alvarado
The treatment of a patient with amputation above the knee who has suffered a femoral neck fracture is a challenge for both the orthopedic surgeon and the rehabilitation team. We present a case, in which different difficulties are discussed in their treatment, choice of implant and return to their daily activities. The clinical case of a young man diagnosed with supracondylar bilateral traumatic amputation, with fracture of the femoral neck, treated by total non-cemented hip arthroplasty is presented. The functionality of the total hip prosthesis with Houghton scale after 12 months, obtaining a final score of 9 points which are the result of a satisfactory rehabilitation...
November 2019: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
A Martínez-García, C Arvinius, P Checa-Betegón, R Del Pozo-Martin, E Manrique-Gamo, J E Galeote-Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: There are multiple methods and implants used for the metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis of hallux without evidence in favor of one or the other in the bibliography. The goal was to compare the clinical and radiological results of 2 methods and implants used in our center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 37 feet between 2013 and 2017 (22 feet by plate and 15 by cannulated screws). Clinical and radiological variables were collected and the AOFAS and Manchester-Oxford scales were applied...
November 2019: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
O Carrasco-Ortiz, R Pérez-Garmendia, C Márquez-Espriella, C A Arce-Salinas, R Dávila-Díaz, A O Topete-González, J Garzón-Muvdi, J I Espino-Gaucín
INDRODUCTION: Trigger finger is very common in the population, with a life-threatening risk of developing the disease of 2.6% in the general population and increasing to 4 to 10% in diabetics. Since there is no standard gold of surgical treatment and there is still controversy in this, it is important to evaluate the results of the different surgical techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate postoperative results of both surgical techniques in patients with follow-up of 1 to 12 months postoperative...
November 2019: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Meng Di Jiang, Zi Yue Zu, U Joseph Schoepf, Rock H Savage, Xiao Lei Zhang, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a transmissible respiratory disease that was initially reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. With the alarming levels of COVID-19 spread worldwide, the World Health Organization characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. Over the past several months, chest CT has played a vital role in early identification, disease severity assessment, and dynamic disease course monitoring of COVID-19. The published data has enriched our knowledge on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathologic findings of COVID-19...
August 4, 2020: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Moon Sung Kim, Eun Ju Kang, Hyun Jin Kim, Moo Hyun Kim, Ki Nam Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of vasodilators on contrast enhancement and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) of coronary arteries at coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed CCTA scans of patients who underwent double-acquisition CCTA; CCTA without a vasodilator, and CCTA during a intravenous (IV) infusion of nitrate. Among them, we enrolled 19 patients who had no significant atherosclerotic lesions or coronary spasms...
August 4, 2020: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Jacob A Smith, Jansen N Seheult, Joan Sevcik, Joseph E Kiss, Alesia Kaplan
Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients require urgent red cell exchange (RCE) procedures for acute chest syndrome (ACS), demanding a coordinated effort of multiple clinical services. Execution of RCE is a multistep process from the time the procedure is requested to the time the procedure is initiated. A retrospective review of patients with SCD requiring urgent RCE for ACS and stroke from 2012 to 2017 was performed at a centralized hemapheresis service covering a multihospital healthcare system. A total of 30 urgent RCE procedures performed on 28 patients were evaluated...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Laura M Getz, Joseph C Toscano
Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided a detailed picture of the early time-course of speech perception. In this review, we highlight this work, placing it within the broader context of research on the neurobiology of speech processing, and discuss how these data point us toward new models of speech perception and spoken language comprehension. We focus, in particular, on temporally-sensitive measures that allow us to directly measure early perceptual processes. Overall, the data provide support for two key principles: (a) speech perception is based on gradient representations of speech sounds and (b) speech perception is interactive and receives input from higher-level linguistic context at the earliest stages of cortical processing...
August 7, 2020: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Yan Cai, Liyu Li, Chang Xu, Zhiwen Wang
BACKGROUND: Apathy is one of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which is the most frequent and can accelerate the progress of dementia. AIMS: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on apathy in patients with dementia. METHODS: Databases including the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CNKI, and Wan Fang Data were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on apathy in patients with dementia...
August 7, 2020: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Carrie Tsai, Sarah Raphael, Caitlin Agnew, Gordon McDonald, Michelle Irving
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion interventions on oral health knowledge, behaviour and status of healthy adolescents. METHODS: This review included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of oral health promotion interventions targeting adolescents. Primary clinical outcomes (gingival health, plaque scores, caries) and secondary proxy outcomes were evaluated. Meta-analysis of primary outcomes was conducted where possible, with subgroup analysis based on intervention (comprehensive health promotion and education-only)...
