Patrick Fénichel, Patrick Coquillard, Françoise Brucker-Davis, Philippe Marchand, German Cano-Sancho, Mireille Boda, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Antonio Iannelli, Jean Gugenheim, Bruno Le Bizec, Nicolas Chevalier
BACKGROUND: Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored in adipose tissues and released in case of weight loss. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the kinetics and characteristics of this release during drastic weight loss after bariatric surgery and compare the results in case of women of childbearing age (WCBA) with critical blood concentration thresholds. METHODS: 100 morbidly obese patients (73 women including 53 of childbearing age and 27 men) were screened before and 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery for serum concentrations of 67 congeners or metabolites of banned or not yet banned organohalogenated persistent pollutants, including highly lipophilic polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and less lipophilic perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs)...
February 18, 2021: Environment International
Aamer Imdad, Julie Melissa Ehrlich, Joseph Catania, Emily Tanner-Smith, Abigail Smith, Olivia Tsistinas, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates of breastfeeding remain low even though the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 months of life in combination with appropriate complementary feeding beyond six 6 months of age. There have been several studies that address the implication of drinking animal milk and/or infant formula on children's health and development when breast feeding is not offered during the first year of life...
February 12, 2021: BMJ Open
Ebenezeri Erasto Ngowi, Yi-Zhen Wang, Saadullah Khattak, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Salma Sayed Mohamed Mahmoud, Yasmeen Ahmed Saleheldin Hassan Helmy, Qi-Ying Jiang, Tao Li, Shao-Feng Duan, Xin-Ying Ji, Dong-Dong Wu
Obesity is considered as a risk factor for chronic health diseases such as heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes 2. Reduced physical activities, lifestyle, poor nutritional diet, and genetics are among the risk factors associated with the development of obesity. In recent years, several studies have explored the link between the gut microbiome and the progression of diseases including obesity, with the shift in microbiome abundance and composition being the main focus. The alteration of gut microbiome composition affects both nutrients metabolism and specific gene expressions thereby disturbing body physiology...
February 11, 2021: Journal of Applied Microbiology
G Umbrello, R Pinzani, A Bandera, F Formenti, G Zavarise, M Arghittu, D Girelli, A Maraschini, A Muscatello, P Marchisio, S Bosis
BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale) are common in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Human acquisition results from direct percutaneous invasion of infective larvae from contaminated soil. Overall, almost 472 million people in developing rural countries are infected. According to simulation models, hookworm disease has a global financial impact of over US$100 billion a year. Hookworm infection in newborn or infancy is rare, and most of the cases reported in literature are from endemic countries...
February 9, 2021: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Mary Ellen Gilder, Nay Win Tun, Annabelle Carter, Ferdinand Frederik Som Ling Tan, Aung Myat Min, Hsa Eh, Pan Aye, Verena I Carrara, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia in lactating women is frequently indicated for time-sensitive procedures such as postpartum tubal ligation. Ketamine and diazepam are two of the most commonly used anesthetic agents in low resource settings, but their safety profile in lactating women has not been established. METHODS: Medical records of post-partum tubal ligations between 2013 and 2018 at clinics of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit were reviewed for completeness of key outcome variables...
February 9, 2021: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Maria Eduarda L Diogenes, Flávia F Bezerra, Carmen M Donangelo
BACKGROUND: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation of pregnant Brazilian adolescents with habitually low calcium intake (∼600 mg/d) reduced bone loss during the first 20 wk postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated maternal bone mass changes during the first year postpartum as a follow-up of the clinical trial. METHODS: Pregnant adolescents (14-19 y) received calcium (600 mg/d) plus cholecalciferol (200 IU/d) supplementation (n = 30) or placebo (n = 26) from 26 wk of gestation until parturition...
February 9, 2021: Journal of Nutrition
Miranda L Kimber, Sarah Meyer, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Jane Thornton, Rshmi Khurana, Allison Sivak, Margie H Davenport
PURPOSE: To evaluate postpartum maternal health and training outcomes of females who were competing or training as elite athletes prior-to or during pregnancy. METHODS: Online databases were searched up to August 26, 2020. Studies of any design and language were eligible if they contained information on the relevant population (postpartum athletes [any period of time following pregnancy]), exposure (engaged in the highest level of sport immediately prior to or during pregnancy), comparators (sedentary/active controls) and outcomes: maternal (breastfeeding initiation and duration, postpartum weight retention or loss, bone mineral density, low back or pelvic girdle pain, incontinence [prevalence or severity of stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence], injury, anemia, diastasis recti, breast pain, depression, anxiety), and training (<6 weeks' time to resume activity, training volume or intensity, performance level)...
