G Arjen de Groot, Stefan Geisen, E R Jasper Wubs, Liz Meulenbroek, Ivo Laros, L Basten Snoek, Dennis R Lammertsma, Lars H Hansen, Pieter A Slim
Air is a major conduit for the dispersal of organisms at the local and the global scale. Most research has focused on the dispersal of plants, vertebrates and human disease agents. However, the air represents a key dispersal medium also for bacteria, fungi and protists. Many of those represent potential pathogens of animals and plants and have until now gone largely unrecorded. Here we studied the turnover in composition of the entire aerobiome, the collective diversity of airborne microorganisms. For that we performed daily analyses of all prokaryotes and eukaryotes (including plants) using multi-marker high-throughput sequencing for a total of three weeks...
April 12, 2021: Environment International
Adam J Bindas, Subhash Kulkarni, Ryan A Koppes, Abigail N Koppes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of fine motor function that impacts 1-2 out of 1,000 people. PD occurs predominately late in life and lacks a definitive biomarker for early detection. Recent cross-disciplinary progress has implicated the gut as a potential origin of PD pathogenesis. The gut-origin hypothesis has motivated research on gut PD pathology and transmission to the brain, especially during the prodromal stage (10-20 years before motor symptom onset)...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Amirhossein Shamsaddini, Patrick M Gillevet, Chathur Acharya, Andrew Fagan, Edith Gavis, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Sara McGeorge, Alexander Khoruts, Somaya Albaisi, Michael Fuchs, Richard K Sterling, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cirrhosis is associated with changes in intestinal microbiota that can lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and infections, especially with antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, the impact of gut microbial antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden on clinical outcomes is unclear. AIMS: Determine the impact of ARGs in cirrhosis-related gut metagenome on outcomes and disease progression, study the effect of rifaximin on ARG burden, and compare ARGs in cirrhosis with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes...
April 12, 2021: Gastroenterology
Thomas Walker, Shannon Quek, Claire L Jeffries, Janvier Bandibabone, Vishaal Dhokiya, Roland Bamou, Mojca Kristan, Louisa A Messenger, Alexandra Gidley, Emily A Hornett, Enyia R Anderson, Cintia Cansado-Utrilla, Shivanand Hegde, Chimanuka Bantuzeko, Jennifer C Stevenson, Neil F Lobo, Simon C Wagstaff, Christophe Antonio Nkondjio, Seth R Irish, Eva Heinz, Grant L Hughes
Wolbachia, a widespread bacterium that can reduce pathogen transmission in mosquitoes, has recently been reported to be present in Anopheles (An.) species. In wild populations of the An. gambiae complex, the primary vectors of Plasmodium malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolbachia DNA sequences at low density and infection frequencies have been detected. As the majority of studies have used highly sensitive nested PCR as the only method of detection, more robust evidence is required to determine whether Wolbachia strains are established as endosymbionts in Anopheles species...
April 8, 2021: Current Biology: CB
Spandana Vemulapally, Andrea Villamizar, Trina Guerra, Maryanne E Tocidlowski, Melissa Spradley, Stan Mays, Michael R J Forstner, Dittmar Hahn
Head-starting of the federally endangered Houston toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis), that is, the release of egg strands, tadpoles, and metamorphic juveniles produced in captivity into the original breeding ponds, requires assessment of potential threats for the transmission of pathogens from captive to free-ranging toads. We used Illumina-based 16S rRNA V3 amplicon sequencing to investigate the community structure of bacteria from skin lesions of captive Houston toad and habitat (pond) samples. Proteobacteria, alone or together with Actinobacteria and, in some samples, Cyanobacteria represented virtually all reads in tissue lesion samples, whereas pond samples were much more diverse, with Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia present with little variation between samples...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Huali Xie, Abdoulie Jallow, Xiaofeng Yue, Xiuping Wang, Jiayun Fu, Silvano E Mwakinyali, Qi Zhang, Peiwu Li
