Sagun Tiwari, Zhenxiang Han
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is an aggressive and deadly brain tumor with a poor prognosis despite the current standard of care, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential of immunotherapies, seen to be effective in treating other cancers, in the treatment of GB. This comprehensive review presents an in-depth analysis of the remarkable progress of immunotherapy in GB treatment, focusing on human clinical studies...
December 9, 2023: Cancer reports
Norma Torres-Carrillo, Erika Martínez-López, Nora Magdalena Torres-Carrillo, Andres López-Quintero, José Miguel Moreno-Ortiz, Anahí González-Mercado, Itzae Adonai Gutiérrez-Hurtado
Microorganisms have a close relationship with humans, whether it is commensal, symbiotic, or pathogenic. Recently, it has been documented that microorganisms may influence the response to drug therapy. Pharmacomicrobiomics is an emerging field that focuses on the study of how variations in the microbiome affect the disposition, action, and toxicity of drugs. Two additional sciences have been added to complement pharmacomicrobiomics, namely toxicomicrobiomics, which explores how the microbiome influences drug metabolism and toxicity, and pharmacoecology, which refers to modifications in the microbiome as a result of drug administration...
December 4, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erin Marie D San Valentin, Kim-Anh Do, Sai-Ching J Yeung, Cielito C Reyes-Gibby
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and clinically impactful side effect of cytotoxic cancer treatment, particularly in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who undergo radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy. The etiology and pathogenic mechanisms of OM are complex, multifaceted and elicit both direct and indirect damage to the mucosa. In this narrative review, we describe studies that use various omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, microbiomics and metabolomics) in attempts to elucidate the biological pathways associated with the development or severity of OM...
November 30, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nabeel Merali, Tarak Chouari, Julien Terroire, Maria-Danae Jessel, Daniel S K Liu, James-Halle Smith, Tyler Wooldridge, Tony Dhillon, José I Jiménez, Jonathan Krell, Keith J Roberts, Timothy A Rockall, Eirini Velliou, Shivan Sivakumar, Elisa Giovannetti, Ayse Demirkan, Nicola E Annels, Adam E Frampton
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a very poor survival. The intra-tumoural microbiome can influence pancreatic tumourigenesis and chemoresistance and, therefore, patient survival. The role played by bile microbiota in PDAC is unknown. We aimed to define bile microbiome signatures that can effectively distinguish malignant from benign tumours in patients presenting with obstructive jaundice caused by benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary disease. Prospective bile samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent either Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiogram (PTC)...
November 28, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michele C Larsen, Catherine M Rondelli, Ahmed Almeldin, Yong-Seok Song, Alhaji N'Jai, David L Alexander, E Camilla Forsberg, Nader Sheibani, Colin R Jefcoate
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and microbiome products converge on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to redirect selective rapid adherence of isolated bone marrow (BM) cells. In young adult mice, Cyp1b1-deficiency and AhR activation by PAH, particularly when prolonged by Cyp1a1 deletion, produce matching gene stimulations in these BM cells. Vascular expression of Cyp1b1 lowers reactive oxygen species (ROS), suppressing NF-κB/RelA signaling. PAH and allelic selectivity support a non-canonical AhR participation, possibly through RelA...
November 28, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bingcong Li, Yin-Ru Hsieh, Wen-De Lai, Te-Hsuan Tung, Yu-Xuan Chen, Chia-Hui Yang, Yu-Chiao Fang, Shih-Yi Huang
With the increasing prevalence of sleep deprivation (SD)-related disorders, the effective treatment of sleep disorders has become a critical health research topic. Thus, we hypothesized and investigated the effectiveness of a 3-week melatonin intervention on neuropsychiatric behavioral responses mediated throughout melatonin receptors, gut microbiota, and lipid metabolites in rats with chronic SD. Eighteen 6-week-old Wistar rats were used and divided into the control grup (C, n = 6), SD group (n = 6), and melatonin-supplemented group (SDM, n = 6)...
November 27, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoyang Zhu, Jiajia Cai, Yifu Wang, Xinyu Liu, Xiaolei Chen, Haifei Wang, Zhengchang Wu, Wenbin Bao, Hairui Fan, Shenglong Wu
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing annually, and emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a causative role in the development of NAFLD. However, the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Thus, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and we found that the HFD significantly induced obesity and increased the accumulation of intrahepatic lipids, along with alterations in serum biochemical parameters...
