Pauline Morigny, Julia Zuber, Mark Haid, Doris Kaltenecker, Fabien Riols, Joanna D C Lima, Estefania Simoes, José Pinhata Otoch, Sören Fisker Schmidt, Stephan Herzig, Jerzy Adamski, Marilia Seelaender, Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Maria Rohm
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (CCx) is a multifactorial energy-wasting syndrome reducing the efficiency of anti-cancer therapies, quality of life, and survival of cancer patients. In the past years, most studies focused on the identification of tumour and host-derived proteins contributing to CCx. However, there is still a lack of studies addressing the changes in bioactive lipids. The aim of this study was to identify specific lipid species as a hallmark of CCx by performing a broad range lipid analysis of plasma from well-established CCx mouse models as well as cachectic and weight stable cancer patients...
October 8, 2020: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Hee Dong Jeon, Dae Hwan Yoon, Byung-Min Choi, Ji-Ye Kee, Seung-Heon Hong
BACKGROUND: Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments and deteriorates quality of life. However, effective treatments have not been found yet. Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been studied about several pharmacological effects, there were no reports on its use in cancer cachexia...
October 19, 2020: Nutrients
Ana Beatriz Rechinelli, Isabele Lessa Marques, Eduarda Cristina Rodrigues de Morais Viana, Isadora da Silva Oliveira, Vanusa Felício de Souza, Glenda Blaser Petarli, Jose Luiz Marques Rocha, Valdete Regina Guandalini
BACKGROUND: Dynapenia is defined as an age-related loss of muscle strength. There is little information on dynapenia in cancer patients and on how it relates to anthropometric variables. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of dynapenia and its association with anthropometric variables in hospitalized cancer patients. METHODS: Participants comprised adult and elderly cancer patients evaluated within the first 48 h of hospital admission to a tertiary public hospital, a referral center for gastrointestinal tract surgery...
October 19, 2020: BMC Cancer
Ravneet Vohra, Matthew D Campbell, Joshua Park, Stella Whang, Kayla Gravelle, Yak-Nam Wang, Joo-Ha Hwang, David J Marcinek, Donghoon Lee
Background: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial wasting syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. We address these issues in a novel transgenic mouse model Kras, Trp53 and Pdx-1-Cre ( KPC ) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) using multi-parametric magnetic resonance (mp-MR) measures...
July 2020: JCSM Rapid Communications
Sung-Bae Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Sung-Ok Moon, Hwa-Dong Lee, Yoo-Sik Yoon, Chang-Gue Son
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) and Bunge and Paeonia japonica (Makino)Miyabe & H.Takeda have been traditionally used to improve the poor quality of life such as weakness, lack of appetite, fatigue, and malaise which is considered with cachexia condition. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated anti-cachectic effects of a herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia japonica (APX) and the molecular mechanisms of APX in C26 cancer-induced cachexia mice and TNF-a-treated C2C12 myotubes...
October 14, 2020: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Masayuki Shibata, Masaru Fukahori, Eiji Kasamatsu, Koji Machii, Satoshi Hamauchi
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study focused on cancer cachexia in clinical practice. We evaluated the incidence of cancer cachexia and the relationship between cancer cachexia and overall survival (OS) or toxicities in patients with advanced colorectal cancer after undergoing first-line systemic chemotherapy. METHODS: We examined 150 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent first-line systemic chemotherapy between February 1, 2010 and August 31, 2016 at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital and Kurume University Hospital...
October 16, 2020: Advances in Therapy
Brandon N Vanderveen, Dennis K Fix, Brittany R Counts, James A Carson
INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related fatigue and muscle wasting have received significant attention over the last few decades with the goal of establishing interventions that can improve cancer patient life quality and survival. Increased physical activity has shown to reduce cancer-associated fatigue and has been proposed as a promising therapeutic to attenuate cancer-induced wasting. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of how physical activity affects the compositional and functional changes that initiate muscle wasting...
