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perfluorinated compounds

Raj Kamal Singh, Sujan Fernando, Sadjad Fakouri Baygi, Nicholas Multari, Selma Mededovic Thagard, Thomas M Holsen
Byproducts produced when treating perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water using a plasma treatment process intentionally operated to treat these compounds slowly to allow for byproduct accumulation were quantified. Several linear chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4 to C7) were identified as byproducts of both PFOA and PFOS treatment. PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were also found to be byproducts from PFOS degradation...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Nor Laili Azua Jamari, Jan Frederik Dohmann, Andrea Raab, Eva M Krupp, Jӧrg Feldmann
Although perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been phased out, there is a plethora of per- or polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) generated and only a small number of these compounds are currently being monitored in environmental and biological sample using molecular mass spectrometry (MS). Total fluorine determination has revealed that a substantial amount of fluorinated organic compounds has not been identified. Due to the small mass deficiency of fluorine, it is not an easy task to screen successfully all fluorinated compounds including those which are not easy ionisable, hence a novel fluorine-specific detector is needed...
April 11, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Beat Ernst, Wojciech Schönemann, Jonathan Cramer, Tobias Mühlethaler, Brigitte Fiege, Marleen Silbermann, Said Rabbani, Philipp Dätwyler, Pascal Zihlmann, Roman P Jakob, Christoph P Sager, Martin Smieško, Oliver Schwardt, Timm Maier
Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious concern for the treatment of urinary tract infections. In this context, an anti-adhesive approach targeting FimH, a bacterial lectin enabling the attachment of E. coli to host cells, attracted considerable interest. FimH can adopt a low/medium-affinity state in the absence and a high-affinity state in the presence of shear forces. Until recently, mostly the high-affinity state has been investigated, despite the fact that a therapeutic antagonist should bind predominantly to the low-affinity state...
February 1, 2019: ChemMedChem
Raphaëlle Teysseire, Patrick Brochard, Loïc Sentilhes, Fleur Delva
In 2015, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics established the prevention of exposures to environmental reprotoxic substances as a priority for health professionals. However, available information about reproductive hazards is voluminous, dispersed, and complex, and this is a severe limitation for physicians to incorporate the prevention of environmental exposure into standard preventive care. One difficulty frequently cited by physicians is the lack of evidence-based information. The objective of our study was to identify a list of environmental chemical hazards to reproduction...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anna K Huff, Rebecca B Mackenzie, Christopher J Smith, Kenneth R Leopold
Trifluoroacetic sulfuric anhydride (CF3 COOSO2 OH, TFASA) and its deuterated isotopologue have been observed by pulsed-nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. TFASA was generated in situ in a supersonic expansion from the reaction of CF3 COOH or CF3 COOD with SO3 . The spectrum, which was notably weaker than those of previously studied carboxylic sulfuric anhydrides, is that of a simple asymmetric rotor with no evidence of internal rotation of the CF3 group. Calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level indicate that the title compound is produced via a mechanism involving a concerted cycloaddition, analogous to that found for other carboxylic sulfuric anhydrides...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xiaoyan Wang, Weijian Shen, Hong Wang, Keyao Yu, Bin Wu, Guoshen Hu, Gongjun Yang
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 perfluorinated carboxylic acid compounds in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with negative chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS). Perfluorinated carboxylic acid compounds were derivatized by trifluoro- N -methyl- N -(trimethylsilyl) acetamide (MSTFA) as the trimethylsilyl derivatization reagent. The water sample was purified and enriched through a weak anion exchange solid phase extraction column and analyzed via GC-NCI-MS. The sample pretreatment, derivation and instrument conditions were optimized...
January 8, 2019: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Lesa A Thompson, Wageh S Darwish
Contamination by chemicals from the environment is a major global food safety issue, posing a serious threat to human health. These chemicals belong to many groups, including metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), radioactive elements, electronic waste, plastics, and nanoparticles. Some of these occur naturally in the environment, whilst others are produced from anthropogenic sources...
