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High mountain

Navin Bhatt, Sudha Agrawal, Kabindra Mehta
BACKGROUND: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 attendees aged 30-70 years visiting the dermatology outpatient department of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Fabian Drenkhan, Christian Huggel, Lucía Guardamino, Wilfried Haeberli
Rapidly growing lakes in deglaciating mountain regions represent both: emerging risks and options for human livelihoods. In the Andes of Peru, seasonal water scarcity and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) pose a serious threat for highly exposed and vulnerable people. In addition, water demand is growing due to increasing irrigated agriculture, population and hydropower production. In this context, we assess current and future water risks and management options for the Vilcanota-Urubamba basin, Southern Peru...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey
OBJECTIVES: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (IX /IY ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. MATERIALS: The sample (N = 3,195) comprises adult skeletons from Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia, spanning from around 30,000 BP to mid-twentieth century...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Katrin Gekeler, Andreas Schatz, Manuel Dominik Fischer, Kai Schommer, Katrin Boden, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Florian Gekeler, Gabriel Willmann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate a change in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (CS) during high altitude exposure in healthy subjects due to the effects of hypobaric hypoxia. This study is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology study. METHODS: Visual acuity and Weber CS were tested monocularly using the Freiburger Visual Acuity and Contrast Test under standardised conditions in 14 healthy subjects at high altitude at the Capanna Margherita (4559 m, Italy) and compared with baseline measurements in Tübingen (341 m, Germany)...
February 15, 2019: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Urs Pietsch, Giacomo Strapazzon, Dimitri Ambühl, Volker Lischke, Simon Rauch, Jürgen Knapp
BACKGROUND: Human external cargo (HEC) extrication during helicopter rescue missions is commonly used in mountain emergency medical services. Furthermore, longline or winch operations offer the opportunity to deliver professional medical care onsite. As the safety and quality of emergency medical care depends on training and experience, we aimed to investigate characteristics of mountain rescue missions with HEC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all rescue missions conducted by Air Zermatt (a commercial rescue service in the high-alpine region of Switzerland) from January 2010 to September 2016...
February 13, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Mukhiddin Juliev, Martin Mergili, Ismail Mondal, Bakhtiar Nurtaev, Alim Pulatov, Johannes Hübl
The Bostanlik district, Uzbekistan, is characterized by mountainous terrain susceptible to landslides. The present study aims at creating a statistically derived landslide susceptibility map - the first of its type for Uzbekistan - for part of the area in order to inform risk management. Statistical index (SI), frequency ratio (FR) and certainty factor (CF) are employed and compared for this purpose. Ten predictor layers are used for the analysis, including geology, soil, land use and land cover, slope, aspect, elevation, distance to lineaments, distance to faults, distance to roads, and distance to streams...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Benjamin R Sonnenberg, Carrie L Branch, Angela M Pitera, Eli Bridge, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Understanding how differences in cognition evolve is one of the critical goals in cognitive ecology [1-5]. In food-caching species that rely on memory to recover caches, enhanced spatial cognition has been hypothesized to evolve via natural selection [2, 6-8], but there has been no direct evidence of natural selection acting on spatial memory. Food-caching mountain chickadees living at harsher, higher elevations, with greater reliance on cached food have better spatial learning abilities and larger hippocampi containing more and larger neurons compared to birds from milder, lower elevations [9, 10]...