November 24, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luigi Nibali, Abish S Stephen, Robert P Allaker, Antonino Di Pino, Valentina Terranova, Marcella Pisano, Salvatore Di Marca, Viviana Ferrara, Roberto Scicali, Francesco Purrello, Nikolaos Donos, Matteo Regolo, Lorenzo Malatino
Host genetic variants may affect oral biofilms, playing a role in the periodontitis-systemic disease axis. This is the first study to assess the associations between host genetic variants and subgingival microbiota in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS); 103 patients with MetS underwent medical and periodontal examinations and had blood and subgingival plaque samples taken. DNA was extracted and processed, assessing a panel of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) first (hypothesis testing) and then expanding to a discovery phase...
November 23, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fukka You, Yoshiaki Harakawa, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Haruhiko Inufusa
The human gut microbiota (GM) is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that hosts trillions of commensal and potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It is crucial in protecting humans from pathogens and in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis. Numerous studies have demonstrated that GM has a significant impact on health and disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impaired short-term memory and cognitive deficits. Patients with AD have been reported to exhibit abnormalities in GM density and species composition...
November 23, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Beatriz Andrea Otálora-Otálora, Juan Javier López-Rivera, Claudia Aristizábal-Guzmán, Mario Arturo Isaza-Ruget, Carlos Arturo Álvarez-Moreno
The microbiome has shown a correlation with the diet and lifestyle of each population in health and disease, the ability to communicate at the cellular level with the host through innate and adaptative immune receptors, and therefore an important role in modulating inflammatory process related to the establishment and progression of cancer. The oral cavity is one of the most important interaction windows between the human body and the environment, allowing the entry of an important number of microorganisms and their passage across the gastrointestinal tract and lungs...
November 23, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori, Christopher A Mullally, Mark P Nicol, Andrew Currie, Julie Hibbert, Matthew S Payne, Sanjay Patole, Tobias Strunk
The structure and function of infant skin is not fully developed until 34 weeks of gestation, and this immaturity is associated with risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS). Topical coconut oil improves preterm-infant skin integrity and may reduce LOS. However, data on early-life skin-microbiome succession and potential effects of emollient skin care in preterm infants are scarce. We therefore collected skin-microbiome samples from the ear, axilla, and groin on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 from preterm infants born <30 weeks of gestation as part of a randomized clinical trial of standard skin care vs...
November 22, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jennifer L Wayland, Jessica R Doll, Matthew J Lawson, Traci E Stankiewicz, Jarren R Oates, Keisuke Sawada, Michelle S M A Damen, Pablo C Alarcon, David B Haslam, Andrew T Trout, Emily A DeFranco, Corie M Klepper, Jessica G Woo, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Marialena Mouzaki, Senad Divanovic
Vertical transmission of obesity is a critical contributor to the unabated obesity pandemic and the associated surge in metabolic diseases. Existing experimental models insufficiently recapitulate "human-like" obesity phenotypes, limiting the discovery of how severe obesity in pregnancy instructs vertical transmission of obesity. Here, via utility of thermoneutral housing and obesogenic diet feeding coupled to syngeneic mating of WT obese female and lean male mice on a C57BL/6 background, we present a tractable, more "human-like" approach to specifically investigate how maternal obesity contributes to offspring health...
November 29, 2023: Nutrients
Hannah Lail, Angela M Mabb, Marise B Parent, Filipe Pinheiro, Desiree Wanders
Dietary restriction of the essential amino acid, methionine, has been shown to induce unique metabolic protection. The peripheral benefits of methionine restriction (MR) are well established and include improvements in metabolic, energy, inflammatory, and lifespan parameters in preclinical models. These benefits all occur despite MR increasing energy intake, making MR an attractive dietary intervention for the prevention or reversal of many metabolic and chronic conditions. New and emerging evidence suggests that MR also benefits the brain and promotes cognitive health...
November 29, 2023: Nutrients
Vanessa Wolfschluckner, Beate Obermüller, Angela Horvath, Giovanny Rodriguez-Blanco, Patricia Fuchs, Wolfram Miekisch, Barbara Mittl, Christina Flucher, Holger Till, Georg Singer
Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare condition characterized by a massive loss of the small intestine, leading to the inability to meet nutritional requirements without the use of parenteral or enteral supplementation. SBS causes profound alterations in the intestinal microbiome and metabolome. The aim of this study was a detailed assessment of the intestinal microbiome and metabolome in a murine model of SBS. We performed a 60% proximal small bowel resection versus a sham operation in C57BL/6 mice...
