Peter Hillmen, Jeff Szer, Ilene Weitz, Alexander Röth, Britta Höchsmann, Jens Panse, Kensuke Usuki, Morag Griffin, Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, Carlos de Castro, Hisakazu Nishimori, Lisa Tan, Mohamed Hamdani, Pascal Deschatelets, Cedric Francois, Federico Grossi, Temitayo Ajayi, Antonio Risitano, Régis Peffault de la Tour
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease characterized by chronic complement-mediated hemolysis. C5 inhibition controls intravascular hemolysis in untreated PNH but cannot address extravascular hemolysis. Pegcetacoplan, a pegylated peptide targeting proximal complement protein C3, potentially inhibits both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3 open-label, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of pegcetacoplan as compared with eculizumab in adults with PNH and hemoglobin levels lower than 10...
March 18, 2021: New England Journal of Medicine
Si-Ri Guleng, Ri-Han Wu, Xiao-Bin Guo
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a serious complication in the medical practice of numerous drugs. Vancomycin is frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of suspected or identified methicillin-resistant positive infections. Several cases with vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia (VIT) have been reported. However, these have rarely been extensively reviewed. The present report describes a case of VIT in endocarditis, and reviews all VIT cases reported in the literature. CASE SUMMARY: A 26-year-old male diagnosed with infective endocarditis was admitted...
March 6, 2021: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Stefan Norrenbrock, Thomas H Müller, Christiane Mayer, Andrea Doescher
BACKGROUND: Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a rare but potentially severe postnatal complication caused by maternal allo-antibodies against platelet antigens of the newborn. In relatively few cases, immunisation against low-frequency antigens has been reported. METHODS: Platelet antigens of a newborn with severe thrombocytopenia and his family members were investigated by serological and molecular biological methods. A real-time PCR assay was developed to reliably detect this mutation in pools of DNA from up to seven individuals...
March 16, 2021: Transfusion Medicine
Geeta S Narayanan, M S Ganesh, Rishabh Kumar
Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare the treatment response of cervical carcinoma patients infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and HPV 18 who are treated with chemoradiation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six biopsy-proven cervical cancer patients, suitable for curative treatment with definitive radio-chemotherapy with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2-IIIB, were included in this prospective study. HPV testing was done using TRUPCR® HPV 16 and 18 real-time polymerase chain reaction kit...
January 2021: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Norbert Lubenow, Marja-Kaisa Auvinen
Blood transfusions are still associated with risk for adverse events despite a long tradition for improvement of safety. The incidence of reactions is reported to be about 78/100 000 transfusions with 25 % of these being serious. Some types of reactions are rare and may thus be unrecognised.  Transfusion reactions are grouped into non-infectious acute reactions (such as acute haemolytic reactions due to ABO incompatibility or Transfusion Related Circulatory Overload (TACO)) and delayed reactions. Infectious complications in transfusion medicine include emerging viruses like Hepatitis E and West Nile-Virus, not routinely tested...
March 15, 2021: Läkartidningen
Matthew S Karafin, Joanne L Becker, Mary Berg, Robert A DeSimone, Nicole L Draper, Jay Hudgins, Ryan A Metcalf, Monica B Pagano, Yara A Park, Susan N Rossmann, Joseph Schwartz, Rhona Souers, Lamont Thomas, Lynne Uhl, Glenn E Ramsey
CONTEXT.—: ABO mistransfusions are rare and potentially fatal events. Protocols are required by regulatory agencies to minimize this risk to patients, but how these are applied in the context of massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) is not specifically defined. OBJECTIVE.—: To evaluate the approaches used by transfusion services for switching from universally compatible to patient ABO type-specific blood components during massive hemorrhage. DESIGN...
March 15, 2021: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Chunmei Xie, Shan Chen, Likun Zhang, Xiangpeng He, Yi Ma, Haiping Wu, Bingjie Zou, Guohua Zhou
Detection of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. However, traditional PCR-based pathogen nucleic acid detection methods require relatively high experimental facilities and are difficult to apply in areas with limited resources. In this study, a self-driven microfluidic chip was designed to carry out multiplex detection of HBV, HCV and HIV by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)...
