Alexandra T Bourdillon, Heather A Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Probiotics have garnered considerable attention as an intervention for various conditions common to otolaryngology. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature to offer recommendations about the safety and efficacy of probiotic management in otolaryngologic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were queried using pertinent keywords to retrieve relevant studies with particular focus in the recent 5 years...
January 5, 2021: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Shiqin Tao, Zixi Wang, Cheng Quan, Yiping Ge, Qihong Qian
BACKGROUND: 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is increasingly used to control severe acne. However, its impact on skin microbiota remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the makeup, diversity, and function of the microbiota in pilosebaceous units of patients with severe acne before and after ALA-PDT. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was performed on 11 participants with severe facial acne. All patients were given 5%ALA-PDT every two weeks for three sessions in total...
January 13, 2021: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Apollo Stacy, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, John A McCulloch, Benedikt Hild, Ji Hoon Oh, P Juliana Perez-Chaparro, Choon K Sim, Ai Ing Lim, Verena M Link, Michel Enamorado, Giorgio Trinchieri, Julia A Segre, Barbara Rehermann, Yasmine Belkaid
The microbiota shields the host against infections in a process known as colonization resistance. How infections themselves shape this fundamental process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that gut microbiota from previously infected hosts display enhanced resistance to infection. This long-term functional remodeling is associated with altered bile acid metabolism leading to the expansion of taxa that utilize the sulfonic acid taurine. Notably, supplying exogenous taurine alone is sufficient to induce this alteration in microbiota function and enhance resistance...
January 14, 2021: Cell
Wu Xiaoming, Liu Jing, Pan Yuchen, Liu Huili, Zhang Miao, Shu Jing
The present study focused on the characteristics of the vaginal microbiomes in prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis. We collected 24 vaginal samples and 16 fecal samples from 10 girls aged 3-9 years with vulvovaginitis and 16 healthy girls of the same age. The samples were divided into three groups: fecal swabs from healthy controls (HF), vaginal swabs from healthy controls (HVS), and vaginal swabs from girls with vulvovaginitis (VVS). Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene was performed with the NovaSeq PE250 platform to reveal the vaginal microbial community structure in healthy prepubertal girls and vulvovaginitis-associated microbiota...
January 16, 2021: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Natascha Menezes Bergo, Amanda Gonçalves Bendia, Juliana Correa Neiva Ferreira, Bramley J Murton, Frederico Pereira Brandini, Vivian Helena Pellizari
Seamounts are often covered with Fe and Mn oxides, known as ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts. Future mining of these crusts is predicted to have significant effects on biodiversity in mined areas. Although microorganisms have been reported on Fe-Mn crusts, little is known about the role of crusts in shaping microbial communities. Here, we investigated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from Fe-Mn crusts, coral skeleton, calcarenite, and biofilm at crusts of the Rio Grande Rise (RGR)...
January 16, 2021: Microbial Ecology
Milan Varsadiya, Tim Urich, Gustaf Hugelius, Jiří Bárta
Substantial amounts of topsoil organic matter (OM) in Arctic Cryosols have been translocated by the process of cryoturbation into deeper soil horizons (cryoOM), reducing its decomposition. Recent Arctic warming deepens the Cryosols´ active layer, making more topsoil and cryoOM carbon accessible for microbial transformation. To quantify bacteria, archaea, and selected microbial groups (methanogens- mcrA gene and diazotrophs- nifH gene) and to investigate bacterial and archaeal diversity, we collected 83 soil samples from four different soil horizons of three distinct tundra types located in Qikiqtaruk (Hershel Island, Western Canada)...
January 16, 2021: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
E L Lindsay, R C Faustoferri, R G Quivey
Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, is considered a dominating force in the oral microbiome due to its highly-evolved propensity for survival. The oral pathogen encodes an elaborate array of regulatory elements, including the carbon catabolite-responsive regulator, CcpA, a global regulator key in the control of sugar metabolism and in stress tolerance response mechanisms. The recently characterized trehalose utilization operon, integral for the catabolism of the disaccharide trehalose, is controlled by a local regulator, TreR, which has been implicated in a number of cellular functions outside of trehalose catabolism...
