F Sertic, C Bermudez, J E Rame
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the outcomes following refractory cardiogenic shock (CS) requiring mechanical circulatory support and factors associated with successful and unsuccessful weaning from VA-ECMO. Based on the presented data, we will propose a weaning and bridging algorithm with the aim of facilitating this complex process. RECENT FINDINGS: Refractory CS requiring VA-ECMO support is associated with high early mortality...
October 24, 2020: Current Heart Failure Reports
Sridhar Chilimuri, Haozhe Sun, Ahmed Alemam, Kyoung-Sil Kang, Peter Lao, Nikhitha Mantri, Lawrence Schiller, Myroslava Sharabun, Elona Shehi, Jairo Tejada, Alla Yugay, Suresh Kumar Nayudu
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated cytokine activation can lead to a rapid progression into respiratory failure, shock and multiorgan failure. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that likely contributes to the pathogenesis of cytokine release syndrome. It is hypothesized that modulating IL-6 levels or its effects with tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, may alter the course of disease...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Vidisha Raje, Katelyn W Ahern, Brittany A Martinez, Nancy L Howell, Vici Oenarto, Mitchell E Granade, Jae Woo Kim, Smanla Tundup, Katharina Bottermann, Axel Gödecke, Susanna R Keller, Alexandra Kadl, Michelle L Bland, Thurl E Harris
Stress hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are evolutionarily conserved metabolic adaptations to severe injury including major trauma, burns, or hemorrhagic shock (HS). In response to injury, the neuroendocrine system increases secretion of counterregulatory hormones that promote rapid mobilization of nutrient stores, impair insulin action, and ultimately cause hyperglycemia, a condition known to impair recovery from injury in the clinical setting. We investigated the contributions of adipocyte lipolysis to the metabolic response to acute stress...
October 23, 2020: Scientific Reports
Samantha Haraszti, Selin Sendil, Nichole Jensen
BACKGROUND Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare exanthem characterized by the abrupt onset of numerous small, non-follicular, sterile pustules arising on an erythematous base. AGEP is often associated with medications; however, it has also been connected to various viral infections including cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and Epstein-Barr virus. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a variety of skin findings, including erythematous or patchy rash, urticaria, hives, blisters, petechiae, livedo reticularis, and even AGEP in a patient undergoing treatment with hydroxychloroquine...
October 24, 2020: American Journal of Case Reports
Kevin C Hoy, Misty M Strain, Joel D Turtle, Kuan H Lee, J Russell Huie, John J Hartman, Megan M Tarbet, Mark L Harlow, David S K Magnuson, James W Grau
Neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to environmental relations and can bring about a behavioral modification without input from the brain. For example, rats that have undergone a thoracic (T2) transection can learn to maintain a hind leg in a flexed position to minimize exposure to a noxious electrical stimulation (shock). Inactivating neurons within the spinal cord with lidocaine, or cutting communication between the spinal cord and the periphery (sciatic transection), eliminates the capacity to learn, which implies that it depends upon spinal neurons...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Kenshiro Matsuda, Peter D Arkwright, Yasuo Mori, Masa-Aki Oikawa, Ryo Muko, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
Extensive activation of mast cells is the major switch that triggers systemic anaphylaxis, resulting in the subsequent release of anaphylactic mediators into circulation. We previously demonstrated that rapid changes in oxygen tension lead to mast cell degranulation, and the released tryptase triggers retinal angiogenesis in a murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model. However, whether a rapid shift from hyperoxia to normoxia (relative hypoxic stress) is a risk factor for systemic anaphylaxis remains unknown...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Immunology
S Schuster, E Heuten, A Velic, J Admard, M Synofzik, S Ossowski, B Macek, S Hauser, L Schöls
C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) encoded by the gene STUB1 is a co-chaperone and E3 ligase that acts as a key regulator of cellular protein homeostasis. Mutations in STUB1 cause autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 16 (SCAR16) with widespread neurodegeneration manifesting as spastic-ataxic gait disorder, dementia and epilepsy. CHIP-/- mice display severe cerebellar atrophy, show high perinatal lethality and impaired heat stress tolerance. To decipher the pathomechanism underlying SCAR16, we investigated the heat shock response (HSR) in primary fibroblasts of three SCAR16 patients...
October 12, 2020: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Chi-Wei Chen, Yen-Ko Lin, Yung-Sung Yeh, Chao-Wen Chen, Tzu-Yin Lin, Sheng-Huang Chang
BACKGROUND: Electrical injuries are common in daily life. The severity of electrical injury depends on the electric current, and assessing electrical damage is difficult because there appears to be no correlation between skin burns and visceral injury. We report a case of bilateral lung injury with pulmonary hemorrhage after exposure to low-voltage electricity. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old man was shocked by a low-voltage (110 V) electric current while at work. He had temporary loss of consciousness and twitching in the extremities, but soon regained consciousness and spontaneously stopped twitching...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Romain Jouffroy, Teddy Léguillier, Basile Gilbert, Jean Pierre Tourtier, Emmanuel Bloch-Laine, Patrick Ecollan, Vincent Bounes, Josiane Boularan, Papa Gueye-Ngalgou, Valérie Nivet-Antoine, Jean-Louis Beaudeux, Benoit Vivien
BACKGROUND: Assessment of disease severity in patients with septic shock (SS) is crucial in determining optimal level of care. In both pre- and in-hospital settings, blood lactate measurement is broadly used in combination with the clinical evaluation of patients as the clinical picture alone is not sufficient for assessing disease severity and outcomes. METHODS: From 15th April 2017 to 15th April 2019, patients with SS requiring prehospital mobile Intensive Care Unit intervention (mICU) were prospectively included in this observational study...
