Joseph Runde, Iva Veseli, Emily C Fogarty, Andrea R Watson, Quentin Clayssen, Mahmoud Yosef, Alon Shaiber, Ritu Verma, Christopher Quince, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, David T Rubin, A Murat Eren
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] is a dietary intervention to induce clinical remission in children with active luminal Crohn's disease [CD]. While changes in the gut microbial communities have been implicated in achieving this remission, a precise understanding of the role of microbial ecology in the restoration of gut homeostasis is lacking. METHODS: Here we reconstructed genomes from the gut metagenomes of 12 paediatric subjects who were sampled before, during and after EEN...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Bo-Hyung Kim, Sung-Vin Yim, Seong Deok Hwang, Yoon Soo Kim, Jeong-Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Increased glucose level and insulin resistance are major factors in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2M), which is chronic and debilitating disease worldwide. Submerged culture medium of Ceriporia lacerata mycelium (CLM) is known to have glucose lowering effects and improving insulin resistance in a mouse model in our previous studies. The main purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the functional efficacy and safety of CLM in enrolled participants with impaired fasting blood sugar or mild T2D for 12 weeks...
March 18, 2023: BMC complementary medicine and therapies
Milica Dragojević, Nada Stankovic, Lidija Djokic, Vera Raičević, Jelena Jovičić-Petrović
The adaptability of halophytes to increased soil salinity is related to complex rhizosphere interactions. In this study, an integrative approach, combining culture-independent and culture-dependent techniques was used to analyze the bacterial communities in the endorizosphere of indigenous succulent halophytes Salicornia europaea, Suaeda maritima, and Camphorosma annua from the natural salt marshes of Slano Kopovo (Serbia). The 16 S rDNA analyses gave, for the first time, an insight into the composition of the endophytic bacterial communities of S...
March 18, 2023: Environmental microbiome
Xiaolong Chen, Dong Xue, Ying Zhao, Peng Cui, Peng Wang, Yu Wang, Shi-Bao Lu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial microbiome as a putative trigger of inflammation might indicate the cascade of mouth-gut-disc axis for causing intervertebral disc (IVD) structural failures (such as IVD degeneration and endplate change) processed. However, direct evidence for the mouth-gut-disc axis still unclear. Therefore, it is interesting to explore periodontal inflammation related to IVD structural failures and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled older adults (aged ≥ 75 years) who scheduled to undergo elective open lumbar spine surgery...
March 18, 2023: BMC Surgery
Jonathan J Panzer, Roberto Romero, Jonathan M Greenberg, Andrew D Winters, Jose Galaz, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Kevin R Theis
The existence of a placental microbiota is debated. The human placenta has historically been considered sterile and microbial colonization was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, recent DNA sequencing investigations reported a microbiota in typical human term placentas. However, this detected microbiota could represent background DNA or delivery-associated contamination. Using fifteen publicly available 16S rRNA gene datasets, existing data were uniformly re-analyzed with DADA2 to maximize comparability...
March 18, 2023: BMC Microbiology
Yuanyuan Ma, Jinru He, Michael Sieber, Jakob von Frieling, Iris Bruchhaus, John F Baines, Ulf Bickmeyer, Thomas Roeder
The close association between animals and their associated microbiota is usually beneficial for both partners. Here, we used a simple marine model invertebrate, the flatworm Macrostomum lignano, to characterize the host-microbiota interaction in detail. This analysis revealed that the different developmental stages each harbor a specific microbiota. Studies with gnotobiotic animals clarified the physiological significance of the microbiota. While no fitness benefits were mediated by the microbiota when food was freely available, animals with microbiota showed significantly increased fitness with a reduced food supply...
March 18, 2023: Communications Biology
Ji Eun Kim, Hein M Tun, Darin C Bennett, Frederick C Leung, Kimberly M Cheng
Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a large flightless omnivorous ratite, are farmed for their fat and meat. Emu fat can be rendered into oil for therapeutic and cosmetic use. They are capable of gaining a significant portion of its daily energy requirement from the digestion of plant fibre. Despite of its large body size and low metabolic rate, emus have a relatively simple gastroinstetinal (GI) tract with a short mean digesta retention time. However, little is known about the GI microbial diversity of emus. The objective of this study was to characterize the intraluminal intestinal bacterial community in the different segments of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) using pyrotag sequencing and compare that with the ceca...
