Nobuko Nagai, Hiromi Homma, Atsuo Sakurai, Naoko Takahashi, Seikou Shintani
BACKGROUND: Biofilm coloration can compromise maturation and increase the risk of oral disease in adulthood, though children with colored biofilm do not always demonstrate a poor oral health status. AIM: The microbial compositions of colored and white biofilms in children were compared. DESIGN: Thirty-two dental biofilm samples from 16 children (age < 13 years) were analyzed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, then the subjects were divided into severe caries and healthy (caries-free) groups...
August 6, 2020: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research
Jing H Wang
The question as to why some hosts can eradicate their tumors while others succumb to tumor-progression remains unanswered. Here, a provocative concept is proposed that intrinsic differences in the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of individuals may influence the outcome of anti-tumor immunity by affecting the frequency and/or variety of tumor-reactive CD8 and/or CD4 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. This idea implicates that the TCR repertoire in a given patient might not provide sufficiently different TCR clones that can recognize tumor antigens, namely, "a hole in the TCR repertoire" might exist...
August 7, 2020: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Glorijoy Shi En Tan, Hui Lin Tay, Sock Hoon Tan, Tau Hong Lee, Tat Ming Ng, David Chien Lye
The human microbiome comprises a complex ecosystem of microbial communities that exist within the human body, the largest and most diverse of which are found within the human intestine. It has been increasingly implicated in human health and diseases, demonstrably playing a critical role in influencing host immune response, protection against pathogen overgrowth, biosynthesis, and metabolism. As our understanding of the links between the gut microbiota with host immunity and infectious diseases deepens, there is a greater need to incorporate methods of modulating it as a means of therapy or infection prevention in daily clinical practice...
August 7, 2020: Advances in Therapy
Hongliang Tian, Qiyi Chen, Bo Yang, Huanlong Qin, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Slow transit constipation (STC) is a type of functional constipation in which colon transit time is extended as a result of a reduction in the high amplitude of colon contraction activity. The utility of gut microbiome and metabolite characteristics in patients with STC is rarely studied. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) enhance colonic fluid and sodium absorption and thus may aggravate the symptoms of STC. However, the content and role of SCFAs in constipation patients are not clear...
August 7, 2020: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ankur Rughani, Jacob E Friedman, Jeanie B Tryggestad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the impact of early life exposures on glucose metabolism in the offspring and explores potential metabolic mechanisms leading to type 2 diabetes in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: One in five adolescents is diagnosed with prediabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the impact of early exposures such as maternal diabetes, but also hyperglycemia below the threshold of gestational diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and paternal obesity on the future metabolic health of the offspring...
August 7, 2020: Current Diabetes Reports
Jordan A Greer, Andrea Swei, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew G Zink
Recruitment of beneficial microbes to protect offspring, often reducing the energetic costs of care, is now recognized as an important component of parental care in many animals. Studies on earwigs (order Dermaptera) have revealed that removal of females from egg tending increases mortality of eggs due to fungal infections, possibly caused by changes in the bacterial microbiome on the egg surface. We used a controlled female-removal experiment to evaluate whether female nest attendance in the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, influences the bacterial microbiome on the egg surface...
August 7, 2020: Microbial Ecology
Sergio Vargas, Laura Leiva, Gert Wörheide
Marine sponges harbor diverse microbiomes that contribute to their energetic and metabolic needs. Although numerous studies on sponge microbial diversity exist, relatively few focused on sponge microbial community changes under different sources of environmental stress. In this study, we assess the impact of elevated seawater temperature on the microbiome of cultured Lendenfeldia chondrodes, a coral reef sponge commonly found in marine aquaria. Lendenfeldia chondrodes exhibits high thermal tolerance showing no evidence of tissue damage or bleaching at 5 °C above control water temperature (26 °C)...
August 7, 2020: Microbial Ecology
Michael Shaffer, Mikayla A Borton, Bridget B McGivern, Ahmed A Zayed, Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Lindsey M Solden, Pengfei Liu, Adrienne B Narrowe, Josué Rodríguez-Ramos, Benjamin Bolduc, M Consuelo Gazitúa, Rebecca A Daly, Garrett J Smith, Dean R Vik, Phil B Pope, Matthew B Sullivan, Simon Roux, Kelly C Wrighton
Microbial and viral communities transform the chemistry of Earth's ecosystems, yet the specific reactions catalyzed by these biological engines are hard to decode due to the absence of a scalable, metabolically resolved, annotation software. Here, we present DRAM (Distilled and Refined Annotation of Metabolism), a framework to translate the deluge of microbiome-based genomic information into a catalog of microbial traits. To demonstrate the applicability of DRAM across metabolically diverse genomes, we evaluated DRAM performance on a defined, in silico soil community and previously published human gut metagenomes...
