David M Patrick, Justin P Van Beusecum, Annet Kirabo
Hypertension remains the most important modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. While it is clear that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of hypertension, several novel discoveries have been made within the past decade that have advanced the field and have provided new mechanistic insights. First, recent studies have identified a central role of sodium-induced immune cell activation in the pathogenesis of hypertension by altering the gut microbiome and formation of products of lipid oxidation known as isolevuglandins...
October 13, 2020: Current Opinion in Physiology
Kyle E Robinson, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) account for the majority of hepatic morbidity and deaths due to cirrhosis in the United States. ALD is an umbrella term for a number of conditions linked to excessive alcohol consumption including simple steatosis, cirrhosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with or without cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a complication of cirrhosis. Although it presents with histological features resembling alcohol-induced liver injury, NAFLD occurs in patients with little or no history of alcohol consumption...
2020: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andre Luiz Pitanga Bastos De Souza
Although researchers have been trying to harness the immune system for over 100 years, the advent of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) marks an era of significant clinical outcomes in various metastatic solid tumors, characterized by complete and durable responses. ICBs are monoclonal antibodies that target either of a pair of transmembrane molecules in tumors or T-cells involved in immune evasion. Currently 2 ICBs targeting the checkpoint program death 1 (PD-1), nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and one cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor (ipilimumab) are approved in gastrointestinal malignancies...
2020: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yensi Flores Bueso, Sidney P Walker, Mark Tangney
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens have huge potential as source material in the field of human microbiome research. However, the effects of FFPE processing on bacterial DNA remain uncharacterized. Any effects are relevant for microbiome studies, where DNA template is often minimal and sequences studied are not limited to one genome. As such, we aimed to both characterize this FFPE-induced bacterial DNA damage and develop strategies to reduce and repair this damage. Our analyses indicate that bacterial FFPE DNA is highly fragmented, a poor template for PCR, crosslinked and bears sequence artefacts derived predominantly from oxidative DNA damage...
2020: Biology Methods and Protocols
Ahmad Al Theyab, Turki Almutairi, Abdulla M Al-Suwaidi, Ghizlane Bendriss, Clare McVeigh, Ali Chaari
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased over the past half century and has now become the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood and one of major public health concern worldwide. Evidence suggests that modern lifestyles and rapid environmental changes are driving factors that underlie this increase. The integration of these two factors brings about changes in food intake. This, in turn, alters epigenetic regulations of the genome and intestinal microbiota composition, which may ultimately play a role in pathogenesis of T1D...
2020: Frontiers in Nutrition
Tatiana V Kirichenko, Yuliya V Markina, Vasily N Sukhorukov, Victoria A Khotina, Wei-Kai Wu, Alexander N Orekhov
There is an important task of current medicine to identify mechanisms and new markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in order to develop early targets for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, since it causes such widespread diseases as myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, and other common reasons of disability and mortality in developed countries. In recent years, studies of the human microbiome in different fields of medicine have become increasingly popular; there is evidence from numerous studies of the significant contribution of microbiome in different steps of atherogenesis...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Rendani I Manenzhe, Felix S Dube, Meredith Wright, Katie Lennard, Stephanie Mounaud, Stephanie W Lo, Heather J Zar, William C Nierman, Mark P Nicol, Clinton Moodley
Background: There remains a significant proportion of deaths due to pneumococcal pneumonia in infants from low- and middle-income countries despite the marginal global declines recorded in the past decade. Monitoring changes in pneumococcal carriage is key to understanding vaccination-induced shifts in the ecology of carriage, patterns of antimicrobial resistance, and impact on health. We longitudinally investigated pneumococcal carriage dynamics in PCV-13 vaccinated infants by collecting nasopharyngeal (NP) samples at 2-weekly intervals from birth through the first year of life from 137 infants...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Zhenyu Yao, Meng Zhao, Ying Gong, Wenbin Chen, Qian Wang, Yilin Fu, Tian Guo, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao, Tao Bo
