Andrea M Skantar, Zafar A Handoo, Mihail R Kantor, Lynn K Carta, Jamal Faghihi, Virginia Ferris
In the summer of 2016, a field of corn ( Zea mays ) in Spencer County, Indiana was observed with heavily stunted plants, and from the affected roots a large number of cysts were recovered. Soil samples were submitted to one of us (JF), who extracted the nematode cysts and sent them to the USDA-ARS, Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL), Beltsville, MD for morphological and molecular identification. Cysts and the recovered second-stage juveniles (J2) that were examined morphologically conformed to the measurements of Vittatidera zeaphila , the goose cyst nematode originally described from Tennessee, USA in 2010...
2020: Journal of Nematology
Ilija Djordjevic, Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Anton Sabashnikov, Antje-Christin Deppe, Elmar Kuhn, Julia Merkle, Carolyn Weber, Borko Ivanov, Ali Ghodsizad, Christian Rustenbach, Christoph Adler, Parwis Rahmanian, Navid Mader, Ferdinand Kuhn-Regnier, Mohamed Zeriouh, Thorsten Wahlers
OBJECTIVES: Central or peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (va ECMO) is widely used in postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCS). Available data suggest controversial results for both types. Our aim was to investigate PCS patients treated with either peripheral (pECMO) or central ECMO (cECMO) concerning their outcome. METHODS: Between April 2006 and October 2016, 156 consecutive patients with va ECMO therapy due to PCS were identified and included in this retrospective analysis...
March 29, 2020: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Changrui Wang, Ying Li, Yongming Sun
To enrich an acid-tolerant methanogenic culture used as bioaugmented seed under acidic conditions, we operated four semicontinuous digesters under various conditions of pH decline for producing methane at pH 5.0. 16S rRNA amplification was performed to unravel the association between declining pH and microbiome succession. The findings demonstrated that a gradual decrease of pH, at a step size of 0.5, and a prolonged run time at each pH could achieve a suitable microbial culture, in which acetoclastic Methanothrix and hydrogenotrophic Methanolinea represented the dominant methanogens...
March 24, 2020: ACS Omega
Malena Lis Mul Fedele, Ignacio Aiello, Carlos Sebastián Caldart, Diego Andrés Golombek, Luciano Marpegan, Natalia Paladino
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, and characterized by uncontrolled inflammation together with immunosuppression, impaired innate immune functions of phagocytes and complement activation. Septic patients develop fever or hypothermia, being the last one characteristic of severe cases. Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α- induced septic shock in mice is dependent on the time of administration. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the circadian response to high doses of LPS...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Wei-Chen Lin, Ching Chang, Meng-Cheng Ko, Shu-Min Lin
Acute varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is a common condition in children, which is considered a mild, self-limited disease with diffuse skin vesicular rash. However, disseminated VZV infection with multiple organ involvement can occur in immunocompromised patients with impaired T cell immunity including solid or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, receiving immunosuppressive therapy, leukemia, lymphoma, and HIV infection. Prompt antiviral therapy is mandatory in those immunocompromised persons...
2020: IDCases
Yiliang Wang, Lianzhou Huang, Yun Wang, Weisheng Luo, Feng Li, Ji Xiao, Shurong Qin, Zhaoyang Wang, Xiaowei Song, Yuan Wang, Fujun Jin, Yifei Wang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection exhibited high heterogeneity at individual cells level, including the different gene expression patterns and varying amounts of progeny virus. However, the underlying mechanism of such variability remains obscure. The importance of host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in virus infection had been recognized, while the contribution of lncRNAs to the heterogeneous infection remains unknown. Herein, a prior single-cell RNA sequencing data using HSV-1 reporter strain expressing ICP4-YFP was re-analyzed to obtain the differentially expressed lncRNA between the successfully initiated viral gene expression (ICP4-YFP+ ) cells and the aborted infection cells (ICP4-YFP- )...
