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Regional research

Bridie Angela Evans, Alan Brown, Jenna Bulger, Greg Fegan, Simon Ford, Katy Guy, SIan Jones, Leigh Keen, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Mirella Longo, Ian Pallister, Nigel Rees, Ian T Russell, Anne C Seagrove, Alan Watkins, Helen Snooks
OBJECTIVES: To explore paramedics' experience of delivering fascia iliaca compartment block ( FICB) to patients with suspected hip fracture at the scene of injury. DESIGN: Focus groups within a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Paramedics based at ambulance stations in the catchment area of one Emergency Department in South Wales, recruited and trained in a feasibility study about an alternative to routine prehospital pain management for patients with suspected hip fracture...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Marisa E Marraccini, Leslie A Brick, Lisa L Weyandt, Alyssa Francis, Christine Clarkin, Yumeng Fang
BACKGROUND: College students are at increased risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) and sexual risk behaviors (SRB). Although students with a history of SITB appear to be more prone to SRB, the mechanisms linking these risk behaviors remain largely unexplored. Previous research points to emotional control (EC), defined as one's awareness and adaptability of emotions, as a potential mechanism explaining the relationship between SITB and SRB.1 METHODS: Data included 722 college students attending two different universities in the northeast and southeast regions of the United States...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Mi-Ryung Han, Kyu-Man Han, Aram Kim, Wooyoung Kang, Youbin Kang, June Kang, Eunsoo Won, Woo-Suk Tae, Yunjung Cho, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric disorders. A growing number of whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies for BD has been performed, however, no research has examined the association between single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from WES and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. METHODS: We sequenced whole-exomes in 53 patients with BD and 82 healthy control participants at an initial discovery stage and investigated the impacts of SNVs in risk genes from WES analysis on the cortical gray-matter thickness and integrity of white matter tracts and in the following stage...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sofie Hellsten, Tommy Dalgaard, Katri Rankinen, Kjetil Tørseth, Lars Bakken, Marianne Bechmann, Airi Kulmala, Filip Moldan, Stina Olofsson, Kristoffer Piil, Kajsa Pira, Eila Turtola
During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years. The four Nordic countries have different priorities and strategies regarding agricultural N flows and mitigation measures, and therefore they are facing different challenges and barriers...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Valentina Borghesani, Jared Narvid, Giovanni Battistella, Wendy Shwe, Christa Watson, Richard J Binney, Virginia Sturm, Zachary Miller, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Bruce Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Processing a famous face involves a cascade of steps including detecting the presence of a face, recognizing it as familiar, accessing semantic/biographical information about the person, and finally, if required, production of the proper name. Decades of neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have identified a network of occipital and temporal brain regions ostensibly comprising the 'core' system for face processing. Recent research has also begun to elucidate upon an 'extended' network, including anterior temporal and frontal regions...
