Ameet Kumar, Jay Singh, Owais Hashmat, Parma Ameet, Neeraj Budhrani, Khalid Sher
Introduction Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) brings significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hyponatremia has long been documented as a potentially grave metabolic result of TBM. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion has been supposed to be accountable for the majority of cases of hyponatremia in TBM. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is being progressively reported as a basis of hyponatremia in some of these cases. Differentiating CSWS from SIADH can be challenging but is vital because treatment of these two conditions is profoundly different...
March 14, 2021: Curēus
Kohei Haraguchi, Takahisa Kimata, Shohei Akagawa, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Kazunari Kaneko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2021: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jane E Driano, Aida N Lteif, Ana L Creo
Arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated osmoregulatory disorders, such as diabetes insipidus (DI) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) are common in the differential diagnosis for children with hypo- and hypernatremia and require timely recognition and treatment. DI is caused by a failure to concentrate urine secondary to impaired production of or response to AVP, resulting in hypernatremia. Newer methods of diagnosing DI include measuring copeptin levels; copeptin is AVP's chaperone protein and serves as a surrogate biomarker of AVP secretion...
April 1, 2021: Pediatrics
Abdullah Bereket
BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma (CP), despite being a malformational tumor of low histological grade, causes considerable morbidity and mortality mostly due to hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction that is created by tumor itself or its treatment. SUMMARY: Fluid-electrolyte disturbances which range from dehydration to fluid overload and from hypernatremia to hyponatremia are frequently encountered during the acute postoperative period and should be carefully managed to avoid permanent neurological sequelae...
2020: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Hassan Mohamed, George Shorten
A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was referred to our intensive care unit (ICU) from a neurosurgical ward due to deterioration of her conscious level. She had a road traffic accident 6 days earlier. On admission to the hospital, a brain CT demonstrated subarachnoid haemorrhage which was considered not amenable to surgical intervention. A second CT brain performed shortly after admission to ICU showed no change in comparison to the initial CT. Serum sodium level on ICU admission was 108 mEq/L; serum and urine osmolalities were 223 mOsm/kg and 438 mOsm/kg, respectively...
March 10, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Jyotsna Kubre, Vigya Goyal, Saurabh Saigal, J P Sharma, Rajnish Joshi
Hyponatremia in the neurocritical care patients is commonly encountered in the setting of either syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion or cerebral salt wasting. However, differentiation of SIADH and CSW is paramount in view of their divergent treatment strategies.
January 2021: Neurology India
Orfeas Liangos, Nicolaos E Madias
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an uncommon cause of hyponatremia characterized by extracellular volume depletion, high urine sodium concentration and osmolality, and low serum uric acid concentration in association with central nervous system (CNS) disease. Distinguishing CSW from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), a much more common form of hyponatremia in this setting, can be challenging because both present with identical laboratory features. However, treatment of CSW and SIADH differs, making a correct diagnosis important...
2021: Clinical Nephrology. Case Studies
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Aaron Pinkhasov, Rajanandini Muralidharan, Xiaomin Song, Leileata M Russo, Wayne D Comper
BACKGROUND: The most vexing problem in hyponatremic conditions is to differentiate the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (C-RSW). Both have identical clinical parameters but diametrically opposite therapeutic goals of water- restricting water-logged patients with SIADH or administering salt and water to dehydrated patients with C-RSW. While C-RSW is considered a rare condition, the report of a high prevalence of C-RSW in the general hospital wards creates an urgency to differentiate one syndrome from the other on first encounter...
February 2021: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Sudheer Tale, Mrudula Kolli, Kesari Masaipeta, Gautam Vinay Kumar Budumuri
Hyponatraemia is one of the most common and serious electrolyte abnormalities in patients with neurological diseases. Assessing the intravascular fluid status, urine sodium, urine and serum osmolality helps to narrow down the differential diagnosis. Differentiation between cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion is absolutely necessary for correct management of hyponatraemia in this group of patients. In this case report, we have presented a 46-year-old gentleman who was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with status epilepticus and developed hyponatraemia during course of his ICU stay, diagnosed as CSWS and managed with normal saline and fludrocortisone...
January 18, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Hirotaka Hasegawa, Masahiro Shin, Noriko Makita, Yuki Shinya, Kenji Kondo, Nobuhito Saito
Little is known about delayed postoperative hyponatremia (DPH) accompanied with transsphenoidal surgery for non-adenomatous skull base tumors (NASBTs). Consecutive data on 30 patients with parasellar NASBT was retrospectively reviewed with detailed analyses on perioperative serial sodium levels. Serological DPH (sodium ≤ 135 mmol/L) was observed in eight (27%), with four (13%) of them being symptomatic. DPH developed on postoperative day 7-12 where the mean sodium levels were 134 mmol/L (a mean of 7 mmol/L drop from the baseline) in asymptomatic and 125 mmol/L (a mean of 17...
