Elizabeth Harstad, Justine Shults, William Barbaresi, Ami Bax, Jaclyn Cacia, Alexis Deavenport-Saman, Sandra Friedman, Angela LaRosa, Irene M Loe, Shruti Mittal, Shelby Tulio, Douglas Vanderbilt, Nathan J Blum
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in approximately 2.4% of preschool-age children. Stimulants are recommended as first-line medication treatment. However, up to 25% of preschool-age children with ADHD are treated with α2-adrenergic agonist medications, despite minimal evidence about their efficacy or adverse effects in this age range. Objective: To determine the frequency of reported improvement in ADHD symptoms and adverse effects associated with α2-adrenergic agonists and stimulant medication for initial ADHD medication treatment in preschool-age children...
May 4, 2021: JAMA
Lena Violetta Krämer, Sasha-Denise Grünzig, Harald Baumeister, David Daniel Ebert, Jürgen Bengel
INTRODUCTION: Psychotherapy is a first-line treatment for depression. However, capacities are limited, leading to long waiting times for outpatient psychotherapy in health care systems. Web-based interventions (WBI) could help to bridge this treatment gap. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness of a guided cognitive-behavioral WBI in depressive patients seeking face-to-face psychotherapy. METHODS: A 2-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted...
May 4, 2021: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Sun Ah Choi, Kahyun Lim, Hyunyoung Baek, Sooyoung Yoo, Anna Cho, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang, Ki Joong Kim
Recent advances in mobile health have enabled health data collection, which includes seizure and medication tracking and epilepsy self-management. We developed a mobile epilepsy management application, integrated with a hospital electronic health record (EHR). In this prospective clinical trial, we assessed whether the mobile application provides quality healthcare data compared to conventional clinic visits, and enhances epilepsy self-management for patients with epilepsy. The study population includes patients with epilepsy (ages 15 years and older) and caregivers for children with epilepsy...
May 1, 2021: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Carukshi Arambepola, Roshini Murugupillai, Ravinda Kapurubandara, Ashan Jayawickrama
INTRODUCTION: West syndrome is a severe epileptic encephalopathy occurring in infancy. Majority of affected children suffer from poor epilepsy control in later life and are dependent on care-givers for daily living. There is no previous study evaluating the Quality of Life (QOL) in children suffered from WS. METHOD: A prospective cohort study was performed at six years in a group of children with West syndrome, followed up in the Sri Lanka Infantile Spasm Study (SLISS)...
May 1, 2021: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jaime Delgadillo, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Kim de Jong, Mike Lucock, Wolfgang Lutz, Julian Rubel, Elisa Aguirre, Shehzad Ali
BACKGROUND: Feedback-informed treatment (FIT) involves using computerized routine outcome monitoring technology to alert therapists to cases that are not responding well to psychotherapy, prompting them to identify and resolve obstacles to improvement. In this study, we present the first health economic evaluation of FIT, compared to usual care, to enable decision makers to judge whether this approach represents a good investment for health systems. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial included 2233 patients clustered within 77 therapists who were randomly assigned to a FIT group (n = 1176) or a usual care control group (n = 1057)...
April 24, 2021: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Manqiong Yuan, Fengzhi Qin, Zi Zhou, Ya Fang
BACKGROUND: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) may have long-lasting effects on late life health, probably through life-course mediators. However, whether such effects still exist when these mediators have been appropriately controlled is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the controlled direct effect of ACEs on Activities of Daily Life (ADL) disability in middle-aged people and examine the gender-difference of this effect. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons aged 45+ years...
May 1, 2021: Child Abuse & Neglect
Meishan Ai, Timothy P Morris, Cora Ordway, Elizabeth Quinoñez, Frank D'Agostino, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Charles H Hillman, Dominika M Pindus, Edward McAuley, Nancy Mayo, Adrián Noriega de la Colina, Siobhan Phillips, Arthur F Kramer, Maiya Geddes
Sedentary behavior increases the risk for multiple chronic diseases, early mortality, and accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior among older adults are needed to improve health outcomes and reduce the burden on healthcare systems. We designed a randomized controlled trial that uses a self-affirmation manipulation and gain-framed health messaging to effectively reduce sedentary behavior in older adults. This message-based intervention lasts 6 weeks, recruiting 80 healthy but sedentary older adults from the community, between the ages of 60 and 95 years...
