Masanari Oshima, Junji Fukuhara, Takanori Noto, Teppei Noguchi, Masao Murabayashi, Mamoru Ayusawa, Ichiro Morioka
We report the case of a 3-years-old boy who developed severe hyponatremia and unconsciousness during an episode of Kawasaki disease (KD). He was diagnosed with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), which has not previously been reported as a complication of KD. He was diagnosed with KD with fever and four clinical signs and received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the day after onset. Hyponatremia had been observed, and it worsened after IVIG. At first, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was suspected, but his hyponatremia did not improve by restriction of water intake...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Zhen Junhai, Yan Jing, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), which usually secondary to cerebral diseases, is characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. In clinical practice, it is quite difficult to distinguish CSWS from other hyponatremia syndrome, especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where the conditions of patients are more complicated. Nonetheless, it is crucial because treatments might be fundamentally different. CASE PRESENTATION: We discuss a case of patient who presented with refractory hyponatremia and hypovolemia after traumatic brain injury, finally was diagnosed with CSWS, and successfully treated with corticotropin...
June 2020: Journal of the National Medical Association
Sunitha Soundararajan, Stalin Viswanathan, Dheeraj Jain, Vijayalatchumy Krishnamurthy, Murugesan S Gayathri
Scrub typhus is a multisystem disease, and the respiratory system is commonly involved. Scrub typhus-related parkinsonism has been reported in three patients previously, and none of them underwent a lumbar puncture. Cerebral salt wasting is generally observed in vascular emergencies of the brain. We report a patient with acute parkinsonism and cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a combination of which has not been previously reported in scrub typhus. A 50-year-old farmer presented with an acute febrile illness of two weeks' duration and a one-day history of parkinsonism symptoms...
January 20, 2020: Curēus
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The topic of hyponatremia is in a state of flux. We review a new approach to diagnosis that is superior to previous methods. It simplifies identifying the causes of hyponatremia, the most important issue being the differentiation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW). We also report on the high prevalence of RSW without cerebral disease in the general wards of the hospital. RECENT FINDINGS: We applied our new approach to hyponatremia by utilizing sound pathophysiologic criteria in 62 hyponatremic patients...
March 2020: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Y Zheng, F P Zheng, H Li
Objective: The study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and causes of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients, and to analyze the relationship between hyponatremia and mortality. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out in 525 patients with hyponatremia, who were older than 14 years old and hospitalized in the Zhoushan Hospital from Jan. 2014 to Apr. 2014. Based on the severity of the hyponatremia the patients were divided into three groups: the mild, moderate and severe hyponatremia groups. The underlying causes of hyponatremia were analyzed, and the association between hyponatremia and mortality was explored using logistic regression analyses...
January 1, 2020: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Haiying Cui, Guangyu He, Shuo Yang, You Lv, Zongmiao Jiang, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
The differential diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with neurological disorders has been a perplexing clinical controversy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the characteristics and risk factors of patients with different types of neurological disorders complicated by hyponatremia (HN) and review various methods to distinguish SIADH from CSWS. Common neurological disorders with high rates of HN include subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injuries, stroke, cerebral tumors, central nervous system (CNS) infections, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which have their own characteristics...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
George Liamis, Fotios Barkas, Efstathia Megapanou, Eliza Christopoulou, Andromachi Makri, Konstantinos Makaritsis, George Ntaios, Moses Elisaf, Haralampos Milionis
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is frequent in acute stroke patients, and it is associated with worse outcomes and increased mortality. SUMMARY: Nonstroke-related causes of hyponatremia include patients' comorbidities and concomitant medications, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and thiazides. During hospitalization, "inappropriate" administration of hypotonic solutions, poor solute intake, infections, and other drugs, such as mannitol, could also lower sodium levels in patients with acute stroke...
2019: European Neurology
M Kächele, R van Erp, K Schmid, L Bettac, M Wagner, B Schröppel
This article reports the case of a 43-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with headache and paresthesia after a fall on the head while skiing. She had clinical signs of volume depletion and blood test showed severe hyponatremia. Cerebral imaging was unremarkable. The diagnosis of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) was made, which is defined by the presence of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in renal sodium transport in patients with normal adrenal and thyroid function...
January 2020: Der Internist
Moiz Ehtesham, Mawa Mohmand, Kuldeep Raj, Tooba Hussain, Fnu Kavita, Besham Kumar
Introduction Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance, which is readily observed in patients with ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke. It is mostly hypoosmolal and may be due to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum of hyponatremia in patients of both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Methods In this prospective observational study, all patients admitted with stroke were screened for serum sodium levels right after hospital admission...
August 2, 2019: Curēus
Piotr Skrzypczyk, Klaudia Tachasiuk, Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Krystyna Szymańska, Michał Brzewski, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS), characterized by natriuresis, polyuria, and hypovolemia, is a rare complication of central nervous system injury or disease. A CASE STUDY: 12-year-old girl was admitted with second attack of nephrotic syndrome (NS). On admission she presents with edema, blood pressure 110/60 mm Hg, proteinuria 145 mg/kg/24h, hypoalbuminemia (1.7 g/dL), GFR 94.4 mL/min/1.73m2, sodium 133 mmol/L. On 5th day the patient developed thrombosis of right subclavian and axillary vein and was treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (0...