January 23, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Jing-Han Wang, Cheng Yang, Lv-Qi-Shu He, Guo-Hua Dao, Jing-Song Du, Ya-Ping Han, Guang-Xue Wu, Qian-Yuan Wu, Hong-Ying Hu
Cyanobacterial blooms (CBs) in eutrophic lakes can cause various harmful issues to both humans and animals, disturb drinking water supply, and devastate lake ecosystems. Although great progresses have been made in many lakes from China and abroad on CBs prevention, mitigation and control, systematic research on the influencing factors of CBs in hypereutrophic plateau Lake Dianchi over a long time span is so far unavailable. This study comprehensively generalized both meteorological and water quality changes in Lake Dianchi during 1990-2015 on both yearly and monthly basis, separated Caohai from Waihai of Lake Dianchi regarding water quality variations, and investigated the individual and joint influencing meteorological and water quality factors on CBs using Spearman correlation, principal component analysis, and multivariate linear stepwise regression...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Maria Schroeck, Veronika Gaube, Edwin Haas, Wilfried Winiwarter
This paper explores the fate of reactive nitrogen (Nr) on the landscape scale of present agricultural production practice on arable and grassland soils. We use the soil modelling tool LandscapeDNDC (landscape scale DeNitrification-DeComposition model) to quantify resulting flows of Nr distributed to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the crops. Test area is a watershed in the Austrian Alps characterized by arable production in the low-lying areas and grassland in the mountains. The approach considers an overall budget of nitrogen, and determines the nitrogen use efficiency for individual crops and crop rotations, with average levels found at 85% for the arable area and 68-98% for the grassland areas...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Miguel Teruel-Coll, Javier Pareja, Jordi Bartolomé, Emmanuel Serrano, Gregorio Mentaberre, Rafaela Cuenca, Johan Espunyes, Ferran Pauné, Juan Antonio Calleja
Humans and wildfires have historically driven landscape structure in the Mediterranean basin. The Iberian Peninsula is not an exception to that rule, and therefore, farmers, researchers, and governments seek alternative tools to minimize the loss of biodiversity and wildfire risks. Extensive livestock including beef cattle is currently promoted as a suitable management tool by European agro-environmental policies yet pieces of evidence exist regarding the reciprocal effects between cows and Mediterranean woody vegetation...
February 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
J O Cáceres, D Sanz-Mangas, S Manzoor, L V Pérez-Arribas, J Anzano
The present work reports on the analysis of atmospheric aerosols in the Antarctic region, Deception Island, collected during austral summer 2016-2017 by field measurements carried from Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Research Station. A low-volume sampler was used to capture the aerosols depositing them onto the air filters. A chemical analysis of the samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) provided the total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental Carbon (EC) and elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zn and Cr...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Cynthia Ye, Robin van der Lee, Wyeth W Wasserman
Strabismus refers to the misalignment of the eyes and occurs in 2-4% of individuals. The low-resolution label "strabismus" covers a range of heterogeneous defects, which makes it challenging to unravel this condition. Consequently a coherent understanding of the causes is lacking. Here, we attempt to gain a better understanding of the underlying genetics by combining gene curation, diverse bioinformatic analyses (including gene ontology, pathway mapping, expression and network-based methods) and literature review...
February 14, 2019: Gene
Jacobo Albert, Sara López-Martín, Rocío Arza, Nerea Palomares, Sandra Hoyos, Luis Carretié, Marina Díaz-Marsá, José Luis Carrasco
Although response inhibition is thought to be important in borderline personality disorder (BPD), little is known about its neurophysiological basis. This study aimed to provide insight into this issue by capitalizaing on the the high temporal resolution of electroencephalography and information provided by source localization methods. To this end, twenty unmedicated patients with BPD and 20 healthy control subjects performed a modified go/no-go task designed to better isolate the brain activity specifically associated with response inhibition...
February 14, 2019: Biological Psychology
Jo Wrigglesworth, Joanne Ryan, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle
Prior research indicates that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with prefrontal cortical (PFC) development in childhood and adolescence, however the mechanisms of this link are unclear. This study investigated whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity), mediated the association between neighborhood disadvantage and thickness of the PFC in adolescents. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured in 33 adolescents aged 12-13 years using the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas...
December 24, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Landon Yoder, Adam S Ward, Kajsa Dalrymple, Scott Spak, Rebecca Lave
Farmers' conservation decisions are central to addressing regional environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, water quality impairment, or climate change. However, three decades of substantial investment in agri-environmental programs has not yielded widespread adoption or improved environmental outcomes. It remains difficult to explain why farmers adopt despite an extensive body of research on the topic. One possible reason for this is that researchers are limiting the types of metrics they are analyzing to explain farmer decisions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Megan L Shipman, John T Green
There is a widespread, nearly complete consensus that the human and non-human primate cerebellum is engaged in non-motor, cognitive functions. This body of research has implicated the lateral portions of lobule VII (Crus I and Crus II) and the ventrolateral dentate nucleus. With rodents, however, it is not so clear. We review here approximately 40 years of experiments using a variety of cerebellar manipulations in rats and mice and measuring the effects on executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility), spatial navigation, discrimination learning, and goal-directed and stimulus-driven instrumental conditioning...