May 1, 2021: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Yuna Li, Tongpeng Chu, Kaili Che, Fanghui Dong, Yinghong Shi, Heng Ma, Feng Zhao, Ning Mao, Haizhu Xie
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious postpartum mental health problem worldwide. However, the cortical structural alterations in patients with PPD remain unclear. This study investigated the cortical structural alterations of PPD patients through multidimensional structural patterns and their potential correlations with clinical severity. METHODS: High-resolution 3D T1 structural images were acquired from 21 drug-naive patients with PPD and 18 healthy postpartum women matched for age, educational level, and body mass index...
May 1, 2021: Behavioural Brain Research
Gabriel Chamie, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Alex Ndyabakira, Kara Marson, Carol S Camlin, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Harsha Thirumurthy
BACKGROUND: Frequent retesting for HIV among persons at increased risk of HIV infection is critical to early HIV diagnosis of persons and delivery of combination HIV prevention services. There are few evidence-based interventions for promoting frequent retesting for HIV. We sought to determine the effectiveness of financial incentives and deposit contracts in promoting quarterly HIV retesting among adults at increased risk of HIV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In peri-urban Ugandan communities from October to December 2018, we randomized HIV-negative adults with self-reported risk to 1 of 3 strategies to promote HIV retesting: (1) no incentive; (2) cash incentives (US$7) for retesting at 3 and 6 months (total US$14); or (3) deposit contracts: participants could voluntarily deposit US$6 at baseline and at 3 months that would be returned with interest (total US$7) upon retesting at 3 and 6 months (total US$14) or lost if participants failed to retest...
May 4, 2021: PLoS Medicine
Carmen Simone Grilo Diniz, Ana Carolina Arruda Franzon, Beatriz Fioretti-Foschi, Denise Yoshie Niy, Livia Pedrilio, Edson Amaro, João Ricardo Sato
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, and in other low-and-middle-income countries, the excess of interventions in childbirth has been associated with an increase in preterm and early term births, contributing to stagnant morbidity and mortality of mothers and babies. The fact that women often report a negative experience in vaginal childbirth, with physical pain and feelings of unsafety, neglect or abuse, may explain the high acceptability of elective cesarean sections. The recognition of the information needs and of the right to informed choice in childbirth can contribute to change this reality...
February 24, 2021: JMIR Research Protocols
Robert A Bell, Meng Chen, Laramie D Taylor
Research suggests that readers identify more with a competent protagonist who acts to prevent diabetes than with a less competent protagonist whose inaction leads to disease. We sought a better understanding of the mediators of this protagonist competence effect. Middle-aged women (45-55) read a prevention narrative depicting a protagonist at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) who prevents diabetes through lifestyle changes or an affliction narrative in which protagonist inaction leads to disease ( N = 315). The prevention narrative elicited more identification than the affliction narrative for participants at low risk of T2D, but less identification for higher risk participants...
May 4, 2021: Journal of Health Communication
Theresa Anasti
Human service non-profit organisations (HSNPs) looking to improve the representation of clients in the work of their organisation may decide to hire people with lived experience as peer providers. This paper looks at how HSNPs that provide services to sex workers make decisions about hiring those with lived experience of sex work as staff. To address the issue, the following questions were asked: 1) how do HSNPs make the decision to hire sex workers as staff members; and 2) if hired, how are individuals actually involved in the organisation? The study aimed to answer these questions using open-ended interviews with 64 staff in HSNPs in the US Midwest that indirectly or directly provide services to sex workers...
May 4, 2021: Culture, Health & Sexuality
William J Leggio, Tom Grawey, Joshua Stilley, Maia Dorsett
EMS curricula have historically focused on a technical scope of practice designed to meet the traditional out-of-hospital "emergency response" function during 9-1-1 response and transport. However, EMS has served an increasingly broad clinical role to meet the health care and public health needs of communities, a role solidified by the events of 2020, from the COVID-19 pandemic to civil unrest in response to systemic inequities. The requisite knowledge, awareness, and competencies to adequately prepare EMS clinicians to meet these dynamic roles remains absent from the technician-focused EMS curricula...