March 13, 2021: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Juliana Omena, Cíntia Curioni, Cláudia Dos Santos Cople-Rodrigues, Marta Citelli
There has been no established food and nutrition guidance for diseases characterized by the presence of iron overload (IOL) yet. Hepcidin is a hormone that diminishes iron bioavailability. Its levels increase in response to increased iron stores. Hence, IOL conditions could hypothetically trigger a self-regulatory mechanism for the reduction of the intestinal absorption of iron. In addition, some food substances may modulate intestinal iron absorption and may be useful in the dietary management of patients with IOL...
March 12, 2021: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Fabrice Cognasse, Kathryn Hally, Sebastien Fauteux-Daniel, Marie-Ange Eyraud, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Jocelyne Fagan, Patrick Mismetti, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Sandrine Laradi, Olivier Garraud, Peter Larsen
Aside from their canonical role in hemostasis, it is increasingly recognized that platelets have inflammatory functions and can regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. The main topic this review aims to cover is the proinflammatory effects and side effects of platelet transfusion. Platelets prepared for transfusion are subject to stress injury upon collection, preparation, and storage. With these types of stress, they undergo morphologic, metabolic, and functional modulations which are likely to induce platelet activation and the release of biological response modifiers (BRMs)...
March 12, 2021: Hämostaseologie
Hye-Jung Kim, Harvey Cantor
Landsteiner's definition of human blood groups and the genetic rules that govern blood transfusion represents a milestone in human genetics and a historic event in public health. His research into the specificity of serological reactions, although less well known, has had a critical influence on the development of contemporary views on immune recognition, clonal selection, and immunological self-tolerance.
April 5, 2021: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Hua-Su Zhu, Dong Li, Cong Li, Jin-Xian Huang, Shan-Shan Chen, Lan-Bo Li, Qing Shi, Xiu-Li Ju
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness (MS) is a disease that occurs during unbalanced movement, characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic nervous system activation. Current clinical treatments for MS are limited. Recent evidence indicates that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines increase during MS and are associated with an inner ear immune imbalance. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to exert strong immuno-suppressive effects. AIM: To explore whether umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) can prevent the occurrence of MS, and the underlying mechanism regulated by MSCs in a mouse model of MS...
February 26, 2021: World Journal of Stem Cells
Sudipta Sekhar Das, Subrata Sen, R U Zaman, Rathindra Nath Biswas
The increases in major surgeries, transplantations and speciality clinics have significantly increased the utilization of platelet concentrates including single donor platelets (SDP). The advantages of SDP or apheresis platelet have been discussed elaborately by previous authors as compared to random donor platelets. Here we share our experiences of plateletpheresis procedures using the modern apheresis machines with regards to product quality and donor safety. This study included 3016 procedures of plateletpheresis (1397 on Amicus and 1619 on Trima accel cell separators) on eligible donors using recommended apheresis kits...
January 2021: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Shahid M Baba, Arshad A Pandith, Zafar A Shah, Sajad A Geelani, Mohammad Muzaffar Mir, Javid Rasool Bhat, Gul Mohammad Bhat
Inherited polymorphic sequence variations in drug transport genes like ABCB1 impact a portion of patients with hematologic malignancies that show intrinsic or acquire resistance to treatment. Keeping in view inter-individual sensitivities for such drugs, we through this case-control study tested whether ABCB1 C3435T and G2677T polymorphisms have any influence on the risk and treatment response in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Genotyping for ABCB1 polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 100 CML and 80 B-ALL patients along with 100 age and gender matched healthy controls...
January 2021: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Meshari Alabdullatif, Imad Eldin Osman, Mai Alrasheed, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos, Manal Alyousef, Sahar Althawadi, Hind Alhumiadan
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) is the predominant cause of infectious transfusion reactions. The Pathogen Inactivation Mirasol system was implemented at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital (Saudi Arabia) to reduce the risk of transfusing contaminated PCs. This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of Mirasol against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a pathogen associated with transfusion reactions, in whole blood-derived PCs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Whole blood (WB) units inoculated with one of six K...