2020: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Brett F Bathel, Joshua M Weisberger, Gregory C Herring, Rudolph A King, Stephen B Jones, Richard E Kennedy, Stuart J Laurence
A Nomarski polarizing prism has been used in conjunction with a focused laser differential interferometer to measure the phase velocity of a density disturbance at sampling frequencies ≥10 M H z . Use of this prism enables the simultaneous measurement of density disturbances at two closely spaced points that can be arbitrarily oriented about the instrument's optical axis. The orientation is prescribed by rotating the prism about this axis. Since all four beams (one beam pair at each measurement point) propagate parallel to one another within the test volume, any bias imparted by density fluctuations away from the measurement plane on the disturbance phase velocity is minimized...
January 10, 2020: Applied Optics
Ahmad Ajdidi, Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Aspergillus fumigatus is a serious cause of disease in immune-deficient patients and in those with pulmonary malfunction (e.g., cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma). Atorvastatin is a member of the statin drug family, which are the main therapeutic agents used to decrease high serum cholesterol levels by inhibiting (HMG-CoA) reductase enzyme. The aim of the work presented here was to analyse the antifungal activity of atorvastatin and assess its effect on the virulence of A. fumigatus . Atorvastatin demonstrated strong antifungal activity and reduced the growth and viability of A...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Fanzhi Kong, Yaru Xu, Wei Ran, Baishuang Yin, Li Feng, Dongbo Sun
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious, intestinal infectious disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PEDV as an emerging and re-emerging epizootic virus of swine causes substantial economic losses to the pig industry in China and other countries. In China, the occurrence of PED shows significant seasonal variations, usually outbreak during the winter season. The epidemic characteristics of PED may be highly correlated with the changes of ambient temperature. However, molecular mechanism on the seasonal occurrence of PED still remains unclear...
March 26, 2020: Pathogens
Andrew N Rosenbaum, John K Bohman, Kent H Rehfeldt, John M Stulak, Richard C Daly, Allan M Klompas, Atta Behfar, Suraj M Yalamuri
Utilization of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is expanding, but dual VA-ECMO circuits to treat cardiogenic shock with refractory hypoxemia is unreported. We describe the case of combined cardiogenic and distributive shock due to necrotizing pulmonary blastomycosis. After initial central VA-ECMO cannulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with increasing shunt resulted in significant central hypoxemia due to progressive ventilation-perfusion mismatch. An additional circuit provided complete oxygenation of the high circulating volume...
April 2020: A&A Practice
Colleen M McFaul, Stefan Lombaard, Vivek Arora, William C Van Cleve, G Alec Rooke, Jordan M Prutkin
We present the case of a patient with a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) in situ. Device interrogation and reprogramming were unsuccessful due to a software mismatch between the device and programmer. The device manufacturer recommended magnet application to suspend antitachycardia therapy. Despite using this strategy, the S-ICD discharged multiple times. The S-ICD has unique perioperative considerations for the anesthesiologist. This case provides an example of the complexity of electrophysiologic devices in current use and the necessity of the anesthesia provider to stay up to date with evolving device management strategies...
April 2020: A&A Practice
Claire McDaniel, Christine Trankiem
CASE: Immunomodulatory injections are becoming common long-term treatments for neuromuscular diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), although they carry a risk of local site infection. We describe a case of a 57-year-old man who developed necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior thigh secondary to intramuscular (IM) injections of interferon-beta-1A for MS, ultimately developing septic shock and requiring serial debridements for source control. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of necrotizing fasciitis from chronic IM injections for MS and deserves particular attention because of the immunosuppressive nature of the injections...
January 2020: JBJS Case Connector
Jonathan Li
Achieving a cure for HIV remains a priority in HIV research. Two cases of 'sterilizing cure' have been observed-in Timothy Ray Brown and the "London" patient; both patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from donors homozygous for the CCR5-delta 32 deletion, which impairs function of an HIV coreceptor on host cells. Other strategies that have been evaluated for achieving sterilizing cure or functional cure--ie, sustained virologic remission in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-include: HSCT with wild-type CC chemokine receptor (CCR5); early ART to limit size of the HIV latent reservoir; shock and kill strategies using latency reversing agents and/or anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies; and gene therapy, including attempts to modify CCR5 genes, HIV proviruses in autologous host cells, or enhanced T cells...
