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beige fat cell

Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Rita De Matteis, Giuseppe Petito, Pieter de Lange, Elena Silvestri, Assunta Lombardi, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni
The conversion of white adipose cells into beige adipose cells is known as browning, a process affecting energy metabolism. It has been shown that 3,5 diiodo-l-thyronine (T₂), an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones, stimulates energy expenditure and a reduction in fat mass. In light of the above, the purpose of this study was to test whether in an animal model of fat accumulation, T₂ has the potential to activate a browning process and to explore the underlying mechanism. Three groups of rats were used: (i) receiving a standard diet for 14 weeks; (ii) receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks; and (iii) receiving a high fat diet for 10 weeks and being subsequently treated for four weeks with an HFD together with the administration of T₂...
March 18, 2019: Cells
Qiang Cao, Jia Jing, Xin Cui, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue
It is increasingly recognized that activation of beige adipocyte thermogenesis by pharmacological or genetic approaches increases energy expenditure and alleviates obesity. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) directly innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a key role in promoting nonshivering thermogenesis. However, direct evidence that supports the importance of SNS innervation for beige adipocyte formation is still lacking, and the significance of beige adipocyte thermogenesis in protection of body temperature during cold challenge is not clear...
March 2019: Physiological Reports
Jing Yu, Yifan Lv, Fengliang Wang, Xiaocen Kong, Wenjuan Di, Juan Liu, Yunlu Sheng, Shan Lv, Guoxian Ding
Objective: Long-term dysregulation of energy balance is the key component of the obesity epidemic. Given the harm of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue (WAT), enhancing the energy-expending or "browning" ability of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has become of therapeutic interest. In this study, we focused on the regulating role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in mice epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) browning. Methods: High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice model was constructed...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiaodan Lu
Individual cell types vary enormously in the amount of different organelles they contain. One such organelle is the mitochondrion. Understanding how mitochondrial levels are controlled is essential since so many disease states seem to involve mitochondrial function. The beige adipocyte is an inducible form of adipocyte that emerges in response to cold exposure and some other external stimuli. To perform its thermogenic function, its level of mitochondria increases dramatically. If the stimuli are removed the mitochondrial levels return to base line...
January 27, 2019: Adipocyte
Liang-Ru Fei, Wen-Jing Huang, Yuan Wang, Lei Lei, Zhi-Han Li, Yi-Wen Zheng, Zhao Wang, Mai-Qing Yang, Chen-Chen Liu, Hong-Tao Xu
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is known to play a significant role in the determination and function of brown and beige fat. However, the role of PRDM16 in tumor biology has not been well addressed. Here we investigated the impact of PRDM16 on tumor growth and metastasis in lung cancer. METHODS: UALCAN database, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to assess PRDM16 expression in lung cancer patients. Kaplan-Meier plotter database was used to analyze the overall survival of patients with lung cancer stratified by PRDM16 expression...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Han-Jun Kim, Eun-Ji Choi, Hyo Sung Kim, Chan-Woong Choi, Sik-Won Choi, Sun-Lim Kim, Woo-Duck Seo, Sun Hee Do
Obesity is a worldwide public health concern requiring safe and effective strategies. Recent studies suggest that bioactive compounds from soybeans have beneficial effects on weight loss and reducing fat accumulation. However, despite the biochemical and nutritional changes during germination, the biological effects of germinated soy germ have not been fully investigated. In this article, germinated soy germ extract (GSGE) was evaluated as a potential treatment option for obesity using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
January 25, 2019: Food & Function
M Merkel, S M Schmid, K A Iwen
The metabolic functions of different kinds of adipose tissue are of growing scientific and clinical interest. White adipose tissue is not only an energy store but as a highly active endocrine organ it also plays an essential role in the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Brown adipose tissue, on the other hand, can convert chemical energy into heat and could therefore have an opposing, protective effect. The activation of brown adipose tissue and the induction of the development of adipocytes with the characteristics of brown fat cells could make a significant contribution to the treatment of these civilization diseases...
January 8, 2019: Der Internist
Yong Chen, Kenji Ikeda, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Annarita Scaramozza, Kazuki Tajima, Qiang Wang, Kyeongkyu Kim, Kosaku Shinoda, Carlos Henrique Sponton, Zachary Brown, Andrew Brack, Shingo Kajimura
Environmental cues profoundly affect cellular plasticity in multicellular organisms. For instance, exercise promotes a glycolytic-to-oxidative fibre-type switch in skeletal muscle, and cold acclimation induces beige adipocyte biogenesis in adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which physiological or pathological cues evoke developmental plasticity remain incompletely understood. Here we report a type of beige adipocyte that has a critical role in chronic cold adaptation in the absence of β-adrenergic receptor signalling...
January 2019: Nature
Marie-Therese Rached, Steven J Millership, Silvia M A Pedroni, Agharul I Choudhury, Ana S H Costa, Darran G Hardy, Justyna A Glegola, Elaine E Irvine, Colin Selman, Megan C Woodberry, Vijay K Yadav, Sanjay Khadayate, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Samuel Virtue, Christian Frezza, Dominic J Withers
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system and immune cell interactions play key roles in the regulation of metabolism. For example, recent convergent studies have shown that macrophages regulate obesity through brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) via effects upon local catecholamine availability. However, these studies have raised issues about the underlying mechanisms involved including questions regarding the production of catecholamines by macrophages, the role of macrophage polarization state and the underlying intracellular signaling pathways in macrophages that might mediate these effects...