March 9, 2021: Transfusion
Clare A Manderson, Heather McLiesh, Rico F Tabor, Gil Garnier
Detection of blood group antibodies is a crucial step for blood transfusion recipients and pregnant women to prevent potentially fatal haemolytic reactions. Due to the short, non-bridging structure of such antibodies (IgG), the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) is required, complete with a thermal incubation phase. This incubation step, where the sample must be heated to 37 °C for several minutes, has hitherto prevented chip- and paper-diagnostics from performing a complete IAT and instead required the IAT to be performed away from the patient beside in a laboratory setting with specialist equipment - significantly delaying blood transfusions...
March 8, 2021: Analyst
Hakan Keski
We aimed to evaluate the predictive ability of hematological and inflammatory parameters for mortality in COVID-19 patients. This was a retrospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients over 18 years old between March 2020 and May 2020. Patients were diagnosed to have COVID-19 based either on chest computed tomography findings or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test. Age, gender, chronic medical conditions, and laboratory values including hemogram parameters (white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and the international normalized ratio were recorded...
February 27, 2021: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Marlene C Gerner, Andrea Bileck, Lukas Janker, Liesa S Ziegler, Thomas Öhlinger, Pierre Raeven, Ernst W Müllner, Ulrich Salzer, Christopher Gerner, Klaus G Schmetterer, David M Baron
Numerous observations indicate that red blood cells (RBCs) affect T-cell activation and proliferation. We have studied effects of packed RBCs (PRBCs) on T-cell-receptor (TCR) signaling and the molecular mechanisms whereby (P)RBCs modulate T-cell activation. In line with previous reports, PRBCs attenuated the expression of T-cell activation markers CD25 and CD69 upon co-stimulation via CD3/CD28. In addition, T-cell proliferation and cytokine expression were markedly reduced when T-cells were stimulated in presence of PRBCs...
March 4, 2021: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ying-Hao Wen, Wei-Tzu Lin, Wei-Ting Wang, Ding-Ping Chen
Transfusion reactions are mainly induced by the interaction of an antigen and antibody. However, transfusion reactions still occur with the implementing of crossmatching and usage of pre-storage leukoreduced blood products. The roles of CD28 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in transfusion reaction have been shown, and subjects with certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CD28 or CTLA4 gene had a significantly higher risk of transfusion reactions. In total, 40 patients with transfusion reactions after receiving pre-storage leukoreduced blood products were enrolled in this study...
February 20, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Ahlam Nasser, Ally Hussein, Clara Chamba, Mbonea Yonazi, Rosemary Mushi, Anna Schuh, Lucio Luzzatto
Imatinib is the mainstay of treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in Tanzania. Monitoring molecular response to therapy by real-time polymerase chain reaction at defined milestones is necessary for early detection of treatment failure. However, this assay is not routinely performed in Tanzania; therefore, the depth of molecular response among patients with CML is not known. A total of 158 patients with previously diagnosed CML who received imatinib treatment were recruited from January 2019 and followed up through October 2020 at Ocean Road Cancer Institute...
March 9, 2021: Blood Advances
Pampee Young, Lauren Crowder, Whitney Steele, David Irving, Joanne Pink, Jose Mauro Kutner, Ana Paula Hitomi Yokoyama, Nancy Van Buren, Nicholas William O'Sullivan, Merlyn Sayers, Ramir Moreno Alcantara, Katja van den Hurk, Johanna Wiersum-Osselton, Beth Shaz
BACKGROUND: Severe blood donor adverse events are rare, but due to their rarity studying them can be difficult. To get an accurate estimate of their frequency and rate in the donor population it may be necessary to combine donation data across countries. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: International blood collection organizations (BCOs) provided data on rare/severe donor reactions as well as denominator information for their donor populations from 2015 to 2017. Donor reactions were classified using standardized definitions...
March 5, 2021: Transfusion
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