February 5, 2021: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alexandra R Sitarik, Jean M Kerver, Suzanne L Havstad, Edward M Zoratti, Dennis R Ownby, Ganesa Wegienka, Christine Cole Johnson, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow
BACKGROUND: Infant feeding practices are thought to shape food acceptance and preferences. However, few studies have evaluated whether these affect child diet later in life. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to examine the association between infant feeding practices and dietary patterns (DPs) in school-aged children. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of data from a diverse prospective birth cohort with 10 years of follow-up (WHEALS [Wayne County Health Environment Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study]) was conducted...
October 21, 2020: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Patricia A Miller, Tina Willier
BACKGROUND: Traditional medication-based management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) results in long hospitalizations. Nonpharmacologic treatment and using the Eat, Sleep, Console (ESC) model of care have been shown to decrease lengths of stay (LOSs). PURPOSE: To determine whether using the ESC model of care to treat infants with opioid withdrawal resulted in decreased LOSs and number of infants receiving morphine when compared with traditional medication management...
February 2, 2021: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Sumali S Hewage, Xin Yu Hazel Koh, Shu E Soh, Wei Wei Pang, Doris Fok, Shirong Cai, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Mei Chien Chua, Sok Bee Lim, Keith M Godfrey, Marjorelee T Colega, Yap-Seng Chong, Shiao-Yng Chan, Joanne Yoong, Mary F F Chong
(1) Background: Breastfeeding has been shown to support glucose homeostasis in women after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is potentially effective at reducing long-term diabetes risk. (2) Methods: Data from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study were analyzed to understand the influence of breastfeeding duration on long-term dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) risk in women who had GDM in the index pregnancy. GDM and dysglycemia four to seven years postpartum were determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
January 28, 2021: Nutrients
Jose Miguel Sequi-Canet, Jose Miguel Sequi-Sabater, Jose Ignacio Collar-Castillo, Nelson Orta-Sibu
Background and Aim: Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are a validated technique in newborn hearing screening that is regularly used in many countries. It reflects normal hearing or at least no more than 30 dB HL hearing loss. Breastfeeding has many advantages and some studies have demonstrated that it prevents otitis media by means of opening the Eustachian tube and clearing mucus in the middle ear which is perhaps also combined with immunological effects. A few studies have related how newborn feeding can vary the pass rate to TEOAE...
September 5, 2020: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Baha Rabi, Kaoutar Benjeddou, Mohamed Idrissi, Anass Rami, Bouchera Mekkaoui, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Hasnae Benkirane, Amina Barkat, Naima Saeid, Khalid El Kari, Hassan Aguenaou
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of an infant's life is an important factor for their optimal growth and health. Breastfeeding also has maternal benefits and can assist with postpartum weight loss. As shown by previous studies, postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the human milk and evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on maternal weight loss during the 12 months postpartum. METHOD: This study included 70-mother-baby pairs...
January 4, 2021: Nutrients
Anna P Smith, Laura P Ward, Meredith Jane Heinig, Kathryn G Dewey, Laurie A Nommsen-Rivers
Background and Objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for most newborns. However, exclusively breastfed newborns sometimes experience excess weight loss (EWL, loss ≥10% of birth weight) while lactation is being established. Our primary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Newborn Weight Loss Tool (NEWT) in early identification of exclusively breastfed newborns who develop EWL; and secondarily, identify breastfeeding variables associated with an at-risk NEWT trajectory...
December 18, 2020: Breastfeeding Medicine
B Butler, H Trotman
AIM: To determine the incidence, presentation and outcome of all neonates admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies with a diagnosis of breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration during a 15-year period and make comparisons with an earlier study done at the institution. METHODS: A retrospective review of the files of neonates admitted to the neonatal unit with breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration between January 2002 and December 2016 was conducted...