December 20, 2020: Cancers
Kamal Pandit, Shashwat Pokharel, Sarita Kathayat, Sushil Khanal, Prabhat Adhikari, Andrew B Trotter
Introduction: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a cause of hyponatremia in the setting of intracranial pathologies such as Central Nervous System (CNS) trauma, infections, and tumors. It is important to differentiate CSWS from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as their management differs. CSWS leads to hypovolemia as opposed to euvolemia or hypervolemia in SIADH. SIADH is managed with fluid restriction and this could worsen CSWS which is managed with adminstration of intravenous crystalloids to correct hyponatremia...
December 2020: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Farahnak Assadi, Mojgan Mazaheri
OBJECTIVES: Clinical and laboratory data of reset osmostat (RO) and cerebral/renal salt wasting (C/RSW) mimic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and can pose diagnostic challenges because of significant overlapping between clinical and laboratory findings. Failure to correctly diagnose hyponatremia may result in increased mortality risk, longer hospital stay, and is cost-effective. We aim to illustrate clinical and laboratory similarities and difference among patients with hyponatremic disorders and discuss the diagnostic value of factional uprate excretion (FEurate) to differentiate SIADH from RO and C/RSW...
January 27, 2021: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2020: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
HyunSoo Oh, WhaSook Seo
BACKGROUND: Although cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is widely recognized, its clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and management have not been clearly defined. This study was undertaken to comprehensively review current literature and provide a more complete picture of CSWS. This review also aimed to provide information for nurses on how to differentiate cerebral salt wasting syndrome from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. METHODS: An integrative review was performed...
December 2020: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Masanari Oshima, Junji Fukuhara, Takanori Noto, Teppei Noguchi, Masao Murabayashi, Mamoru Ayusawa, Ichiro Morioka
We report the case of a 3-years-old boy who developed severe hyponatremia and unconsciousness during an episode of Kawasaki disease (KD). He was diagnosed with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), which has not previously been reported as a complication of KD. He was diagnosed with KD with fever and four clinical signs and received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the day after onset. Hyponatremia had been observed, and it worsened after IVIG. At first, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was suspected, but his hyponatremia did not improve by restriction of water intake...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Zhen Junhai, Yan Jing, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), which usually secondary to cerebral diseases, is characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. In clinical practice, it is quite difficult to distinguish CSWS from other hyponatremia syndrome, especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where the conditions of patients are more complicated. Nonetheless, it is crucial because treatments might be fundamentally different. CASE PRESENTATION: We discuss a case of patient who presented with refractory hyponatremia and hypovolemia after traumatic brain injury, finally was diagnosed with CSWS, and successfully treated with corticotropin...
June 2020: Journal of the National Medical Association
Sunitha Soundararajan, Stalin Viswanathan, Dheeraj Jain, Vijayalatchumy Krishnamurthy, Murugesan S Gayathri
Scrub typhus is a multisystem disease, and the respiratory system is commonly involved. Scrub typhus-related parkinsonism has been reported in three patients previously, and none of them underwent a lumbar puncture. Cerebral salt wasting is generally observed in vascular emergencies of the brain. We report a patient with acute parkinsonism and cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a combination of which has not been previously reported in scrub typhus. A 50-year-old farmer presented with an acute febrile illness of two weeks' duration and a one-day history of parkinsonism symptoms...
January 20, 2020: Curēus
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The topic of hyponatremia is in a state of flux. We review a new approach to diagnosis that is superior to previous methods. It simplifies identifying the causes of hyponatremia, the most important issue being the differentiation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW). We also report on the high prevalence of RSW without cerebral disease in the general wards of the hospital. RECENT FINDINGS: We applied our new approach to hyponatremia by utilizing sound pathophysiologic criteria in 62 hyponatremic patients...
March 2020: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Y Zheng, F P Zheng, H Li
Objective: The study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and causes of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients, and to analyze the relationship between hyponatremia and mortality. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out in 525 patients with hyponatremia, who were older than 14 years old and hospitalized in the Zhoushan Hospital from Jan. 2014 to Apr. 2014. Based on the severity of the hyponatremia the patients were divided into three groups: the mild, moderate and severe hyponatremia groups. The underlying causes of hyponatremia were analyzed, and the association between hyponatremia and mortality was explored using logistic regression analyses...
January 1, 2020: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Haiying Cui, Guangyu He, Shuo Yang, You Lv, Zongmiao Jiang, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
The differential diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with neurological disorders has been a perplexing clinical controversy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the characteristics and risk factors of patients with different types of neurological disorders complicated by hyponatremia (HN) and review various methods to distinguish SIADH from CSWS. Common neurological disorders with high rates of HN include subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injuries, stroke, cerebral tumors, central nervous system (CNS) infections, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which have their own characteristics...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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