Thyroxine metabolism is an important topic of pathogenesis research and treatment schedule of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). L-Thyroxine replacement therapy (LRT) is usually recommended for severe SCH patients only. Our previous studies reported that disordered serum lipid of mild SCH people could also benefit from LRT. However, the benefits were different among individuals, as shown by the variations in drug dosage that required to maintain thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stability. Alternative pathways, such as sulfation and glucuronidation of iodothyronine, may play a role in thyroid hormones metabolism in peripheral tissues aside from thyroid...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Haitao Chen, Fan Zhang, Jin Zhang, Xinjie Zhang, Yong Guo, Qinghua Yao
Berberine (BBR) has been reported that it has effects on inhibiting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of BBR on CRC also remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of BBR on CRC from the perspective of gut microbiota and metabolic alterations, which can provide a holistic view to understand the effects of BBR on CRC. First, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse was used as CRC animal model, then the degree of colorectal carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS mice with or without BBR administration was measured...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Yasmin Neves Vieira Sabino, Katialaine Corrêa de Araújo, Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis, Sofia Magalhães Moreira, Thaynara da Silva Lopes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Sharon Ann Huws, Hilário C Mantovani
Studies of rumen microbial ecology suggest that the capacity to produce antimicrobial peptides could be a useful trait in species competing for ecological niches in the ruminal ecosystem. However, little is known about the synthesis of lasso peptides by ruminal microorganisms. Here we analyzed the distribution and diversity of lasso peptide gene clusters in 425 bacterial genomes from the rumen ecosystem. Genome mining was performed using antiSMASH 5, BAGEL4, and a database of well-known precursor sequences...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Charlotte T C Quigley, Kyle A Capistrant-Fossa, Hilary G Morrison, Ladd E Johnson, Aleksey Morozov, Vicki S Hertzberg, Susan H Brawley
The intertidal zone often has varying levels of environmental stresses (desiccation, temperature, light) that result in highly stress-tolerant macrobiota occupying the upper zone while less tolerant species occupy the lower zone, but little comparative information is available for intertidal bacteria. Here we describe natural (unmanipulated) bacterial communities of three Fucus congeners ( F. spiralis , high zone; F. vesiculosus , mid zone; F. distichus , low zone) as well as those of F. vesiculosus transplanted to the high zone (Dry and Watered treatments) and to the mid zone (Procedural Control) during summer in Maine (United States)...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yingjie Yang, Lei Liu, Raghvendra Pratap Singh, Chen Meng, Siqi Ma, Changliang Jing, Yiqiang Li, Chengsheng Zhang
Soil salinization limits crop growth and yield in agro-ecosystems worldwide by reducing soil health and altering the structure of microbial communities. Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) alleviate plant salinity stress. Wild soybean ( Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) is unique in agricultural ecosystems owing to its ability to grow in saline-alkali soils and fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbiotic interactions with diverse soil microbes. However, this rhizosphere microbiome and the nodule endosymbionts have not been investigated to identify PGPR...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thao T B Cao, Kun-Chang Wu, Jye-Lin Hsu, Chih-Shiang Chang, Chiahung Chou, Chen-Yuan Lin, Yu-Min Liao, Pei-Chun Lin, Liang-Yo Yang, Hsiang-Wen Lin
Background: As growing evidence links gut microbiota with the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of anti-hyperglycemic drugs, this article aims to provide a systematic review of the reciprocal interactions between anti-hyperglycemic drugs and gut microbiota taxa, which underlie the effect of the gut microbiome on diabetic control via bug-host interactions. Method: We followed the PRISMA requirements to perform a systematic review on human vs. animal gut microbiota data in PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases, and used Cochrane, ROBIN-I, and SYRCLE tools to assess potential bias risks...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Alexandra Cosma-Grigorov, Holger Meixner, Anne Mrochen, Stefan Wirtz, Jürgen Winkler, Franz Marxreiter