February 1, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Qingyu Guan, Haiping Luo, Ninghui Pan, Rui Zhao, Liqin Yang, Yanyan Yang, Jing Tian
Four main dust sources and dust events that affected the Hexi Corridor were defined, and the HYSPLIT model was used to trace the dust that originated during the dust episodes of 2015-2017 and to quantify the contributions of dust sources to PM10 . On this basis, an algorithm that quantified the contribution of dust sources to PM10 was proposed in this study. The results showed that the main dust sources affecting the Hexi Corridor are generally located in the northern part of Xinjiang, which is mainly dominated by the Gurbantunggut Desert (source A); the Taklimakan and Kumtag Deserts and their surrounding areas (source B); both Qaidam Basins (source C); and the Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, Hobq Desert, Ulan Buh Desert, and Mu Us Sandy Land and their surrounding areas (source D)...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, Yongzheng Lu
Eurasian permafrost serves as an important nitrogen source for linked aquatic and oceanic ecosystems. To fill in the data gaps in the southern margin of the Eurasian permafrost, nitrogen dynamics in the two rivers that drain the permafrost in the Great Xing'an Mountains of northeast China were investigated during the 2012-2015 growing seasons. The mean concentration of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in the two catchments was 0.63 mg L-1 , which is generally higher than other permafrost catchments around the Arctic Ocean...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kh M Omarova, I H, Magomedova Magomedova, E S Ibragimova
AIM: to study the influence of qualitative and microelement composition of drinking water on the incidence of urolithiasis in different regions of the Republic of Dagestan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical data of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Dagestan for 2000-2016 yy. were used. A total of 12123 outpatient and inpatient charts of patients with urinary stone disease were analyzed. The annual average quality of drinking water, as well as the contents of microelements in different climatic and geographical areas of the region were assessed...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Shuai Chang, Jianguo Chen, Jianqiang Su, Yang Yang, Hang Sun
Positive associations between alpine cushion plants and other species have been extensively studied. However, almost all studies have focused on the associations between macrofauna. Studies that have investigated positive associations between alpine cushion plants and rhizospheric microbes have been limited to the vegetation growing season. Here, we asked whether the positive effects that alpine cushion plants confer on rhizospheric microbe communities vary with seasons. We assessed seasonal variations in the bacterial diversity and composition in rhizosphere of two alpine cushion plants and surrounding bare ground by employing a high throughput sequencing method targeting the V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
October 2018: Plant Diversity
Wei Zhang, Caigui Zheng, Feng Chen
Heat wave becomes a leading cause of weather-related illness and death across the world under the background of climate change, urban heat island, and population ageing. Heat health risk assessment is an important starting point for heat-related morbidity and mortality reduction within the risk governance framework. Chongqing, a mountainous municipality with a fast rate of population ageing in China, was selected as a case study for mapping the heat health risk of the elderly population at a raster scale. The results indicated that the high heat hazard and human exposure areas were mainly distributed in the metropolitan areas, which largely resulted in high heat health risk in the urban areas...
January 22, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Pedro Belinchón-deMiguel, Pablo Ruisoto-Palomera, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Psychophysiological response of athletes with spinal cord injurie has not been reported yet in scientific literature. The aim of this study is to examine the psychophysiological stress response of Paralympic athlete during competitive activities. We collected the following psychophysiological measurements: anxiety-trait, anxiety-state, locus of control, perceived psychological stress, stress-copying style, rate of perceived exertion, perceived muscle pain, body temperature, forced vital capacity, blood oxygen saturation, blood glucose and lactate concentrations, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, heart rate variability, heart rate and velocities of a female Paralympic spinal cord injured athlete in a 11 h and 44 min ultraendurance mountain event...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Jiamin Fan, Xueli Zheng, Hongyong Wang, Hong Qi, Benmo Jiang, Meiping Qiao, Jianwen Zhou, Shuhai Bu
Musk deer (Moschidae), whose secretion is an expensive and irreplaceable component of traditional medicine, have become endangered in the wild due to habitat fragmentation and over-exploitation. In recent years, China has had success in the artificial breeding of forest musk deer, thus relieving the pressure on wild populations. However, many farmed populations are experiencing degradation, and little genetic information is available for conservation management. In this study, we selected 274 individuals from three typical captive populations (originated from the Ta-pa Mountains (Tp), the midrange of the Qinling Mountains (Ql) and the Western Sichuan Plateau (WS), respectively) to evaluate the genetic variations...