February 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Zhilin Zhang, Guoxin Guo, Jian Zhang, Chunlin Li, Qiang Huang, Ritsu Go, Tianyi Yan, Hidenao Fukuyama, Shintaro Funahashi, Jinglong Wu
Recent research has indicated that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is elicited in response to a discernible small change of a somatosensory stimulus applied on the hand. However, the neural mechanism for detecting small change of somatosensory stimulus remains unknown. In the present study, we developed a novel pressure stimulation device using air jet applied on the index finger pad, and determined the just noticeable differences (JNDs) of pressure discrimination for each subject. Using the deviant-standard-reversed oddball paradigm, we analyzed the average dynamic changes in MMN amplitude and changes of evoked spectral power...
February 13, 2019: Biological Psychology
Lise Brogaard, Ole Kierkegaard, Lone Hvidman, Kristiane Roed Jensen, Peter Musaeus, Niels Uldbjerg, Tanja Manser
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about how teams' non-technical performance influences clinical performance in obstetric emergencies like postpartum haemorrhage. DESIGN: Video review - observational study. SETTING: A university hospital (5,000 deliveries) and a regional hospital (2,000 deliveries) in Denmark. POPULATION: Obstetric teams managing real-life postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: We systematically assessed 99 video recordings of obstetric teams managing real-life major postpartum haemorrhage...
February 16, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Fernando Sánchez-Lasheras, Celestino Ordóñez-Galán, Paulino José García-Nieto, Esperanza García-Gonzalo
For more than a century, air pollution has been one of the most important environmental problems in cities. Pollution is a threat to human health and is responsible for many deaths every year all over the world. This paper deals with the topic of functional outlier detection. Functional analysis is a novel mathematical tool employed for the recognition of outliers. This methodology is applied here to the emissions of a coal-fired power plant. This research uses two different methods, called functional high-density region (HDR) boxplot and functional bagplot...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lucas C Aragão Albuquerque, Leandro Pernambuco, Camila M da Silva, Marina Moura Chateaubriand, Hilton Justino da Silva
PURPOSE: To describe the primary effects of electromyographic biofeedback therapy on swallowing via a systematic review. METHODS: A blind search was carried out by two researchers in the PubMed and Bireme platforms and in the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases, and the journal articles identified therein were evaluated for inclusion in the study. Original articles associated with the theme were selected with no population-, region-, or language-associated limits...
February 15, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Marianne Lehmann, Martina Canatelli-Mallat, Priscila Chiavellini, Gustavo R Morel, Paula C Reggiani, Claudia B Hereñú, Rodolfo G Goya
Biological rejuvenation by partial cell reprogramming is an emerging avenue of research. In this context, regulatable pluripotency gene expression systems are the most widely used at present. We have constructed a regulatable bidirectional adenovector expressing the humanized green fluorescent protein (GFP) and oct4, sox2, klf4, and c-myc genes (known as the Yamanaka genes or OSKM). The OSKM genes are arranged as a bicistronic tandem (hSTEMCCA tandem), which is under the control of a Tet-Off bidirectional promoter that also controls the expression of the gFP gene...
February 15, 2019: Gene Therapy
Andrew Catanach, Ross Crowhurst, Cecilia Deng, Charles David, Louis Bernatchez, Maren Wellenreuther
Recent studies have highlighted an important role of structural variation (SV) in ecological and evolutionary processes, but few have studied non-model species in the wild. As part of our long-term research programme on the non-model teleost fish Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) we aim to build one of the first catalogues of genomic variants (SNPs and indels, and deletions, duplications and inversions) in fishes, and evaluate overlap of genomic variants with regions under putative selection (Tajima's D and π), and coding sequences (genes)...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Ecology
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