August 30, 2019: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Gerdi Tuli, Patrizia Matarazzo, Luisa de Sanctis
Children with pituitary-suprasellar tumors are at high risk of developing sodium metabolism disorders since the tumoral mass itself or surgical and medical treatment can damage AVP release circuits. Additional risk factors are represented by the use of hypotonic fluids, the young age, total parenteral nutrition, and obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to tumor pathology. The most frequent hyponatremic disorders related to AVP in these patients are the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion and the cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome, while hypernatremic conditions include central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and adipsic CDI...
2020: Neuroendocrinology
Lea Orlik, Reto Venzin, Thomas Fehr, Karin Hohloch
BACKGROUND: Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare metabolic disorder with severe hyponatremia and volume depletion usually caused by brain injury like trauma, cerebral lesion, tumor or a cerebral hematoma. The renal function is normal with excretion of very high amounts of sodium in the urine. Diagnosis is made by excluding other reasons for hyponatremia, mainly the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency room with pain in the upper abdomen and visual disturbance two weeks after knee replacement...
July 18, 2019: BMC Neurology
Ali Shah, Samurna Sabir, Moiz Artani, Osama Salam, Shehroz Khan, Amber Rizwan
Introduction Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance in patients with acute cerebrovascular insults. In patients with acute non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke, the role of hyponatremia as a negative prognostic indicator has been controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of hyponatremia in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and determine its impact on their in-hospital disease outcome. Methods This was a prospective observational study, which included all patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke...
April 27, 2019: Curēus
Larry Nyanti, Affizal Samsudin, Ing Khieng Tiong
BACKGROUND: Leser-Trélat syndrome, which manifests as eruptive multiple seborrheic keratoses, is a rare paraneoplastic sign. Hyponatremia in the elderly population is an often overlooked but potentially sinister biochemical abnormality. Cancer-related causes of hyponatremia include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, cerebral or renal salt wasting, and adrenal dysfunction. We report a case of an elderly man who presented with both syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and Leser-Trélat syndrome, and was eventually found to have renal malignancy...
June 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Chompunut Asavaaree, Jenny Mao, Amanpreet Kaur, Saksith Smithason
BACKGROUND Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion or cerebral salt wasting has been commonly noted in post-traumatic brain injury, and this condition may lead to hyponatremia resulting in cerebral edema and possible cerebral herniation. However, the predominant topographic pattern of edema from hyponatremia has not been well documented. Unlike numerous reports on hyponatremia and vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the data for traumatic brain injury patient are still limited...
February 27, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Kiyoshi Azakami, Masaya Miyazaki
An 80-year-old woman who was hospitalized due to small subarachnoid hemorrhaging caused by a bruise in the left temporal region of the brain. Nausea/vomiting and malaise appeared after dinner on the fourth day of the illness. Head computed tomography showed that the post-traumatic status was almost normal; however, the sodium ion (Na+ ) level was 114 mEq/L, indicating severe hyponatremia. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) following a head injury was initially suspected, and water restriction and saline fluid replacement were initiated...
2019: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Shilpa Gurnurkar, Sindy Villacres, Lindsey Warner, Madhuradhar Chegondi
Hyponatremia post-neurosurgical intervention can be dangerous and potentially life-threatening. Two of its most common causes are cerebral salt wasting (CSW) and syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone release (SIADH). CSW is proposed to be secondary not only to the elevated levels of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) but inhibition of steroidogenesis in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, thus resulting in mineralocorticoid deficiency. We present a two-year-old male who had developed acute hyponatremia secondary to CSW on post-operative day two after a sub-total resection of a low-grade juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I)...
October 27, 2018: Curēus
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Our evaluation of hyponatremic patients is in a state of confusion because the assessment of the volume status of the patient and determinations of urine sodium concentrations (UNa) >30-40 mEq/L have dominated our approach despite documented evidence of many shortcomings. Central to this confusion is our inability to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (C/RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), syndromes with diametrically opposing therapeutic goals. The recent proposal to treat most or all hyponatremic patients makes differentiation even more important and reports of C/RSW occurring without cerebral disease leads to a clinically important proposal to change cerebral to renal salt wasting (RSW)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Roxana Maria Tudor, Christopher J Thompson
Neurohypophysial dysfunction is common in the first days following traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifesting as dysnatremia in approximately 1 in 4 patients. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia can impair recovery from TBI and in the case of hypernatremia, there is a significant association with excess mortality. Hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) is the commonest electrolyte disturbance following TBI. Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol deficiency occurs in 10-15% of TBI patients and can present with a biochemical picture identical to SIAD...
June 2019: Pituitary
Rimesh Pal, Ashutosh Rai, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Pinaki Dutta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Neurology India
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