November 2020: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Seongkyun Lim, Kirsten R Dunlap, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Wesley S Haynie, Lisa T Jansen, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Skeletal muscle atrophy is common across a variety of pathologies. Underlying mechanisms of atrophy differ between pathologies, and in many conditions, circulating factors are tied to muscle atrophy. Therefore, we sought to identify alterations to the plasma proteome across divergent forms of muscle atrophy, disuse and cancer cachexia, as potential mediators of atrophy. C57BL6/J mice were assigned to Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC)-induced cachexia, disuse by hindlimb unloading (HU), or control (CON). Plasma samples were submitted for discovery proteomics and targets of interest confirmed by immunoblot...
October 2020: Physiological Reports
Chandu Sadasivan, Pavel Zhabyeyev, Dina Labib, James A White, D Ian Paterson, Gavin Y Oudit
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of intracellular lipid kinases that phosphorylate the 3'-hydroxyl group of inositol membrane lipids, resulting in the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This results in downstream effects, including cell growth, proliferation, and migration. The heart expresses three PI3K class I enzyme isoforms (α, β, and γ), and these enzymes play a role in cardiac cellular survival, myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial contractility, excitation, and mechanotransduction...
October 16, 2020: Clinical Science (1979-)
Barry J A Laird, Aminah Jatoi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2020: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Adeline Dolly, Jean-François Dumas, Stéphane Servais
Research investigators have shown a growing interest in investigating alterations underlying skeletal muscle wasting in patients with cancer. However, skeletal muscle dysfunctions associated with cancer cachexia have mainly been studied in preclinical models. In the present review, we summarize the results of clinical studies in which skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from cachectic vs. non-cachectic cancer patients. Most of these studies suggest the presence of significant physiological alterations in skeletal muscle from cachectic cancer patients...
October 14, 2020: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Volker Adams, Victoria Gußen, Sergey Zozulya, André Cruz, Anselmo Moriscot, Axel Linke, Siegfried Labeit
: Patients with malignant tumors frequently suffer during disease progression from a syndrome referred to as cancer cachexia (CaCax): CaCax includes skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness, loss of bodyweight, and fat tissues. Currently, there are no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved treatments available for CaCax. Here, we studied skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction in a murine CaCax model by injecting B16F10 melanoma cells into mouse thighs and followed mice during melanoma outgrowth. Skeletal muscles developed progressive weakness as detected by wire hang tests (WHTs) during days 13-23...
October 11, 2020: Cells
Rianne D W Vaes, David P J van Dijk, Tessa T J Welbers, Marinus J Blok, Merel R Aberle, Lara Heij, Sylvia F Boj, Steven W M Olde Damink, Sander S Rensen
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with pancreatic cancer develops cachexia. The mechanisms underlying cancer cachexia development and progression remain elusive, although tumour-derived factors are considered to play a major role. Pancreatic tumour organoids are in vitro three-dimensional organ-like structures that retain many pathophysiological characteristics of the in vivo tumour. We aimed to establish a pancreatic tumour organoid biobank from well-phenotyped cachectic and non-cachectic patients to enable identification of tumour-derived factors driving cancer cachexia...
October 13, 2020: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
B S van der Meij, L Teleni, A L McCarthy, E A Isenring
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by ongoing skeletal muscle loss that leads to progressive functional impairment driven by reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. Despite the traditional use of non-volitional weight loss as the primary marker of CC, there is no consensus on how to diagnose and manage CC. METHODS: The aim of this narrative review was to describe and discuss diagnostic criteria and therapeutic approaches for the accredited practicing dietitian with respect to identifying and managing CC...