2019: Journal of Toxicology
Ivana Matić Bujagić, Svetlana Grujić, Mila Laušević, Thilo Hofmann, Vesna Micić
The Iron Gate I Reservoir is the largest impoundment on the Danube River. It retains >50% of the incoming total suspended solids load and the associated organic contaminants. In the sediment core of the Iron Gate I Reservoir we report the presence and fate of four classes of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, steroids and perfluorinated compounds), predominantly not covered by the EU monitoring programs, but considered as future candidates. Based on contaminant's partitioning behavior in the water/sediment system and the suspected ecotoxicological potential asserted from the literature data, the risk of recorded concentrations for sediment-dwelling organisms was discussed...
January 17, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Pascal Vogel, Ulrich Marggraf, Sebastian Brandt, Juan F Garcia-Reyes, Joachim Franzke
Plasma sources in atmospheric pressure soft ionization mass spectrometry have gained significant interest in recent years. As many of these sources are used under ambient air conditions, their interaction with the surrounding atmosphere plays an important role in the ionization pathway. This study focuses on the interaction between the plasma source and the surrounding atmosphere by connecting the plasma source to the mass spectrometer using a 2 mm ID closed reactant capillary supplied by a reactant gas up to 500 ml per minute to gain a controlled atmosphere...
January 23, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Mengmeng Guo, Guanchao Zheng, Jixing Peng, Di Meng, Haiyan Wu, Zhijun Tan, Fengling Li, Yuxiu Zhai
Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants, which pose a threat to human health primarily by dietary exposure, especially through seafood. Bohai Sea (a semi-closed sea located north of China) is an important shellfish aquaculture area that is possibly highly-polluted with PFASs. In this study, we first evaluated contamination by PFASs in a total of 230 samples of marine shellfish from the Bohai Sea. Samples included five important shellfish species, collected from important aquaculture spots distributed around the Bohai Sea...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
X F Wang, Q Wang, Z G Li, K Huang, L D Li, D H Zhao
A practical multi-residue method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in water and suspended particles. Suspended particle samples were extracted with 1% formic acid-acetonitrile and cleaned by matrix solid phase dispersion extraction using a C18 sorbent and graphitized carbon black. Water samples were filtered through 0.7-μm glass fiber membranes and enriched utilizing weak anion exchange cartridges...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Yanping Cai, Haiyan Chen, Huilun Chen, Haiqing Li, Shuo Yang, Fei Wang
Perfluorocarboxylic acid compounds (PFCAs) and copper have been regarded as ubiquitous environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, data on their possible joint toxic effects on microorganisms are still lacking. To study the combined effects of four PFCAs with different carbon chain lengths and copper, a series of experiments were conducted to explore the acute toxicity of these PFCAs in the absence and presence of copper on a metal-resistant Arthrobacter strain GQ-9 by microcalorimetry...
January 7, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohammed A Khairy, Gregory O Noonan, Rainer Lohmann
The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sedimentary hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) is of concern at contaminated sites. Passive samplers have emerged as a promising tool to measure the bioavailability of sedimentary HOCs and possibly to estimate their bioaccumulation. We thus analyzed HOCs including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, porewater and riverwater using low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers, and in 11 different finfish species and blue crab from the lower Passaic River...