January 2020: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
M Salim Uddin, C Emdad Haque, David Walker, Mahed-Ul-Islam Choudhury
In this study, we posit that in determining the underpinnings and attributes of community resilience to disaster-shocks, an analysis of actual and potential disaster victims' emic perspectives, that is the views of cultural insiders, on recovery processes and community resilience is crucial. We argue that community resilience must be framed within a deeper understanding of the subjective views of the actors themselves, their local knowledge and culture, and the historical context of the place or social formation...
March 25, 2020: Journal of Environmental Management
Clancy W Mullan, Joshua Newman, Merideth Geib, Matthew D Pichert, Areo Saffarzadeh, Alan Hartman, Brian Lima
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism is common, but the benefit of surgical embolectomy remains unclear. National trends in embolectomy were described to 2008. Recent data is lacking. We characterized the national trends in incidence, management, and outcomes of pulmonary embolisms, along with the population-level outcomes. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was queried by ICD-9 codes for pulmonary embolisms from 2011-2014. Saddle embolisms, shock, and interventions (systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and pulmonary embolectomy) were identified...
March 26, 2020: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
J Vaughn, R D Abdi, B E Gillespie, O Kerro Dego
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial mastitis pathogens with significant effects on animal and human health. Some studies showed that S. aureus strains that infect different host species are genetically distinct, although most strains can infect a wide range of host species. However, there are no clearly defined clonal patterns of S. aureus strains that are known to infect a specific host. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clonal diversity and virulence characteristics of S. aureus isolates from cases of bovine mastitis...
March 26, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hillary Spangler, Joseph Fisher
Meckel's diverticulum classically follows the rule of two's; presenting before the age of two years, found 2 ft. from the ileocecal valve, approximately 2 in. in length, and present in roughly 2% of the population. To our knowledge, there are few cases detailing emergent medicine management of hemorrhagic shock in patients with acute blood loss from a Meckel's diverticulum. We report the case of a 13-year-old male presenting in hemorrhagic shock secondary to an undifferentiated gastrointestinal bleed who was effectively resuscitated in a children's emergency department...
March 24, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Colin F Mackenzie, Eric A Elster, Mark W Bowyer, Nick Sevdalis
OBJECTIVE: Scope evidence on technical performance metrics for open emergency surgery. Identify surgical performance metrics and procedures used in trauma training courses. DESIGN: Structured literature searches of electronic databases were conducted from January 2010 to December 2019 to identify systematic reviews of tools to measure surgical skills employed in vascular or trauma surgery evaluation and training. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Faculty of Shock Trauma Anesthesiology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland and Implementation Science, King's College, London...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Surgical Education
Margarita González-Martín, Juan Alberto Corbera, Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
Coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CoPS) can exist as commensals in humans, companion and food-producing animals, but can cause severe or even lethal diseases. Exchange of these bacteria between humans and animals has been described. Special attention has been focused on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , but other CoPS can also represent an important threat. In addition to significant antimicrobial resistance, these bacteria may carry a plethora of virulence factors - molecules that allow bacteria to establish on or within a host and increase their ability to cause disease...
March 30, 2020: Veterinary Quarterly
Mojdeh S Heavner, Michael T McCurdy, Michael A Mazzeffi, Samuel M Galvagno, Kenichi A Tanaka, Jonathan H Chow
Vasodilatory shock is a serious medical condition that increases the morbidity and mortality of perioperative and critically ill patients. Norepinephrine is an established first-line therapy for this condition, but at high doses, it may lead to diminishing returns. Oftentimes, secondary noncatecholamine agents are required in those whose hypotension persists. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are both noncatecholamine agents available for the treatment of hypotension in vasodilatory shock. They have distinct modes of action and unique pharmacologic properties when compared to norepinephrine...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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