January 16, 2021: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Allison D Ta, Nicholas J Ollberding, Rebekah Karns, Yael Haberman, Adina L Alazraki, David Hercules, Robert Baldassano, James Markowitz, Melvin B Heyman, Sandra Kim, Barbara Kirschner, Jason M Shapiro, Joshua Noe, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Anthony Otley, Marian Pfefferkorn, Richard Kellermayer, Scott Snapper, Shervin Rabizadeh, Ramnik Xavier, Marla Dubinsky, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Anil G Jegga, Jonathan R Dillman, Lee A Denson
BACKGROUND: Transmural healing (TH) is associated with better long-term outcomes in Crohn disease (CD), whereas pretreatment ileal gene signatures encoding myeloid inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix production are associated with stricturing. We aimed to develop a predictive model for ileal TH and to identify ileal genes and microbes associated with baseline luminal narrowing (LN), a precursor to strictures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline small bowel imaging obtained in the RISK pediatric CD cohort study was graded for LN...
January 16, 2021: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Unmesha Roy Paladhi, Ali H Harb, Scott G Daniel, Ghadeer K Dawwas, Erin M Schnellinger, Colin Wollack, Faten N Aberra, Meenakshi Bewtra, Jesse A Green, Jan-Michael A Klaproth, Gary R Lichtenstein, Akriti Saxena, Shivali Berera, Anna Buchner, Shivan J Mehta, Mark T Osterman, Farzana Rashid, Vesselin Tomov, Freddy Caldera, Saha Sumona, Uma Mahadevan, Abhik Roy, Lisa Nessel, Gary D Wu, Kyle Bittinger, James D Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2021: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
X-T Yan, Z-X Ye, X Wang, C-X Zhang, J-P Chen, J-M Li, H-J Huang
Brown planthopper (BPH), white-backed planthopper (WBPH), and small brown planthopper (SBPH), are the closely related rice pests that perform differentially on wheat plants. Using fecundity as a fitness measure, we found that SBPH well-adapted on wheat plants, followed by WBPH, while BPH had the worst performance. The transcriptomic responses of SBPH and BPH to wheat plants have been compared previously. To understand the different fitness mechanisms of three planthoppers, this study firstly investigated the transcriptomic responses of WBPH to rice and wheat plants...
January 15, 2021: Insect Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2021: Nature
Damian J Hernandez, Aaron S David, Eric S Menges, Christopher A Searcy, Michelle E Afkhami
Environmental stress is increasing worldwide, yet we lack a clear picture of how stress disrupts the stability of microbial communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Here, we present the first evidence that naturally-occurring microbiomes display network properties characteristic of unstable communities when under persistent stress. By assessing changes in diversity and structure of soil microbiomes along 40 replicate stress gradients (elevation/water availability gradients) in the Florida scrub ecosystem, we show that: (1) prokaryotic and fungal diversity decline in high stress, and (2) two network properties of stable microbial communities-modularity and negative:positive cohesion-have a clear negative relationship with environmental stress, explaining 51-78% of their variation...
January 15, 2021: ISME Journal
Zong-Sheng Yuan, Fang Liu, Zhen-Yu Liu, Qiu-Liang Huang, Guo-Fang Zhang, Hui Pan
The plant microbiota play a key role in plant productivity, nutrient uptake, resistance to stress and flowering. The flowering of moso bamboo has been a focus of study. The mechanism of flowering is related to nutrient uptake, temperature, hormone balance and regulation of key genes. However, the connection between microbiota of moso bamboo and its flowering is unknown. In this study, samples of rhizosphere soil, rhizomes, roots and leaves of flowering and nonflowering plants were collected, and 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing was utilized to separate the bacterial communities associated with different flowering stages of moso bamboo...