Altered gut microbiota may trigger or accelerate alpha-synuclein aggregation in the enteric nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD). While several previous studies observed gut microbiota alterations in PD, findings like diversity indices, and altered bacterial taxa itself show a considerable heterogeneity across studies. We recruited 179 participants, of whom 101 fulfilled stringent inclusion criteria. Subsequently, the composition of the gut microbiota in 71 PD patients and 30 healthy controls was analyzed, sequencing V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in fecal samples...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Tamar L Goulet, Ivan Erill, Marina S Ascunce, Sheree J Finley, Gulnaz T Javan
Corals' obligate association with unicellular dinoflagellates, family Symbiodiniaceae form the foundation of coral reefs. For nearly a century, researchers have delved into understanding the coral-algal mutualism from multiple levels of resolution and perspectives, and the questions and scope have evolved with each iteration of new techniques. Advances in genetic technologies not only aided in distinguishing between the multitude of Symbiodiniaceae but also illuminated the existence and diversity of other organisms constituting the coral microbiome...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Md Mamunur Rashid, Swakkhar Shatabda, Md Mehedi Hasan, Hiroyuki Kurata
A variety of protein post-translational modifications has been identified that control many cellular functions. Phosphorylation studies in mycobacterial organisms have shown critical importance in diverse biological processes, such as intercellular communication and cell division. Recent technical advances in high-precision mass spectrometry have determined a large number of microbial phosphorylated proteins and phosphorylation sites throughout the proteome analysis. Identification of phosphorylated proteins with specific modified residues through experimentation is often labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming...
April 2020: Current Genomics
Raj Kishan Agrahari, Prashantee Singh, Hiroyuki Koyama, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Plant-microbe interactions are both symbiotic and antagonistic, and the knowledge of both these interactions is equally important for the progress of agricultural practice and produce. This review gives an insight into the recent advances that have been made in the plant-microbe interaction study in the post-genomic era and the application of those for enhancing agricultural production. Adoption of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and marker assisted selection of resistant genes in plants, equipped with cloning and recombination techniques, has progressed the techniques for the development of resistant plant varieties by leaps and bounds...
April 2020: Current Genomics
Hiroshi Fukui
Portal blood flows into the liver containing the gut microbiome and its products such as endotoxin and bacterial DNA. The cirrhotic liver acts and detoxifies as the initial site of microbial products. In so-called "leaky gut," the increased intestinal permeability for bacteria and their products constitutes an important pathogenetic factor for major complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. Prolonged gastric and small intestinal transit may induce intestinal bacterial overgrowth, a condition in which colonic bacteria translocate into the small gut...
October 21, 2020: Gut and Liver
Biao Chen, Kefu Yu, Zhiheng Liao, Xiaopeng Yu, Zhenjun Qin, Jiayuan Liang, Guanghua Wang, Qian Wu, Leilei Jiang
Regional acclimatisation and microbial interactions significantly influence the resilience of reef-building corals facing anthropogenic climate change, allowing them to adapt to environmental stresses. However, the connections between community structure and microbial interactions of the endemic coral microbiome and holobiont acclimatisation remain unclear. Herein, we used generation sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 16S rRNA genes to investigate the microbiome composition (Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria) and associated potential interactions of endemic dominant coral holobionts (Pocillopora verrucosa and Turbinaria peltata) in the South China Sea (SCS)...
October 3, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Diego Valenzuela-Miranda, Bárbara P Benaventel, Constanza Sáez-Vera, Homero Urrutia, Beatriz Novoa, Antonio Figueras, Steven Roberts, Paulina Assmann, Marta Bravo
Wastewater-Based Epidemiology is a tool to face and mitigate COVID-19 outbreaks by evaluating conditions in a specific community. This study aimed to analyze the microbiome profiles using nanopore technology for full-length 16S rRNA sequencing in wastewater samples collected from a penitentiary (P), a residential care home (RCH), and a quarantine or health care facilities (HCF). During the study, the wastewater samples from the RCH and the P were negative for SARS-CoV-2 based on qPCRs, except during the fourth week when was detected...
October 9, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
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