Biocontrol to combat the menace of Aspergillus flavus has gained considerable attention. However, the molecular mechanisms of A. flavus 's response to antagonism biotic stress are poorly deciphered. Here, we discovered that A. flavus switches an adaptive metabolic reprogramming to ensure its adversity survival by multiomics analyses (including four omics platform). Antifungal "weapons" lipopeptides and antibacterial metabolites of imizoquin were identified. The central metabolism fluxes were significantly depleted but the expressions of most corresponding genes were considerably increased in A...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jana M U'Ren, Naupaka B Zimmerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2021: New Phytologist
Lindsey R Faw, Kasie Raymann, Nayma Romo Bechara, Gideon Wasserberg
Sand fly larvae develop in sheltered humid habitats containing decaying organic matter on which they feed. Previously, we showed that gravid females of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) are attracted to and stimulated to lay eggs on larval rearing medium containing larvae. That study, however, did not control for the possible effect of medium aging. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of larval substrate conditioning on attraction and oviposition responses of Ph. papatasi sand flies while controlling for the effect of substrate aging...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Medical Entomology
Bingquan Zhu, Shuangshuang Zheng, Kexin Lin, Xin Xu, Lina Lv, Zhengyan Zhao, Jie Shao
Several lines of evidence suggest that the intestinal microbiota plays crucial roles in infant development, and that it is highly influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Prebiotic-containing infant formula may increase gastrointestinal tolerance and improve commensal microbiota composition. However, it remains unknown whether supplementation of milk-formulas with prebiotics and 1,3-olein-2-palmitin (OPO) can achieve feeding outcomes similar to those of breastfeeding. In the present study, we investigated the effects of two kinds of infant formula with different additives on the overall diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota, to determine which was closer to breastfeeding...
2021: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yingyun Gong, Yanfeng Xue, Xin Li, Zhao Zhang, Wenjun Zhou, Paola Marcolongo, Angiolo Benedetti, Shengyong Mao, Leng Han, Guolian Ding, Zheng Sun
The rise of metabolic disorders in modern times is mainly attributed to the environment. However, heritable effects of environmental chemicals on mammalian offsprings' metabolic health are unclear. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is the top chemical on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry priority list of hazardous substances. Here, we assess cross-generational effects of iAs in an exclusive male-lineage transmission paradigm. The exposure of male mice to 250 ppb iAs causes glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance in F1 females, but not males, without affecting body weight...
April 2021: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Marcelle Oliveira de Almeida, Rodrigo Carvalho, Flavia Figueira Aburjaile, Fabio Malcher Miranda, Janaína Canário Cerqueira, Bertram Brenig, Preetam Ghosh, Rommel Ramos, Rodrigo Bentes Kato, Siomar de Castro Soares, Artur Silva, Vasco Azevedo, Marcus Vinicius Canário Viana
Background: Lactobacillus crispatus is the dominant species in the vaginal microbiota associated with health and considered a homeostasis biomarker. Interestingly, some strains are even used as probiotics. However, the genetic mechanisms of L. crispatus involved in the control of the vaginal microbiome and protection against bacterial vaginosis (BV) are not entirely known. To further investigate these mechanisms, we sequenced and characterized the first four L. crispatus genomes from vaginal samples from Brazilian women and used genome-wide association study (GWAS) and comparative analyses to identify genetic mechanisms involved in healthy or BV conditions and selective pressures acting in the vaginal microbiome...
2021: PeerJ
Stefan Gavriliuc, Mason R Stothart, Astrid Henry, Jocelyn Poissant
The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has spurred a surge of research on bacterial microbiome diversity and function. But despite the rapid growth of the field, many uncertainties remain regarding the impact of differing methodologies on downstream results. Sample storage temperature is conventionally thought to be among the most important factors for ensuring reproducibility across marker gene studies, but to date much of the research on this topic has focused on short-term storage in the context of clinical applications...
2021: PeerJ
Tao Zuo, Qin Liu, Fen Zhang, Yun Kit Yeoh, Yating Wan, Hui Zhan, Grace C Y Lui, Zigui Chen, Amy Y L Li, Chun Pan Cheung, Nan Chen, Wenqi Lv, Rita W Y Ng, Eugene Y K Tso, Kitty S C Fung, Veronica Chan, Lowell Ling, Gavin Joynt, David S C Hui, Francis K L Chan, Paul K S Chan, Siew C Ng
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from fecal samples, and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need...
