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Mitochondria dynamic immune

Anna Spier, Fabrizia Stavru, Pascale Cossart
Mitochondria are essential and highly dynamic organelles whose morphology is determined by a steady-state balance between fusion and fission. Mitochondrial morphology and function are tightly connected. Because they are involved in many important cellular processes, including energy production, cell-autonomous immunity, and apoptosis, mitochondria present an attractive target for pathogens. Here, we explore the relationship between host cell mitochondria and intracellular bacteria, with a focus on mitochondrial morphology and function, as well as apoptosis...
March 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Joëlle J E Janssen, Sander Grefte, Jaap Keijer, Vincent C J de Boer
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that control metabolic homeostasis and ATP generation, but also play an important role in other processes, like cell death decisions and immune signaling. Mitochondria produce a diverse array of metabolites that act in the mitochondria itself, but also function as signaling molecules to other parts of the cell. Communication of mitochondria with the nucleus by metabolites that are produced by the mitochondria provides the cells with a dynamic regulatory system that is able to respond to changing metabolic conditions...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Abhishek Mohanty, Rashmi Tiwari-Pandey, Nihar R Pandey
Mitochondria, the dynamic organelles and power house of eukaryotic cells function as metabolic hubs of cells undergoing continuous cycles of fusion and fission. Recent findings have made it increasingly apparent that mitochondria essentially involved in energy production have evolved as principal intracellular signaling platforms regulating not only innate immunity but also inflammatory responses. Perturbations in mitochondrial dynamics, including fusion/fission, electron transport chain (ETC) architecture and cristae organization have now been actively correlated to modulate metabolic activity and immune function of innate and adaptive immune cells...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Yingying Huo, Junfeng Miao, Junru Fang, Hu Shi, Juanjuan Wang, Wei Guo
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), constituting up to 50% of the solid tumor mass and commonly having a pro-tumoral M2 phenotype, are closely associated with decreased survival in patients. Based on the highly dynamic properties of macrophages, in recent years the repolarization of TAMs from pro-tumoral M2 phenotype to anti-tumoral M1 phenotype by various strategies has emerged as a promising cancer immunotherapy approach for improving cancer therapy. Herein, we present an aromatic secondary amine-functionalized Bodipy dye 1 and its mitochondria-targetable derivative Mito1 as fluorescent NO probes for discriminating M1 macrophages from M2 macrophages in terms of their difference in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels...
January 7, 2019: Chemical Science
Luca Simula, Ilenia Pacella, Alessandra Colamatteo, Claudio Procaccini, Valeria Cancila, Matteo Bordi, Claudia Tregnago, Mauro Corrado, Martina Pigazzi, Vincenzo Barnaba, Claudio Tripodo, Giuseppe Matarese, Silvia Piconese, Silvia Campello
Mitochondria are key players in the regulation of T cell biology by dynamically responding to cell needs, but how these dynamics integrate in T cells is still poorly understood. We show here that the mitochondrial pro-fission protein Drp1 fosters migration and expansion of developing thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that Drp1 sustains in vitro clonal expansion and cMyc-dependent metabolic reprogramming upon activation, also regulating effector T cell numbers in vivo. Migration and extravasation defects are also exhibited in Drp1-deficient mature T cells, unveiling its crucial role in controlling both T cell recirculation in secondary lymphoid organs and accumulation at tumor sites...
December 11, 2018: Cell Reports
Cynthia Soultawi, Yasmina Fortier, Calaiselvy Soundaramourty, Jérôme Estaquier, Mireille Laforge
Microbes have developed a series of strategies to overcome the defense mechanisms of the infected host. During pathogen-host coevolution, they develop strategy to manipulate cellular machinery particularly in subverting mitochondrion function. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly remodel their structure. In particular, shaping and cellular distribution of the mitochondrial network is maintained in large part by the conserved activities of mitochondrial division, fusion, motility, and tethering...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Ryu Yamanaka, Yutaka Shindo, Kohji Hotta, Koji Suzuki, Kotaro Oka
Cells simultaneously utilize different intracellular signaling systems to process environmental information [1-4]. The magnesium ion (Mg2+ ) is recognized as a multitarget analog regulator that performs many roles, such as circadian timekeeping, due to the following properties: (1) it influences wide-ranging biological processes, (2) its concentration is tightly controlled within a narrow sub-millimolar range, and (3) its intracellular dynamics are slow and long lasting [5-11]; its regulatory manner is not all-or-none in contrast to the switch-like signal transduction by the well-established second messenger Ca2+ [12]...
November 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Diane M Ward, Suzanne M Cloonan
Mitochondria are an iconic distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria encompass an active organellar network that fuses, divides, and directs a myriad of vital biological functions, including energy metabolism, cell death regulation, and innate immune signaling in different tissues. Another crucial and often underappreciated function of these dynamic organelles is their central role in the metabolism of the most abundant and biologically versatile transition metals in mammalian cells, iron. In recent years, cellular and animal models of mitochondrial iron dysfunction have provided vital information in identifying new proteins that have elucidated the pathways involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and iron metabolism...