October 10, 2020: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Anton S Becker, Caroline Zellweger, Sara Bacanovic, Sabine Franckenberg, Hannes W Nagel, Lukas Frick, Khoschy Schawkat, Matthias Eberhard, Christian Blüthgen, Jörk Volbracht, Rudolf Moos, Christian Wolfrum, Irene A Burger
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue, able to increase energy expenditure by heat generation in response to various stimuli. Recently, its pathological activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia. To establish a causal relationship, we retrospectively investigated the longitudinal changes in BAT and cancer in a large FDG-PET/CT cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 13 461 FDG-PET/CT examinations of n = 8 409 patients at our institution from the winter months of 2007-2015...
2020: PloS One
Mariia Kiriukova, Daniel de la Iglesia Garcia, Nikola Panic, Maryana Bozhychko, Bartu Avci, Patrick Maisonneuve, Enrique de-Madaria, Gabriele Capurso, Vasile Sandru
Background: Malnutrition and cachexia are common in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and have a significant influence on the tolerance and response to treatments. If timely identified, malnourished PDAC patients could be treated to increase their capacity to complete the planned treatments and, therefore, possibly, improve their efficacy. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of nutritional status, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), and other clinical factors on patient outcomes in patients with advanced PDAC...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Ashley J Smuder, Brandon M Roberts, Michael P Wiggs, Oh Sung Kwon, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Demetra D Christou, David D Fuller, Hazel H Szeto, Andrew R Judge
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by profound cardiac and diaphragm muscle wasting, which increase the risk of morbidity in cancer patients due to failure of the cardiorespiratory system. In this regard, muscle relies greatly on mitochondria to meet energy requirements for contraction and mitochondrial dysfunction can result in muscle weakness and fatigue. In addition, mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which can stimulate increased rates of muscle protein degradation...
September 22, 2020: Oncotarget
Paul T Winnard, Santosh Kumar Bharti, Raj Kumar Sharma, Balaji Krishnamachary, Yelena Mironchik, Marie-France Penet, Michael G Goggins, Anirban Maitra, Ihab Kamel, Karen M Horton, Michael A Jacobs, Zaver M Bhujwalla
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a major cause of morbidity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Our purpose was to understand the impact of PDAC-induced cachexia on brain metabolism in PDAC xenograft studies, to gain new insights into the causes of cachexia-induced morbidity. Changes in mouse and human plasma metabolites were characterized to identify underlying causes of brain metabolic changes. METHODS: We quantified metabolites, detected with high-resolution 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in the brain and plasma of normal mice (n = 10) and mice bearing cachexia (n = 10) or non-cachexia (n = 9) inducing PDAC xenografts as well as in human plasma obtained from normal individuals (n = 24) and from individuals with benign pancreatic disease (n = 20) and PDAC (n = 20)...
October 2, 2020: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Hawley E Kunz, Jessica M Dorschner, Taylor E Berent, Thomas Meyer, Xuewei Wang, Aminah Jatoi, Rajiv Kumar, Ian R Lanza
Cancer cachexia is characterized by reductions in peripheral lean muscle mass. Prior studies have primarily focused on increased protein breakdown as the driver of cancer-associated muscle wasting. Therapeutic interventions targeting catabolic pathways have, however, largely failed to preserve muscle mass in cachexia, suggesting that other mechanisms might be involved. In pursuit of novel pathways, we used untargeted metabolomics to search for metabolite signatures that may be linked with muscle atrophy. We injected seven-week old C57/BL6 mice with LLC1 tumor cells or vehicle...
October 1, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ling Qiu, Wen Chen, Chenzhou Wu, Yihang Yuan, Yi Li
Muscle atrophy is a major character of cancer cachexia, whose mechanism remains enigmatic. During cancer cachexia, the function of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which ubiquitously exists in invasive cancer, remains unclear in muscle remodeling. In addition, ERS can be transmitted to surrounding and distant cells, terming transmissible ERS (TERS), by certain soluble factors, which have not been completely identified. In this study, tunicamycin-induced conditioned media from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines were proved to transmit ERS to muscle cells both in vivo and in vitro...
September 27, 2020: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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