March 18, 2023: Scientific Reports
E Berthouzoz, V Lazarevic, A Zekeridou, M Castro, I Debove, S Aybek, J Schrenzel, P R Burkhard, V Fleury
The suspicion of an origin of Parkinson's disease (PD) at the periphery of the body and the involvement of environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of PD have directed the attention of the scientific community towards the microbiota. The microbiota represents all the microorganisms residing both in and on a host. It plays an essential role in the physiological functioning of the host. In this article, we review the dysbiosis repeatedly demonstrated in PD and how it influences PD symptoms. Dysbiosis is associated with both motor and non-motor PD symptoms...
March 16, 2023: Revue Neurologique
Sara Massironi, Chiara Viganò, Andrea Palermo, Lorena Pirola, Giacomo Mulinacci, Mariangela Allocca, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, has become increasingly prevalent worldwide in the past decade. The nutritional status of patients with IBD is often impaired, with malnutrition presenting as imbalanced energy or nutrient intake, including protein-energy malnutrition, disease-related malnutrition, sarcopenia, and micronutrient deficiency. Additionally, malnutrition can manifest as overweight, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity. Malnutrition can lead to disturbances in gut microbiome composition that might alter homoeostasis and cause a dysbiotic state, potentially triggering inflammatory responses...
March 15, 2023: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
George Hajishengallis, Richard J Lamont, Hyun Koo
Oral microbial communities assemble into complex spatial structures. The sophisticated physical and chemical signaling systems underlying the community enable their collective functional regulation as well as the ability to adapt by integrating environmental information. The combined output of community action, as shaped by both intra-community interactions and host and environmental variables, dictates homeostatic balance or dysbiotic disease such as periodontitis and dental caries. Oral polymicrobial dysbiosis also exerts systemic effects that adversely affect comorbidities, in part due to ectopic colonization of oral pathobionts in extra-oral tissues...
March 14, 2023: Cell Host & Microbe
Di Li, Ting Sun, Yongqing Tong, Juan Le, Qian Yao, Jun Tao, Hang Liu, Woer Jiao, Yufeng Mei, Jingru Chen, Zhongchun Liu, Gaohua Wang, Yan Li
Estradiol decline can result in depressive disorders in females; nevertheless, the causes of this decline are unclear. In this study, we isolated estradiol-degrading Klebsiella aerogenes from the feces of premenopausal females with depression. In mice, gavaging with this strain led to estradiol decline and depression-like behaviors. The gene encoding the estradiol-degrading enzyme in K. aerogenes was identified as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). Heterologously expressing 3β-HSD resulted in Escherichia coli obtaining the ability to degrade estradiol...
March 13, 2023: Cell Metabolism
Liyile Chen, Zeyu Huang, Qianhao Li, Changjun Chen, Yue Luo, Pengde Kang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and its association with intestinal microbiome-related tryptophan metabolism. METHODS: Cartilage was isolated from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and analyzed for expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and cytochrome P450 of family 1, subfamily A, and polypeptide 1 (CyP1A1). To gain mechanistic insights, OA model was induced in Sprague Dawley rats after antibiotic pretreatment combined with a tryptophan-rich diet (or not)...
March 16, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Jingquan Li, Tao Huang, Mingpeng Zhang, Xinkai Tong, Jiaqi Chen, Zhou Zhang, Fei Huang, Huashui Ai, Lusheng Huang
Low microbial biomass in the lungs, high host-DNA contamination and sampling difficulty limit the study on lung microbiome. Therefore, little is still known about lung microbial communities and their functions. Here, we perform a preliminary exploratory study to investigate the composition of swine lung microbial community using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and compare the microbial communities between healthy and severe-lesion lungs. We collected ten lavage-fluid samples from swine lungs (five from healthy lungs and five from severe-lesion lungs), and obtained their metagenomes by shotgun metagenomic sequencing...
March 18, 2023: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Ye Peng, Yirui Chen, Yanzhong Wang, Wensong Wang, Sai Qiao, Jianping Lan, Manling Wang
According to Elie Metchnikoff, an originator of modern immunology, several pivotal functions for disease and health are provided by indigenous microbiota. Nonetheless, important mechanistic insights have been elucidated more recently, owing to the growing availability of DNA sequencing technology. There are 10 to 100 trillion symbiotic microbes (such as viruses, bacteria, and yeast) in each human gut microbiota. Both locally and systemically, the gut microbiota has been demonstrated to impact immune homeostasis...