January 15, 2021: Scientific Reports
Zhen Ding, Weijun Wang, Kun Zhang, Fanhua Ming, Tianyi Yangdai, Tao Xu, Huiying Shi, Yuhui Bao, Hailing Yao, Hangyu Peng, Chaoqun Han, Weiwei Jiang, Jun Liu, Xiaohua Hou, Rong Lin
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal flora and metabolites are associated with multiple systemic diseases. Current approaches for acquiring information regarding microbiota/metabolites have limitations. We aimed to develop a precise magnetically controlled sampling capsule endoscope (MSCE) for the convenient, non-invasive and accurate acquisition of digestive bioinformation for disease diagnosis and evaluation. DESIGN: The MSCE and surgery were both used for sampling both jejunal and ileal GI content in the control and antibiotic-induced diarrhoea groups...
January 15, 2021: Gut
Brian A Wolff, William H Clements, Ed K Hall
Metal contamination from mining or natural weathering is a common feature of surface waters in the American west. Advances in microbial analyses have created the potential for routine sampling of aquatic microbiomes as a tool to assess the quality of stream habitat. We sought to determine if microbiome diversity and membership were affected by metal contamination and identify candidate microbial taxa to be used to indicate metal stress in stream ecosystems. We evaluated microbiome membership from sediments at multiple sites within the principal drainage of an EPA superfund site near the headwaters of the Upper Arkansas River, Leadville, CO...
January 15, 2021: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alexandra Meziti, Luis M Rodriguez-R, Janet K Hatt, Angela Peña-Gonzalez, Karen Levy, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
The recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from metagenomic data has recently become a common task for microbial studies. The strengths and limitations of the underlying bioinformatics algorithms are well appreciated by now based on performance tests with mock datasets of known composition. However, these mock datasets do not capture the complexity and diversity often observed within natural populations, since their construction typically relies on only a single genome of a given organism. Further, it remains unclear if MAGs can recover population variable (e...
January 15, 2021: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
F Fracchia, L Mangeot-Peter, L Jacquot, F Martin, C Veneault-Fourrey, A Deveau
Through their roots, trees interact with a highly complex community of microorganisms belonging to various trophic guilds and contributing to tree nutrition, development and protection against stresses. Tree roots select for specific microbial species from the bulk soil communities. The root microbiome formation is a dynamic process but little is known on how the different microorganisms colonize the roots and how the selection occurs. To decipher if the final composition of the root microbiome is the product of several waves of colonization by different guilds of microorganisms, we planted sterile rooted cuttings of Gray Poplar obtained from plantlets propagated in axenic conditions in natural poplar stand-soil...
January 15, 2021: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hai-Zhen Zhu, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Nan Zhou, Cheng-Ying Jiang, Bao-Jun Wang, Lei Cai, Hong-Mei Wang, Shuang-Jiang Liu
Karst caves are widely distributed subsurface systems, and the microbiomes therein are proposed to be the driving force for cave evolution and biogeochemical cycling. In past years, culture-independent studies on the microbiomes of cave systems have been conducted, yet intensive microbial cultivation is still needed to validate the sequence-derived hypothesis and to disclose the microbial functions in cave ecosystems. In this study, the microbiomes of two karst caves in Guizhou Province in southwest China were examined...
January 15, 2021: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Leyuan Li, Daniel Figeys
Recent efforts in gut microbiome studies have highlighted the importance of explicitly describing the ecological processes beyond correlative analysis. However, we are still at the early stage of understanding the organizational principles of the gut ecosystem, partially because of the limited information provided by currently used analytical tools in ecological modeling practices. Proteomics and metaproteomics can provide a number of insights for ecological studies, including biomass, matter and energy flow, and functional diversity...
September 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Tamiem Adam, Therese M Becker, Wei Chua, Victoria Bray, Tara L Roberts
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are being increasingly utilised in a variety of advanced malignancies. Despite promising outcomes in certain patients, the majority will not derive benefit and are at risk of potentially serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The development of predictive biomarkers is therefore critical to personalise treatments and improve outcomes. A number of biomarkers have shown promising results, including from tumour (programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumour mutational burden (TMB), stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)), from blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), exosomes, cytokines and metal chelators) and finally the microbiome...
January 13, 2021: Cancers
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