August 7, 2020: Nucleic Acids Research
Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Lusine Khachatryan, Athanasios Kondylis, James N D Battey, Nicolas Sierro, Natalia A Danilova, Tatiana V Grigoryeva, Maria I Markelova, Dilyara R Khusnutdinova, Alexander V Laikov, Ilnur I Salafutdinov, Yulia D Romanova, Mariia N Siniagina, Ilya Yu Vasiliev, Eugenia A Boulygina, Valeriya V Solovyeva, Ekaterina E Garanina, Kristina V Kitaeva, Konstantin Y Ivanov, Darja S Chulpanova, Konstantin S Kletenkov, Alina R Valeeva, Alfiya Kh Odintsova, Maria D Ardatskaya, Rustam A Abdulkhakov, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng, Sayar R Abdulkhakov
BACKGROUND: Several studies have highlighted the role of host-microbiome interactions in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), resulting in an increasing amount of data mainly focusing on Western patients. Because of the increasing prevalence of IBD in newly industrialized countries such as those in Asia, the Middle East, and South America, there is mounting interest in elucidating the gut microbiota of these populations. We present a comprehensive analysis of several IBD-related biomarkers and gut microbiota profiles and functions of a unique population of patients with IBD and healthy patients from Kazan (Republic of Tatarstan, Russia)...
August 7, 2020: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Bei Gao, Yi Duan, Sonja Lang, Dinesh Barupal, Tsung-Chin Wu, Luis Valdiviez, Bryan Roberts, Ying Yng Choy, Tong Shen, Gregory Byram, Ying Zhang, Sili Fan, Benjamin Wancewicz, Yan Shao, Kevin Vervier, Yanhan Wang, Rongrong Zhou, Lu Jiang, Shilpa Nath, Rohit Loomba, Juan G Abraldes, Ramon Bataller, Xin M Tu, Peter Stärkel, Trevor D Lawley, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol-related liver disease is a major public health burden, and the gut microbiota is an important contributor to disease pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to characterize functional alterations of the gut microbiota and test their performance for short-term mortality prediction in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We integrated shotgun metagenomics with untargeted metabolomics to investigate functional alterations of the gut microbiota and host co-metabolism in a multicenter cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis...
August 2020: Hepatology Communications
E Hossain, S Khanam, D A Dean, C Wu, S Lostracco-Johnson, D Thomas, S S Kane, A R Parab, K Flores, M Katemauswa, C Gosmanov, S E Hayes, Y Zhang, D Li, C Woelfel-Monsivais, K Sankaranarayanan, L-I McCall
Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, presenting with cardiomyopathy, megaesophagus, and/or megacolon. To determine the mechanisms of gastrointestinal (GI) CD tissue tropism, we systematically characterized the spatial localization of infection-induced metabolic and microbiome alterations, in a mouse model of CD. Notably, the impact of the transition between acute and persistent infection differed between tissue sites, with sustained large-scale effects of infection in the esophagus and large intestine, providing a potential mechanism for the tropism of CD within the GI tract...
July 2020: Science Advances
Xinming Lin, Huiying Ren, Amy E Goldman, James C Stegen, Timothy D Scheibe
Background: The Worldwide Hydrobiogeochemistry Observation Network for Dynamic River Systems (WHONDRS) is a consortium that aims to understand complex hydrologic, biogeochemical, and microbial connections within river corridors experiencing perturbations such as dam operations, floods, and droughts. For one ongoing WHONDRS sampling campaign, surface water metabolite and microbiome samples are collected through a global survey to generate knowledge across diverse river corridors. Metabolomics analysis and a suite of geochemical analyses have been performed for collected samples through the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)...
2020: PeerJ
Mohammad Pourkheirandish, Agnieszka A Golicz, Prem L Bhalla, Mohan B Singh
The development of climate change resilient crops is necessary if we are to meet the challenge of feeding the growing world's population. We must be able to increase food production despite the projected decrease in arable land and unpredictable environmental conditions. This review summarizes the technological and conceptual advances that have the potential to transform plant breeding, help overcome the challenges of climate change, and initiate the next plant breeding revolution. Recent developments in genomics in combination with high-throughput and precision phenotyping facilitate the identification of genes controlling critical agronomic traits...