November 29, 2023: Nutrients
Victoria Bell, Ana Rita Rodrigues, Maria Antoniadou, Marios Peponis, Theodoros Varzakas, Tito Fernandes
In recent decades, the global demographic landscape has undergone a discernible shift that has been characterised by a progressive increase in the proportion of elderly individuals, indicative of an enduring global inclination toward extended lifespans. The aging process, accompanied by physiological changes and dietary patterns, contributes to detrimental deviations in micronutrient consumption. This vulnerable aging population faces heightened risks, including dental caries, due to structural and functional modifications resulting from insufficient nutritional sustenance...
November 23, 2023: Nutrients
Frank Piva, Philippe Gervois, Youness Karrout, Famara Sané, Marie-Bénédicte Romond
Gut microbiota affect progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study aims at investigating the protective potential of Bifidobacterium longum cell wall lipoproteins (Lpps) shown to modulate the intestinal microbiome and prevent osteoarthritis. Arthritis was induced by collagen (CIA) or anti-collagen antibodies (CAIA) injection. Intake of 0.5 mg of Lpps/L, but not 0.25 and 1 mg of Lpps/L, significantly alleviated RA symptoms in CIA DBA/1OOaHsd mice. The arthritis index (AI) was also reduced in CAIA mice...
November 21, 2023: Nutrients
Xinyan Fang, Yanrong Yang, Zhiguo Zhao, Yang Zhou, Yuan Liao, Zhiyong Guan, Sumei Chen, Weimin Fang, Fadi Chen, Shuang Zhao
Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three macronutrients that are crucial in plant growth and development. Deficiency or excess of any or all directly decreases crop yield and quality. There is increasing awareness of the importance of rhizosphere microorganisms in plant growth, nutrient transportation, and nutrient uptake. Little is known about the influence of N, P, and K as nutrients for the optimal production of Chrysanthemum morifolium . In this study, a field experiment was performed to investigate the effects of N, P, and K on the growth, nutrient use efficiency, microbial diversity, and composition of C...
December 3, 2023: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Antonina Sorokan, Venera Gabdrakhmanova, Zilya Kuramshina, Ramil Khairullin, Igor Maksimov
Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ( Bt ) and B. cereus sensu stricto Frankland and Frankland are closely related species of aerobic, spore-forming bacteria included in the B. cereus sensu lato group. This group is one of the most studied, but it remains also the most mysterious species of bacteria. Despite more than a century of research on the features of these ubiquitous bacteria, there are a lot of questionable issues related to their taxonomy, resistance to external influences, endophytic existence, their place in multidimensional relationships in the ecosystem, and many others...
November 30, 2023: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Fanny Mikula, Melanie Wimmer, Alex Farr, Harald Leitich, Julia Ebner, Agnes Grill, Sonja Granser, Philipp Foessleitner
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) stands as a primary contributor to preterm deliveries worldwide, closely linked to consequential infectious peripartum complications, including chorioamnionitis and early-onset neonatal sepsis. As a prophylactic measure, individuals following pPROM routinely undergo antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the vaginal microbial colonization after antibiotic treatment following pPROM. Therefore, we retrospectively assessed the impact of antibiotic treatment on the maternal vaginal microbial colonization in 438 post-pPROM patients delivering before 29 gestational weeks...
November 23, 2023: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Nariman Essmat, Dávid Árpád Karádi, Ferenc Zádor, Kornél Király, Susanna Fürst, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani
Opioid receptor agonists, particularly those that activate µ-opioid receptors (MORs), are essential analgesic agents for acute or chronic mild to severe pain treatment. However, their use has raised concerns including, among others, intestinal dysbiosis. In addition, growing data on constipation-evoked intestinal dysbiosis have been reported. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) creates an obstacle to continuing treatment with opioid analgesics. When non-opioid therapies fail to overcome the OIC, opioid antagonists with peripheral, fast first-pass metabolism, and gastrointestinal localized effects remain the drug of choice for OIC, which are discussed here...
November 24, 2023: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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