May 4, 2021: Prehospital Emergency Care
Carla Sílvia Fernandes, Bruno Magalhães, Filipe Goncalves, Paula Cristina Nogueira, Célia Santos
Objective: The use of gamification can promote health-related behavior. This article is the first attempt to provide a historical overview of the use of games in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: We conducted a scoping review to map and characterize the games used for the person undergoing hip arthroplasty. To perform this review, the respective descriptors were identified using search syntax appropriate to each of the databases: MEDLINE_ (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), CINAHL_ (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), SPORTDiscus, in the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, SCOPUS, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and PEDRo (Physiotherapy Evidence Database)...
May 4, 2021: Games for Health
Aniek Wols, Tom Hollenstein, Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Isabela Granic
Objective: Applied games are considered a promising approach to deliver mental health interventions. Nonspecific factors such as expectations and motivation may be crucial to optimize effectiveness yet have not been examined so far. The current study examined the effect of expectations for improvement on (1) experienced fun and positive affect, and (2) in-game play behaviors while playing MindLight, an applied game shown to reduce anxiety. The secondary aim was to examine the moderating role of symptom severity and motivation to change...
May 3, 2021: Games for Health
Sarah E Barlow, Anna Lorenzi, Aleksei Reid, Rong Huang, Joshua S Yudkin, Sarah E Messiah
Background: Sustained implementation of moderate to high-intensity interventions to treat childhood obesity meets many barriers. This report uses the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Replicating Effective Programs framework to describe and evaluate the implementation of a 5-year health care-community collaborative program. Methods: Interviews with program leadership provided information on setting, organizational culture, program creation and adaptation, and costs. Administrative data were used for number of sessions and their characteristics; referrals; and 2018-2019 participant enrollment, attendance, completion numbers, and completer outcomes...
May 3, 2021: Childhood Obesity
Michael A Manzano, David R Strong, D Eastern Kang Sim, Kyung E Rhee, Kerri N Boutelle
BACKGROUND: Obesity in youth is a significant public health concern, with eating behaviors being a major contributor. The Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to evaluate the appetitive characteristics of young children, across a myriad of eating domains. Despite the breadth of its use, the psychometric properties of the measure in children with overweight/obesity (OW/OB), particularly treatment seeking youth, remains largely unexplored. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the CEBQ were examined in a sample of school age children (8-12) with OW/OB...
May 4, 2021: Pediatric Obesity
Shuhua Sun, Stephen X Zhang, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Mehdi Jahanshahi
There is little research examining how individuals' daily experience during a pandemic affects their daily mental health status and work performance. To address this knowledge gap, we invoke conservation of resources (COR) theory to propose a resource-based framework explaining how individuals' daily COVID-19 intrusive experience affects their daily mental health status (depression and anxiety) and work performance via its effect on daily psychosocial resource loss and gain; We further examine whether their supervisors' daily visionary leadership behavior alleviates the adverse impacts of daily COVID-19 intrusive experience...
May 4, 2021: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
T Coccini, U De Simone, D Lonati, G Scaravaggi, M Marti, C A Locatelli
Considering the consequences on human health, in general population and workplace, associated with the use of new psychoactive substances and their continuous placing on the market, novel in vitro models for neurotoxicology research, applying human-derived CNS cells, may provide a means to understand the mechanistic basis of molecular and cellular alterations in brain. Cytotoxic effects of MAM-2201, a potent-naphthoyl indole derivative-synthetic cannabinoid, have been evaluated applying a panel of human cell-based models of neurons and astrocytes, testing different concentrations (1-30 µM) and exposure times (3-24-48 h)...
May 4, 2021: Neurotoxicity Research
Mehmet Salih Yıldırım, Metin Yıldız, Güray Okyar
This research was conducted to examine the relationship between family planning attitudes, religious orientation, and fatalistic tendency levels of individuals aged 15-49 in Igdir, Turkey. This descriptive-correlational research was conducted on individuals living in Igdir between March-July 2020. The sample size of our study is 384 participants. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between family planning attitude scale scores and religious orientation scale behavior subscale scores, fatalistic tendency scale total scores and all subscale scores, age, and number of children (p < 0...
May 4, 2021: Journal of Religion and Health
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