February 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Wenli Yang, Patrick Seale
Beige fat cells hold significant promise for reducing obesity and metabolic disease. Su et al. (2018) present a robust method to produce human beige adipocytes from pluripotent stem cells via the generation of an expandable intermediary population of mesenchymal progenitor cells.
December 11, 2018: Cell Reports
Joseph Zhou, Anil Poudel, Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Biao Xu, Ryan Welchko, Lixin Li
PURPOSE: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced to induce postprandial insulin secretion. Liraglutide, a full agonist of the GLP-1 receptor, has a protective effect on weight gain in obese subjects. Brown adipose tissue plays a major role in the control of energy balance and is known to be involved in the weight loss regulated by liraglutide. The putative anti-obesity properties of liraglutide and the cell signaling pathways involved were examined. METHODS: Four groups of C57/BL6 mice fed with chow or HFHS diet were injected with either liraglutide or vehicle for four weeks...
December 9, 2018: Endocrine
Guillaume Oldenhove, Elodie Boucquey, Anaelle Taquin, Valérie Acolty, Lynn Bonetti, Bernhard Ryffel, Marc Le Bert, Kevin Englebert, Louis Boon, Muriel Moser
Recent observations clearly highlight the critical role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in maintaining the homeostasis of adipose tissues in humans and mice. This cell population promotes beiging and limits adiposity directly and indirectly by sustaining a Th2-prone environment enriched in eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. Accordingly, the number and function of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are strongly impaired in obese individuals. In this work, we identify the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway as a factor leading to ILC2 destabilization upon high-fat feeding resulting in impaired tissue metabolism...
November 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Linyun He, Mowei Tang, Ting Xiao, Hailan Liu, Wei Liu, Guangdi Li, Feng Zhang, Yalun Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Fang Hu
miRNAs are important regulators of differentiation, development, and function of brown and beige fat cells. In this study, we identify the role of the miR-199a/214 cluster in the regulation of brown and beige adipocyte development and thermogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We show that expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster is dramatically decreased during brown and beige adipocyte differentiation and in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic receptor activation. The cluster levels are significantly upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and human subjects...
December 2018: Diabetes
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Jingxin Liu, Ligen Lin
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fatty acids as heat to maintain body temperature in cold environments. The existence of BAT and beige cells in human adults supplies a promising weight-reduction therapy. The central thermogenic regulation descends through an excitatory neural pathway from the hypothalamus, medullar and spine towards BAT. This sympathoexcitatory thermogenic circuit is controlled by GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid) signaling from the thermoregulatory center in the preoptic area and the satiety center in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 21, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Yusuke Fujimoto, Osamu Hashimoto, Daichi Shindo, Makoto Sugiyama, Shozo Tomonaga, Masaru Murakami, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown and beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. Thus, the activation of brown adipocytes and the emergence of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are suggested to be useful for preventing and treating obesity. Although β3 -adrenergic receptor activation is known to stimulate lipolysis and activation of brown and beige adipocytes, fat depot-dependent changes in metabolite concentrations are not fully elucidated. The current study examined the effect of treatment with CL-316,243, a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist, on the relative abundance of metabolites in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal WAT (ingWAT), and epididymal WAT (epiWAT)...
January 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Claire Chevalier, Vladimir Lazarević, Silas Kieser, Dorothée Rigo, Stefano Leo, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Nadia Gaïa, Marcello Maresca, Doron Merkler, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Andrew Macpherson, Jacques Schrenzel, Mirko Trajkovski
Caloric restriction (CR) stimulates development of functional beige fat and extends healthy lifespan. Here we show that compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota contribute to a number of CR-induced metabolic improvements and promote fat browning. Mechanistically, these effects are linked to a lower expression of the key bacterial enzymes necessary for the lipid A biosynthesis, a critical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) building component. The decreased LPS dictates the tone of the innate immune response during CR, leading to increased eosinophil infiltration and anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization in fat of the CR animals...
August 24, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yanbo Kou, Qingya Liu, Wenli Liu, Hongxiang Sun, Ming Liang, Fanyun Kong, Bo Zhang, Yanxia Wei, Zhuanzhuan Liu, Yugang Wang
The physiologic signals that regulate beige adipogenesis remain incompletely understood, especially those that limit browning and prevent overexpenditure of energy. In this study, the TNF family member cytokine lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry on T cells (LIGHT), also known as TNF super family protein 14 (TNFSF14), can inhibit adipose precursor differentiation into beige adipocytes. In acute cold stress, LIGHT deficiency in mice accelerated browning in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT)...
August 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Antonia Graja, Sabrina Gohlke, Tim J Schulz
Brown adipose tissue aging and the concomitant loss of thermogenic capacity have been linked to an inability to maintain normal energy homeostasis in late life. Similarly, the ability of white fat to convert into brite/beige adipose tissue declines. This may ultimately exacerbate the progression of age-related metabolic pathologies, such as insulin resistance and obesity. The depletion of all types of brown adipocytes during aging is well-established and has been described in rodent models as well as humans...
August 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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