January 5, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
T Sadhasivam, Min-Hwa Lim, Do-Sung Jung, Hankwon Lim, Shin-Kun Ryi, Ho-Young Jung
In the semiconductor industry, perfluorinated compound removal is a major concern owing to the formation of highly toxic and hazardous hydrogen fluoride (HF) as a by-product. Calcium oxide (CaO) can be considered a promising material for HF sorption reaction process. However, the easier reaction between CaO and H2 O results in the formation of Ca(OH)2 , which ultimately limits the usefulness of CaO. The objective of the research work is preparation of CaO nanoparticles on hydrophobic silica (SiO2 ) to use as a alternative solid reducing catalyst for efficient HF removal process...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Vasily A Ilichev, Liubov I Silantyeva, Artem N Yablonskiy, Boris A Andreev, Roman V Rumyantcev, Georgy K Fukin, Mikhail N Bochkarev
To obtain new efficient lanthanide-based NIR luminophores perfluorinated 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was used as a ligand. The ate-complexes [(Ln(mbtF)4)-(Na(DME)3)+] of Nd (1), Sm (2), Tb (3), Er (4), Yb (5) and [(Y(mbtF)4)-(Li(DME)3)+] (6) were synthesized in high yields by the reactions of the respective silylamide compounds Ln[N(SiMe3)2]3 and M[N(SiMe3)2] (M = Li, Na) with 4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2(3H)-thione (HmbtF) in DME media. The complexes 1-3 and 6 were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis...
January 2, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Heye Wang, Xiaohan Zhang, Yibo Liu, Juewen Liu
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are emerging persistent environmental contaminants that may be toxic to animals and humans. To gain fundamental insights into the mechanism of their toxicity, the interactions of phosphocholine (PC) liposomes as model membranes were studied with three types of PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid potassium salt, together with three common surfactants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and sodium 1-heptanesulfonate (SHS)...
November 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Rossella Ghisi, Teofilo Vamerali, Sergio Manzetti
PFASs are a class of compounds that include perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, some of the most persistent pollutants still allowed - or only partially restricted - in several product fabrications and industrial applications worldwide. PFASs have been shown to interact with blood proteins and are suspected of causing a number of pathological responses, including cancer. Given this threat to living organisms, we carried out a broad review of possible sources of PFASs and their potential accumulation in agricultural plants, from where they can transfer to humans through the food chain...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Jiaoqin Liu, Chenguang Li, Ruijuan Qu, Jianfang Feng, Lianhong Wang
Tetrahydroperfluorocarboxylic acids (2H,2H,3H,3H-PFCAs) have aroused the interest of scholars worldwide due to their potential to generate perfluorinated compounds. In this work, we systematically examined the photodegradation kinetics and mechanisms of typical 2H,2H,3H,3H-PFCAs (Cn F2n+1 C2 H4 COOH, n = 6, 7, 8) in aqueous solution by a 500 W Hg lamp. The photodecomposition of 2H,2H,3H,3H-PFCAs all followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the photolysis rate coefficients increased with the increasing carbon chain length...
November 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shuyu Liu, Renjun Yang, Nuoya Yin, Yuan-Liang Wang, Francesco Faiola
PFOS and PFOA are two of the most abundant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the environment. Previous studies have reported they have a long half-life (up to five years) once they enter into the human body. Moreover, they can potentially promote the adipogenic process by activating PPARγ. However, little is known about PFOS and PFOA chronic health impacts on humans. In this study, we employed primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and demonstrated that PFOS and PFOA exerted acute cytotoxicity and affected adipogenesis and osteogenesis at environmental and human relevant doses...
November 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kareem Eldin Mohammed Ahmed, Håvard G Frøysa, Odd André Karlsen, Nello Blaser, Karin Elisabeth Zimmer, Hanne Friis Berntsen, Steven Verhaegen, Erik Ropstad, Ralf Kellmann, Anders Goksøyr
The presence of environmental pollutants in our ecosystem may impose harmful health effects to wildlife and humans. Several of these toxic chemicals have a potential to interfere with the endocrine system. The adrenal cortex has been identified as the main target organ affected by endocrine disrupting chemicals. The aim of this work was to assess exposure effects of defined and environmentally relevant mixtures of chlorinated, brominated and perfluorinated chemicals on steroidogenesis, using the H295R adrenocortical cell line model in combination with a newly developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
November 12, 2018: Chemosphere
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