October 17, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chanyuan Jin, Ting Shuai, Zhihui Tang
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein B7 (HSPB7), which belongs to small heat shock protein family, has been reported to be involved in diverse biological processes and diseases. However, whether HSPB7 regulates osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) remains unexplored. METHODS: The expression level of HSPB7 during the osteogenesis of hASCs was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis...
October 23, 2020: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lili Liu, Rong Zhang, Xiaowen Wang, Hua Zhu, Zhaohui Tian
BACKGROUND: Tropical stenothermal fish exhibit special tolerance and response to cold stress. However current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms response to cold stress in aquatic ectotherms is largely drawn from eurythermal or extreme stenothermal species. The tiger barb Puntius tetrazona is a tropical stenothermal fish, with great popularity in aquarium trade and research. RESULTS: To investigate the response mechanism of P. tetrazona to low temperature, fish were exposed to increasing levels of acute cold stress...
October 23, 2020: BMC Genomics
Alexandre Danilovic, Fabio Torricelli, Giovanni Scala Marchini, Carlos Batagello, Fabio Carvalho Vicentini, Olivier Traxer, Miguel Srougi, William Carlos Nahas, Eduardo Mazzucchi
BACKGROUND: Despite technology incorporation to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), residual stone fragments (RSF) may still persist after PCNL and need to be addressed to avoid re-growth or ureteral obstruction. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating patients with residual stone fragments after a previous standard PCNL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult patients with RSF after a standard PCNL submitted to RIRS or SWL in our Institution from January 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively studied...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Endourology
Ronald Enrique Morales-Vargas, Dorothée Missé, Irwin F Chavez, Pattamaporn Kittayapong
Dynamics of dengue serotype 2 virus isolated from patients with different disease severity, namely flu-like classic dengue fever (DF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were studied in its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti . We compared isolate infectivity and vector competence (VC) among thirty two A. aegypti -viral isolate pairs. Mosquito populations from high dengue incidence area exhibited overall greater VC than those from low dengue incidence area at 58.1% and 52.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the overall infection rates for the isolates ThNR2/772 (DF, 62...
October 21, 2020: Pathogens
Wanglin Liu, Huaiwu He, Can Ince, Yun Long
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on sublingual microcirculation in critically ill patients. METHODS: Systematic strategy was conducted to search studies that measured sublingual microcirculation before and after transfusion in critically ill patients. This review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Scoping Review Extension. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 114 articles...
October 22, 2020: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Pranav Mahajan, Bhagwan Dass, Nila Radhakrishnan, Peter A McCullough
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected >188 countries, involved >24 million people, and caused >840,000 deaths. COVID-19, in its severe form, presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, and multiorgan failure. Thrombotic microangiopathy of the lungs and kidneys has been observed in these patients. Elevated D-dimer levels have been observed in people with serious COVID-19 illness, and this could be helpful in guiding treatment with anticoagulation in these patients...
October 22, 2020: Cardiorenal Medicine
Paul W Andrews, Marta M Maslej, J Anderson Thomson, Steven D Hollon
Most clinicians view depression as a painful disorder in which motivation to pursue adaptive goals is lacking and cognition is impaired. An alternative hypothesis-grounded in a common evolutionary approach-suggests that depression is inherently motivational and evolved to motivate avoidant learning of harmful situations. Testing these hypotheses requires a clear definition of "disorder". Wakefield's harmful dysfunction evolution-based definition proposes that all unambiguous cases of disorder involve a malfunctioning adaptation...
October 3, 2020: Clinical Psychology Review
Min Joo Choi, Ohbin Kwon
This study characterizes the temporal and spectral property of the mechanical impulsive waves produced by a clinical ballistic shock wave therapy device. The impulsive waves were generated by a projectile impacting a metallic shock wave transmitter, and were measured using a laser vibrometer that detects vibrations on the front surface of the shock wave transmitter. The shock wave transmitter considered in the measurement has a circular flat surface tip with a diameter of 15 mm. The results showed that the measured impulsive wave was resonated at 93...
September 28, 2020: Ultrasonics
Patricia A Vu, Eileen H McNamara, Jiong Liu, Laura B Tucker, Amanda H Fu, Joseph T McCabe
The frontal lobes are among the most vulnerable sites in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). In the current study, a balanced 2 x 2 x 2 design (n = 18 mice/group), female and male C57Bl/6J mice received repeated bilateral frontal concussive brain injury (frCBI) and underwent fear conditioning (FC) to assess how injured mice respond to adverse conditions. Shocks received during FC impacted behavior on all subsequent tests except the tail suspension test. FC resulted in more freezing behavior in all mice that received foot shocks when evaluated in subsequent context and cue tests and induced hypoactivity in the open field (OF) and elevated zero maze (EZM)...
October 19, 2020: Brain Research
Mirza Baig, Khaled Nada, Aesha Aboueisha, Shawn Nishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2020: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ayokunmi Omolola Oyeleye, Siti Faridah Mohd Yusoff, Izzah Nadiah Abd Rahim, Adam Thean Chor Leow, Noor Baity Saidi, Yahaya M Normi
Conventional refolding methods are associated with low yields due to misfolding and high aggregation rates or very dilute proteins. In this study, we describe the optimization of the conventional methods of reverse dilution and affinity chromatography for obtaining high yields of a cysteine rich recombinant glycoside hydrolase family 19 chitinase from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037 (SgChiC). SgChiC is a potential biocontrol agent and a reference enzyme in the study and development of chitinases for various applications...
2020: PloS One
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