November 28, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Yi-Wen Lin, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Min Shih, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chin-Sheng Lin, Chih-Yuan Lin, Chi-Yuan Li, Shih-Hurng Loh, Cheng-Yen Lin, Feng-Yen Lin, Chien-Sung Tsai
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces cytokine production and causes postoperative monocytic inflammatory responses, which are associated with patient outcomes. In fact, monocytes regulate immunity through dynamic networks of survival and cellular apoptosis as well as thrombomodulin (TM)-associated differenciiation. Whether CPB affects the plasma level of eotaxin-2, a potent chemoattractant, or stimulates monocyte apoptosis among patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is also unknown...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Yi-Ning Qiu, Guo-Hui Wang, Fen Zhou, Jin-Jin Hao, Li Tian, Long-Fei Guan, Xiao-Kun Geng, Yu-Chuan Ding, He-Wen Wu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increasing epidemic of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. It induces the occurrence of liver fibrosis, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. The molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 inducing liver fibrosis were investigated in this study. METHODS: The cell viability of LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
January 15, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Elianne P Bulthuis, Merel W Adjobo-Hermans, Peter H G M Willems, Werner J H Koopman
In addition to their classical role in cellular ATP production, mitochondria are of key relevance in various (patho)physiological mechanisms including 2nd messenger signaling, neuro-transduction, immune responses and death induction. Within cells mitochondria are motile and display temporal changes in internal and external structure ("mitochondrial dynamics"). During the last decade, substantial empirical and in silico evidence was presented demonstrating that mitochondrial dynamics impacts on mitochondrial function and vice versa...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Lynnea R Waters, Fasih M Ahsan, Dane M Wolf, Orian Shirihai, Michael A Teitell
B lymphocytes provide adaptive immunity by generating antigen-specific antibodies and supporting the activation of T cells. Little is known about how global metabolism supports naive B cell activation to enable an effective immune response. By coupling RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data with glucose isotopomer tracing, we show that stimulated B cells increase programs for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and nucleotide biosynthesis, but not glycolysis. Isotopomer tracing uncovered increases in TCA cycle intermediates with almost no contribution from glucose...
July 27, 2018: IScience
Liqing Zhou, Dan Zhao, Biao Wu, Xiujun Sun, Zhihong Liu, Feng Zhao, Zhenming Lv, Aiguo Yang, Qing Zhao, Gaowei Zhang, Chunyan Ma
Scapharca broughtonii is one of the most important Arcidae aquaculture species in the Asia-Pacific region. We aimed to investigate the immune responses of hemocytes from ark shell S. broughtonii hemolymph against pathogens. Hemocyte ultrastructure and immunological activity in response to Vibrio anguillarum challenge were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Before ultrastructure observation, we used the API ZYM semi-quantitative kit to evaluate the levels of hydrolytic enzymes in the plasma and hemocytes following V...
September 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anne Grünewald, Kishore R Kumar, Carolyn M Sue
New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama
Over the last decade, mitochondrial dynamics beyond function during axon regeneration/degeneration have received attention. Axons have an effective delivery system of mitochondria shuttling between soma and axonal terminals, due to their polarized structure. The proper axonal transport of mitochondria, coordinated with mitochondrial fission/fusion and clearance, is vital for supplying high power energy in injured axons. Many researchers have studied mitochondrial dynamics using in vitro cultured cells with significant progress reported...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Jenn-Haung Lai, Shue-Fen Luo, Ling-Jun Ho
Mitochondria have been recognized as ancient bacteria that contain evolutionary endosymbionts. Metabolic pathways and inflammatory signals interact within mitochondria in response to different stresses, such as viral infections. In this commentary, we address several interesting questions, including (1) how do mitochondrial machineries participate in immune responses; (2) how do mitochondria mediate antiviral immunity; (3) what mechanisms involved in mitochondrial machinery, including the downregulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), disturbances of mitochondrial dynamics, and the induction of mitophagy and regulation of apoptosis, have been adopted by viruses to evade antiviral immunity; (4) what mechanisms involve the regulation of mitochondrial machineries in antiviral therapeutics; and (5) what are the potential challenges and perspectives in developing mitochondria-targeting antiviral treatments? This commentary provides a comprehensive review of the roles and mechanisms of mitochondrial machineries in immunity, viral infections and related antiviral therapeutics...
October 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sergey Pustylnikov, Francesca Costabile, Silvia Beghi, Andrea Facciabene
An essential advantage during eukaryotic cell evolution was the acquisition of a network of mitochondria as a source of energy for cell metabolism and contrary to conventional wisdom, functional mitochondria are essential for the cancer cell. Multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology beyond bioenergetics support transformation including mitochondrial biogenesis, fission and fusion dynamics, cell death susceptibility, oxidative stress regulation, metabolism, and signaling. In cancer, the metabolism of cells is reprogrammed for energy generation from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and impacts cancer mitochondrial function...
July 31, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Anusha Angajala, Sangbin Lim, Joshua B Phillips, Jin-Hwan Kim, Clayton Yates, Zongbing You, Ming Tan
Lack of immune system cells or impairment in differentiation of immune cells is the basis for many chronic diseases. Metabolic changes could be the root cause for this immune cell impairment. These changes could be a result of altered transcription, cytokine production from surrounding cells, and changes in metabolic pathways. Immunity and mitochondria are interlinked with each other. An important feature of mitochondria is it can regulate activation, differentiation, and survival of immune cells. In addition, it can also release signals such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) to regulate transcription of immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Zhang, Keren Chen, Xueqing Zhang, Chunhe Guo, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques have been used to detect viral invasion and the appearance of specialized structures established in virus-infected cells. These methods have had a positive impact in the field of virology and helped to further our knowledge of how viruses invade cells. Nearly all positive-strand RNA viruses propagate their viral genomes in part through intracellular membranes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus, accumulates viral RNA that forms replication complexes (RCs) in infected cells...
2018: PloS One
Eun-Jung Park, Hong-Soo Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Yoo-Jin Park, Son-Il Park, Jaerak Chang, Kyuhong Lee
Considering that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is primarily absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs, herein, we used a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S cells). After 24 h exposure, CSC decreased dose-dependently cell viability accompanying an increase in intracellular ROS and NO level. CSC structurally or functionally damaged organelles including mitochondria, ER and lysosome and enhanced the expression of proteins related to apoptosis, ER stress and DNA damage accompanying an elevated proportion of annexin V-bound cells...
October 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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