August 7, 2020: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Jessica Barochiner, Rocío Martínez
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Controversy has arisen in the scientific community on whether the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in the context of COVID-19 would be beneficial or harmful. A meta-analysis of eligible studies comparing the occurrence of severe and fatal COVID-19 in infected hypertensive patients who were under treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) vs no treatment or other antihypertensives was conducted...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Alexandra R Willis, Ronesh Sukhdeo, Aaron W Reinke
Pathogens are abundant and drive evolution of host immunity. Whilst immune memory is classically associated with adaptive immunity, studies in diverse species now show that priming of innate immune defences can also protect against secondary infection. Remarkably, priming may also be passed on to progeny to enhance pathogen resistance and promote survival in future generations. Phenotypic changes that occur independent of DNA-sequence underlie both 'within-generation' and 'multigenerational' priming. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are still poorly understood...
August 7, 2020: FEBS Journal
Jinxing Song, Xiao Liu, Rongpeng Li
In recent years, the role of sphingolipids in pathogenic fungi, in terms of pathogenicity and resistance to azole drugs, has been a rapidly growing field. This review describes evidence about the roles of sphingolipids in azole resistance and fungal virulence. Sphingolipids can serve as signaling molecules that contribute to azole resistance through modulation of the expression of drug efflux pumps. They also contribute to azole resistance by participating in various microbial pathways such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), pH-responsive Rim pathway and pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) pathway...
August 7, 2020: Molecular Microbiology
Stef Feijen, Angela Tate, Kevin Kuppens, Lorna A Barry, Filip Struyf
The high incidence of injury during swim-training as well as the increasing demands of the sports make monitoring of the swimmer's training load a key concept requiring further investigation. Research has previously introduced numerous methods for the purposes of monitoring the swimmer's training load, but a narrative review discussing the strengths and limitations of each method is lacking. Consequently, this narrative review aims to summarize the monitoring strategies that have been applied in sports medicine research on competitive swimmers...
August 7, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Kelly van Egmond, Cassandra J C Wright, Michael Livingston, Emmanuel Kuntsche
BACKGROUND: Research on alcohol consumption mostly relies on self-reported data, which are subject to recall bias. Wearable transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) monitors address this limitation by continuously measuring the ethanol excreted via the skin. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of TAC monitors' reliability to detect alcohol consumption and methods to estimate Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) and number of standard drinks consumed in a given timeframe. METHODS: The databases Medline, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, Engineering Village and CINAHL were systematically searched to identify 1048 empirical research papers published from 2013 onwards, of which 13 were included after full-text screening...
August 7, 2020: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Moudy Sioud
Bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) express pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to sense microbial products and activation of these innate immune receptors induces cytokine expression and redirects bone marrow hematopoiesis towards the increased production of myeloid cells. Secreted cytokines by HSPCs in response to TLR ligands can act in an autocrine or paracrine manner to regulate hematopoiesis. Moreover, tonic activation of HSPCs by microbiota-derived coumpouds might educate HSPCs to produce superior myeloid cells equipped with innate memory responses to combat pathogens...
August 7, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Fengming Chen, Kun Jiang, Bing Han
CONTEXT: Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is challenging to recognize on intraoperative frozen sections, with known high false-negative rates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate common factors contributing to discrepancies between intraoperative frozen diagnoses and those made upon review of permanent sections, and summarize our experiences gained and lessons learned on minimizing errors on intraoperative frozen diagnoses of gastrointestinal SRCC. DESIGN: We retrospectively examined our pathology database from 05/25/2000 to 09/01/2018 and re-reviewed intraoperative frozen sections and permanent H&E slides for specimens confirmed with SRCC on permanent sections...
August 7, 2020: Histopathology
Jifang Zhou, Gregory S Calip, Susan Rowan, Jessina C McGregor, Rosanne I Perez, Charlesnika T Evans, Walid F Gellad, Katie J Suda
INTRODUCTION: Opioid prescribing by dentists for older patients receiving medications with potential contraindications and the subsequent impact on acute care outcomes is not well described. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medication combinations (PIMC) involving opioids prescribed by dentists according to the Beers criteria and risks of 30-day emergency room (ER) visits and all-cause hospitalization among commercially insured dental patients ages 65 years and older...
August 7, 2020: Pharmacotherapy
Tina Thomas, Yusra Ahmed, Mei Tan, Elena L Grigorenko
Orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS (HIV OVC) are at risk for cognitive difficulties and lack of access to education. Interventions addressing cognitive or educational outcomes for HIV OVC worldwide were examined through systematic searches conducted from October 2016 to 2019. We examined the summative effectiveness of interventions and the specific effects of participant age and intervention length. Interventions targeting cognitive outcomes had a small, significant effect, with no effect of moderating variables...
August 7, 2020: Child Development
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