December 3, 2020: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Sean S Brummel, Taha E Taha, Konstantia Nadia Angelidou, Friday Saidi, Patience Atuhaire, Dingase Dula, Dhayendre Moodley, Allen Matubu, Gift Chareka, Neetal Nevrekar, Tichaona Vhembo, Lee Fairlie, Gerhard Theron, Pendo Mlay, Kathleen George, Michael Basar, Nahida Chakhtoura, Renee Browning, Mary Glenn Fowler, Judith S Currier
IMPAACT PROMISE 1077BF/FF was a sequentially randomized study of pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV to investigate the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This Maternal Health Component investigated efficacy for the risk of developing AIDS or death; and safety among women randomized to continue ART (CTART: N=289) or discontinue ART (DCART: N=268) after cessation of breastfeeding or after confirmation of infant infection. No AIDS defining illnesses were reported during follow-up in either arm...
December 1, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Katherine Gill, Leigh Johnson, Janan Dietrich, Landon Myer, Rebecca Marcus, Melissa Wallace, Tanya Pidwell, Eve Mendel, Lauren Fynn, Kai Jones, Lubbe Wiesner, Catherine Slack, Ann Strode, Hans Spiegel, Sybil Hosek, James Rooney, Glenda Gray, Linda-Gail Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among adolescents in southern Africa remains unacceptably high. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention but there are few data on its implementation among adolescents. We aimed to investigate the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of PrEP with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in an adolescent population in South Africa. METHODS: This open-label single-arm phase 2 study (PlusPills) was done in two research clinics in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa...
December 2020: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Elizabeth Guzmán-Mercado, Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay, Carmen Alicia Sánchez Ramírez, Nelly Carolina Muñoz-Esparza, Alfredo Larrosa-Haro, Paula Lizeth Meza Arreola
Background: It has been observed that breastfeeding mobilizes the deposits of fat that accumulates during pregnancy and promotes weight loss through energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that full breastfeeding (FBF) reduces anthropometric and body composition indicators in women between the 8th and the 16th week postpartum. Methods: In a nonrandom cohort study, 170 mothers at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México, were enrolled: FBF 74, partial breastfeeding (PBF) 57, and human milk substitutes (HMS) 39...
November 11, 2020: Breastfeeding Medicine
Smita R Ramanadham, Anna Rose Johnson
Breast ptosis is a common occurrence following weight loss, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, or as a consequence of normal aging. This results in loss of a youthful shape and contour of the breast, with a change in the position of the nipple-areolar complex. Mastopexy can restore this youthful appearance and transpose the nipple-areolar complex to a more aesthetic position on the breast. Various techniques exist that address the skin and parenchyma of the breast and are chosen based on the degree of ptosis and skin laxity, as well as the patient's goals...
October 2020: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Mahima Rajan, Jasbir Singh, Jagjit Singh Dalal
Our descriptive study examines the clinical profile of referred neonates who underwent exchange blood transfusion (EBT) and identifies possible interventions at peripheral hospitals to decrease their severe hyperbilirubinemia. Among the 38 neonates enrolled, the following were identified as potential clinical gaps in management: early discharge within 24 h of birth (57%); non-availability of ABORh blood grouping (43%); lack of anti-D immunoprophylaxis (75%); pathological weight loss because of inadequate breastfeeding (42%); and low usage of phototherapy...
September 27, 2020: Tropical Doctor
Ameena Ebrahim Goga, Carl Lombard, Debra Jackson, Vundli Ramokolo, Nobubelo Kwanele Ngandu, Gayle Sherman, Adrian Puren, Witness Chirinda, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Nobuntu Makhari, Trisha Ramraj, Vuyolwethu Magasana, Yagespari Singh, Yogan Pillay, Thu-Ha Dinh
BACKGROUND: We analysed the impact of breastfeeding, antiretroviral drugs and health service factors on cumulative (6 weeks to 18 months) vertical transmission of HIV (MTCT) and 'MTCT-or-death', in South Africa, and compared estimates with global impact criteria to validate MTCT elimination: (1) <5% final MTCT and (2) case rate ≤50 (new paediatric HIV infections/100 000 live births). METHODS: 9120 infants aged 6 weeks were enrolled in a nationally representative survey...
September 26, 2020: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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