2020: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoyue Gong, Shuaiming Jiang, Haiyan Tian, Dong Xiang, Jiachao Zhang
Previous studies of Dendrobium candidum ( D. candidum ), which is mainly distributed in tropical areas, have mainly focused on its functional polysaccharide; the effects of D. candidum polyphenols, the chemical composition of which may be improved by fermentation, have received limited attention, especially in in vivo models, which inevitably involve interactions with intestinal microorganisms. To address this challenge, metagenomic and metabolomic techniques, were applied, and immune factors and mucosal barrier-related proteins were determined to reveal the effects of fermented D...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Nan Li, Huaxian Zhao, Gonglingxia Jiang, Qiangsheng Xu, Jinli Tang, Xiaoli Li, Jiemei Wen, Huimin Liu, Chaowu Tang, Ke Dong, Zhenjun Kang
Phaeocystis globosa blooms are recognized as playing an essential role in shaping the structure of the marine community and its functions in marine ecosystems. In this study, we observed variation in the alpha diversity and composition of marine free-living bacteria during P. globosa blooms and identified key microbial community assembly patterns during the blooms. The results showed that the Shannon index was higher before the blooming of P. globosa in the subtropical bay. Marinobacterium (γ-proteobacteria), Erythrobacter (α-proteobacteria), and Persicobacter (Cytophagales) were defined as the most important genera, and they were more correlated with environmental factors at the terminal stage of P...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Deiene Rodriguez-Barreto, Sofia Consuegra, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz
Exposure to environmental stressors can compromise fish health and fitness. Little is known about how stress-induced microbiome disruption may contribute to these adverse health effects, including how cortisol influences fish microbial communities. We exposed juvenile Atlantic salmon to a mild confinement stressor for two weeks. We then measured cortisol in the plasma, skin-mucus, and feces, and characterized the skin and fecal microbiome. Fecal and skin cortisol concentrations increased in fish exposed to confinement stress, and were positively correlated with plasma cortisol...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ariel D Friel, Sean A Neiswenter, Cale O Seymour, Lauren Rose Bali, Ginger McNamara, Fabian Leija, Jack Jewell, Brian P Hedlund
The Atlantic horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus ) is a common marine aquarium species and model organism for research. There is potential monetary and conservation value in developing a stable captive population of horseshoe crabs, however, one major impediment to achieving captivity is a lack of knowledge regarding captive diseases. We utilized 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to track changes in the microbiomes of four body locations in three wild-caught (tracked over 14 months in captivity) and three tank-acclimated (>2 years in captivity) adult L...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexandre Maciel Vieira, Tatiany Aparecida Teixeira Soratto, Kátia Maria Cardinal, Glauber Wagner, Lucélia Hauptli, André Luis Ferreira Lima, Fabiano Dahlke, Diego Peres Netto, Priscila de Oliveira Moraes, Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge...
2020: PloS One
Yoshikuni Nagayama, Naoyuki Isoo, Ayaka Nakashima, Kengo Suzuki, Mizuki Yamano, Tomoyuki Nariyama, Motoka Yagame, Katsuyuki Matsui
Paramylon is a novel β-glucan that is stored by Euglena gracilis Z, which is a unicellular photosynthesizing green alga with characteristics of both animals and plants. Recent studies have indicated that paramylon functions as an immunomodulator or a dietary fiber. Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and there is no effective preventive treatment for CKD progression. However, paramylon may suppress the progression of CKD via the elimination of uremic toxins or modulation of gut microbiota, leading to the alleviation of inflammation...
2020: PloS One
Meysam Sarshar, Daniela Scribano, Cecilia Ambrosi, Anna Teresa Palamara, Andrea Masotti
Over the past decade, short non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), including circulating and fecal miRNAs have emerged as important modulators of various cellular processes by regulating the expression of target genes. Recent studies revealed the role of miRNAs as powerful biomarkers in disease diagnosis and for the development of innovative therapeutic applications in several human conditions, including intestinal diseases. In this review, we explored the literature and summarized the role of identified dysregulated fecal miRNAs in intestinal diseases, with particular focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) and celiac disease (CD)...
August 5, 2020: Cancers
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