April 14, 2021: Microbiome
Ainize Peña-Cearra, Alejandro Belanche, Monika Gonzalez-Lopez, José Luis Lavín, Miguel Ángel Pascual-Itoiz, Elisabeth Jiménez, Héctor Rodríguez, Ana Mª Aransay, Juan Anguita, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Leticia Abecia
BACKGROUND: The knowledge about blood circulating microbiome and its functional relevance in healthy individuals remains limited. An assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome was performed by sequencing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) bacterial DNA from goats supplemented or not in early life with rumen liquid transplantation. RESULTS: Most of the bacterial DNA associated to PBMC was identified predominantly as Proteobacteria (55%) followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (11%) and Actinobacteria (8%)...
April 14, 2021: Animal microbiome
Andre Mu, Daniel McDonald, Alan K Jarmusch, Cameron Martino, Caitriona Brennan, Mackenzie Bryant, Gregory C Humphrey, Julia Toronczak, Tara Schwartz, Dominic Nguyen, Gail Ackermann, Anthony D'Onofrio, Steffanie A Strathdee, Robert T Schooley, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight, Saima Aslam
BACKGROUND: Infectious bacterial diseases exhibiting increasing resistance to antibiotics are a serious global health issue. Bacteriophage therapy is an anti-microbial alternative to treat patients with serious bacterial infections. However, the impacts to the host microbiome in response to clinical use of phage therapy are not well understood. RESULTS: Our paper demonstrates a largely unchanged microbiota profile during 4 weeks of phage therapy when added to systemic antibiotics in a single patient with Staphylococcus aureus device infection...
April 14, 2021: Microbiome
Alice H K Kwon, Shane A Liddelow
Microbiome-induced interferon signaling through gut-derived natural killer cells is integral to minimize peripheral inflammatory responses in the brain and spinal cord. In a recent issue of Nature, Sanmarco, Wheeler, et al. define how interferon signaling induces LAMP1+ TRAIL+ astrocytes, which cause death of inflammatory T cells, mitigating degeneration in a mouse model of demyealination.
April 13, 2021: Immunity
María Gutiérrez-Salmerón, Silvia Rocío Rocío Lucena, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, Jose Manuel Garcia-Martinez, Rosa M Martín Orozco, Custodia García-Jiménez
Obesity is the strongest known risk factor to develop Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both share a state of chronic, diffuse and low-grade inflammation, impaired immune responses and alterations in the composition and function of the microbiome. Notably, these hallmarks are shared with colorectal cancer (CRC), which is epidemiologically associated to obesity and T2D. Gut barrier damages in T2D, destabilize the microbiome that metabolizes the diet and modulates the host immune response triggering inflammatory and proliferative pathways...
April 1, 2021: Endocrine-related Cancer
Hilary Baldwin, Andrew F Alexis, Anneke Andriessen, Diane S Berson, Patricia Farris, Julie Harper, Edward Lain, Shari Marchbein, Linda Stein Gold, Jerry Tan
BACKGROUND: Rosacea, an inflammatory skin disease that leads to an impaired skin barrier function commonly involves the face. Symptoms of rosacea can be bothersome and include pain, stinging, burning, itching, and facial flushing. This review explored skin barrier impairment in rosacea and reduced symptomatology when using over the counter (OTC) skincare products. METHODS: Nine dermatologists (the panel) completed a survey on OTC products they recommend for rosacea...
April 1, 2021: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Baylie R Hochstedler, Lindsey Burnett, Travis K Price, Carrie Jung, Alan J Wolfe, Linda Brubaker
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Many clinicians utilize standard culture of voided urine to guide treatment for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI). However, despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms may persist and events frequently recur. The cyclic nature and ineffective treatment of RUTI suggest that underlying uropathogens pass undetected because of the preferential growth of Escherichia coli. Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) detects more clinically relevant microbes...
April 14, 2021: International Urogynecology Journal
Qing Liu, Xiaoli Tian, Daisuke Maruyama, Mehrdad Arjomandi, Arun Prakash
Microbial metabolites produced by the gut microbiome, e.g. short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), have been found to influence lung physiology and injury responses. However, how lung immune activity is regulated by SCFA is unknown. We examined fresh human lung tissue and observed the presence of SCFA with inter-individual variability. In vitro, SCFA were capable of modifying the metabolic programming in LPS-exposed alveolar macrophages (AM). We hypothesized that lung immune tone could be defined by baseline detection of lung intracellular IL-1β...
April 14, 2021: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"