March 18, 2023: Immunologic Research
Karpaga Raja Sundari Balachandran, Sai H Sankara Subramanianan, Magesh Peter Dhassiah, Abilasha Rengarajan, Muthukumar Chandrasekaran, Vijaya Raghavan Rangamaran, Dharani Gopal
Deep-sea sediments provide important information on oceanic biogeochemical processes mediated by the microbiome and their functional roles which could be unravelled using genomic tools. The present study aimed to delineate microbial taxonomic and functional profiles from Arabian Sea sediment samples through whole metagenome sequencing using Nanopore technology. Arabian Sea is considered as a major microbial reservoir with significant bio-prospecting potential which needs to be explored extensively using recent advances in genomics...
March 18, 2023: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Zhendu Mao, Zifan Zhao, Jun Da, Ye Tao, Huabing Li, Biying Zhao, Peng Xing, Qinglong Wu
The relationships between biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) for microbial communities are poorly understood despite the important roles of microbes acting in natural ecosystems. Dilution-to-extinction (DTE), a method to manipulate microbial diversity, helps to fill the knowledge gap of microbial BEF relationships and has recently become more popular with the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques. However, the pattern of community assembly processes in DTE experiments is less explored and blocks our further understanding of BEF relationships in DTE studies...
March 17, 2023: Environmental microbiome
Jun Yuan, Tao Wen, Shengdie Yang, Chao Zhang, Mengli Zhao, Guoqing Niu, Penghao Xie, Xiaoyu Liu, Xinyuan Zhao, Qirong Shen, T Martijn Bezemer
The gut microbiome of plant-eaters is affected by the food they eat, but it is currently unclear how the plant metabolome and microbiome are influenced by the substrate the plant grows in and how this subsequently impacts the feeding behavior and gut microbiomes of insect herbivores. Here, we use Plutella xylostella caterpillars and show that the larvae prefer leaves of cabbage plants growing in a vermiculite substrate to those from plants growing in conventional soil systems. From a plant metabolomics analysis, we identified 20 plant metabolites that were related to caterpillar feeding performance...
March 14, 2023: Science China. Life Sciences
Mireia Valles-Colomer, Cristina Menni, Sarah E Berry, Ana M Valdes, Tim D Spector, Nicola Segata
Cardiometabolic diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. They have been tightly linked to microbiome taxonomic and functional composition, with diet possibly mediating some of the associations described. Both the microbiome and diet are modifiable, which opens the way for novel therapeutic strategies. High-throughput omics techniques applied on microbiome samples (meta-omics) hold the unprecedented potential to shed light on the intricate links between diet, the microbiome, the metabolome and cardiometabolic health, with a top-down approach...
March 17, 2023: Nature Medicine
Josep M Llovet, Catherine E Willoughby, Amit G Singal, Tim F Greten, Mathias Heikenwälder, Hashem B El-Serag, Richard S Finn, Scott L Friedman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including its more severe manifestation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has a global prevalence of 20-25% and is a major public health problem. Its incidence is increasing in parallel to the rise in obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Progression from NASH to NASH-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (~2% of cases per year) is influenced by many factors, including the tissue and immune microenvironment, germline mutations in PNPLA3, and the microbiome...
March 17, 2023: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Alina Lakosa, Anaïs Rahimian, Flavio Tomasi, Fabio Marti, Lauren M Reynolds, Léa Tochon, Vincent David, Anne Danckaert, Candice Canonne, Sylvana Tahraoui, Fabrice de Chaumont, Benoît Forget, Uwe Maskos, Morgane Besson
A link between gut dysbiosis and the pathogenesis of brain disorders has been identified. A role for gut bacteria in drug reward and addiction has been suggested but very few studies have investigated their impact on brain and behavioral responses to addictive drugs so far. In particular, their influence on nicotine's addiction-like processes remains unknown. In addition, evidence shows that glial cells shape the neuronal activity of the mesolimbic system but their regulation, within this system, by the gut microbiome is not established...
March 17, 2023: Neuropsychopharmacology
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