February 8, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Li-Chin Lee, Ting-Chang Hsu, Tsung-Yu Lee, Yu-Ting Shih, Chuan-Yao Lin, Shih-Hao Jien, Thomas Hein, Franz Zehetner, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Jr-Chuan Huang
Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC), responsible for riverine productivity, is rarely documented in subtropical small mountainous rivers (SMRs) where high rainfall and steep slopes are the main features. This study investigated the DOC export at eight sites in three Taiwan SMRs to characterize the dynamics and controlling factors of DOC transport. Results showed that the mean DOC concentration of ~0.78 mg L-1 is much lower than the global average of ~5.29 mg L-1 . However, the mean DOC yield, ~22...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qing-Wei Wang, Maya Daumal, Soichiro Nagano, Naofumi Yoshida, Shin-Ichi Morinaga, Kouki Hikosaka
In mountainous areas, plant distribution is constrained by various environmental stresses. Plasticity and constancy in plant functional traits may relate to optimal strategies at respective habitats and to ecotypic differentiation along elevation. Although plant biomass allocation has been extensively studied in relation to adaptation to soil nutrient availability along elevation, its optimality is still poorly understood. We examined soil nutrient availability in the field and conducted growth analysis for two elevational ecotypes of Arabidopsis halleri grown under different nutrient availabilities...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Alexander Patrician, Michael M Tymko, Hannah G Caldwell, Connor A Howe, Geoff B Coombs, Rachel Stone, Allison Hamilton, Ryan L Hoiland, Philip N Ainslie
Patrician, Alexander, Michael M. Tymko, Hannah G. Caldwell, Connor A. Howe, Geoff B. Coombs, Rachel Stone, Allison Hamilton, Ryan L. Hoiland, and Philip N. Ainslie. The effect of an expiratory resistance mask with dead space on sleep, acute mountain sickness, cognition, and ventilatory acclimatization in normobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2019.-We examined the hypothesis that an expiratory resistance mask containing a small amount of dead space (ER/DS) would reduce the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep, attenuate the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS), and offset decrements in cognitive function compared with a sham mask...
February 5, 2019: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Keiya Yumimoto, Mizuo Kajino, Taichu Y Tanaka, Itsushi Uno
The Taklimakan Desert is known to be one of the world's major sources of aeolian dust particles. Continuous images with 10-min temporal and 2-km spatial resolutions from a new-generation geostationary meteorological satellite captured the lifecycle (generation, evolution and outflow) of a previously unrecognized type of Taklimakan dust storm. The dust storm showed an anti-clockwise spiral structure and a clear core and behaved like a "dust vortex". From image analysis, the horizontal scale and temporal lifetime of the dust vortex were estimated to be 600 km and 36 hours, respectively...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nicola P Bondonno, Joshua R Lewis, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, John Hc Shin, Kevin D Croft, Richard J Woodman, Germaine Wong, Wai H Lim, Bamini Gopinath, Victoria M Flood, Joanna Russell, Paul Mitchell, Jonathan M Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Higher intakes of flavonoids provide health benefits, however, the importance of each flavonoid class and which population groups may receive the greatest protection from higher flavonoid intake warrants further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of flavonoid and flavonoid-rich wholefood intakes with all-cause mortality and the moderating effects of early mortality risk factors. DESIGN: The study included 2349 participants of The Blue Mountains Eye Study, with a mean ± SD age at baseline of 64...
January 17, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Zhanlei Rong, Xingming Liu, Chuanyan Zhao, Liwen He, Junjie Liu, Yunfei Gao, Fei Zang, Haojie Xu, Zhaoxia Guo, Yahua Mao
The establishment of nature reserves is a key approach for biodiversity conservation worldwide. However, the effectiveness of nature reserves established by protecting the habitat needs of surrogate species is questioned. In this study, the Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve (Baishuijiang NNR), located in the Minshan Mountains, China, which is established mainly for the conservation of giant panda (a surrogate for the conservation of other endangered species) was selected. We quantitatively evaluated the conservation effectiveness of the reserve for giant panda and co-occurring species (here, seven protected species) using a maximum entropy model (Maxent), and analyzed spatial congruence between giant panda and other seven species...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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