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Aneesh P H Bose, Jonathan M Henshaw, Holger Zimmermann, Karoline Fritzsche, Kristina M Sefc
BACKGROUND: In socially monogamous species, reproduction is not always confined to paired males and females. Extra-pair males commonly also reproduce with paired females, which is traditionally thought to be costly to the females' social partners. However, we suggest that when the relatedness between reproducing individuals is considered, cuckolded males can suffer lower fitness losses than otherwise expected, especially when the rate of cuckoldry is high. We combine theoretical modeling with a detailed genetic study on a socially monogamous wild fish, Variabilichromis moorii, which displays biparental care despite exceptionally high rates of extra-pair paternity...
January 31, 2019: BMC Biology
Aneesh P H Bose, Holger Zimmermann, Jonathan M Henshaw, Karoline Fritzsche, Kristina M Sefc
Extra-pair paternity within socially monogamous mating systems is well studied in birds and mammals but rather neglected in other animal taxa. In fishes, social monogamy has evolved several times but few studies have investigated the extent to which pair-bonded male fish lose fertilizations to cuckolders and gain extra-pair fertilizations themselves. We address this gap and present genetic paternity data collected from a wild population of Variabilichromis moorii, a socially monogamous African cichlid with biparental care of offspring...
November 2018: Molecular Ecology
G Zięba, M Dukowska, M Przybylski, M G Fox, C Smith
Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle...
March 26, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Conny Landgraf, Kerstin Wilhelm, Jutta Wirth, Michael Weiss, Silke Kipper
Most birds engage in extrapair copulations despite great differences across and within species. Besides cost and benefit considerations of the two sex environmental factors have been found to alter mating strategies within or between populations and/or over time. For socially monogamous species, the main advantage that females might gain from mating with multiple males is probably increasing their offspring's genetic fitness. Since male (genetic) quality is mostly not directly measurable for female birds, (extrapair) mate choice is based on male secondary traits...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Joel A Tripp, Ni Y Feng, Andrew H Bass
Reproductive success relies on the coordination of social behaviours, such as territory defence, courtship and mating. Species with extreme variation in reproductive tactics are useful models for identifying the neural mechanisms underlying social behaviour plasticity. The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is a teleost fish with two male reproductive morphs that follow widely divergent developmental trajectories and display alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Type I males defend territories, court females and provide paternal care, but will resort to cuckoldry if they cannot maintain a territory...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Justin J Lehmiller, David Ley, Dan Savage
Cuckolding (also known as troilism) is a sexual interest in which one obtains sexual arousal from the experience of a romantic partner engaging in sexual activity with someone else. The present study investigated fantasies about and experiences with cuckolding in a large and diverse sample of predominately gay-identified men (N = 580). Compared to previous research focusing on heterosexual men's cuckolding fantasies, our results indicate that gay men's cuckolding fantasies share many common elements; however, they differ in some important ways...
May 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Robert B Payne, David F Westneat
Neighboring males of indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) share songs in southern Michigan. We sampled polymorphic enzymes to compare the genetic variation between mates and the variation among contiguous song neighborhoods. Mate choice was independent of the genetic and morphometric similarity of female and male, and these measures were independent of each other. The incidence of extrapair copulations and fertilizations was independent of the song of cuckolding males. Breeding success of the mated pairs was independent of their genetic or morphological similarity...
September 1988: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Charlyn G Partridge, Matthew D MacManes, Rosemary Knapp, Bryan D Neff
Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are one of the classic systems for studying male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in teleost fishes. In this species, there are two distinct life histories: parental and cuckolder, encompassing three reproductive tactics, parental, satellite, and sneaker. The parental life history is fixed, whereas individuals who enter the cuckolder life history transition from sneaker to satellite tactic as they grow. For this study, we used RNAseq to characterize the brain transcriptome of the three male tactics and females during spawning to identify gene ontology (GO) categories and potential candidate genes associated with each tactic...
2016: PloS One
Joseph F Salvatore, Andrea L Meltzer, David S March, Lowell Gaertner
Research typically reveals that outgroups are regarded with disinterest at best and hatred and enmity at worst. Working from an evolutionary framework, we identify a unique pattern of outgroup attraction. The small-group lifestyle of pre-human ancestors plausibly limited access to genetically diverse mates. Ancestral females may have solved the inbreeding dilemma while balancing parental investment pressures by mating with outgroup males either via converting to an outgroup or cuckolding the ingroup. A vestige of those mating strategies might manifest in human women as a cyclic pattern of attraction across the menstrual cycle, such that attraction to outgroup men increases as fertility increases across the cycle...
February 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Julia Schroeder, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Isabel Winney, Mirre Simons, Shinichi Nakagawa, Terry Burke
One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect)...
August 2016: American Naturalist
Jane M Reid, Greta Bocedi, Pirmin Nietlisbach, A Bradley Duthie, Matthew E Wolak, Elizabeth A Gow, Peter Arcese
Female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems is predicted to cause cuckolded socially-paired males to conditionally reduce paternal care, causing selection against extra-pair reproduction and underlying polyandry. However, existing models and empirical studies have not explicitly considered that cuckolded males might be related to their socially-paired female and/or to her extra-pair mate, and therefore be related to extra-pair offspring that they did not sire but could rear. Selection against paternal care, and hence against extra-pair reproduction, might then be weakened...
July 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
E Valente, G Masson, A Maul, M G Fox, A Meyer, J C Pihan
Testis and ovarian maturation status, maturity profile and gonado-somatic index (GSI) were assessed in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) collected from Mirgenbach, a cooling-water reservoir associated with a nuclear power plant, and from the River Moselle 7km downstream of the reservoir's thermal outflow. Histological investigation indicated that in both sexes, gonadal development of pumpkinseed in the heated reservoir was more advanced than in the cooler Moselle River throughout the breeding season. The histological maturity profile of reservoir males ranked by the advancement of sperm cells was highly correlated with its GSI (rs=0...
May 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Koen Matthijs, Tom Wenseleers
Contemporary data of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in human populations may be biased by the use of modern contraceptives. Studies have now estimated historical EPP rates in several human populations. The observed low EPP rates challenge the idea that women routinely 'shop around' for good genes by engaging in extra-pair copulations.
May 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Linda A Whittingham, Peter O Dunn
Across taxa, extra-pair mating is widespread among socially monogamous species, but few studies have identified male ornamental traits associated with extra-pair mating success, and even fewer studies have experimentally manipulated male traits to determine whether they are related directly to paternity. As a consequence, there is little experimental evidence to support the widespread hypothesis that females choose more ornamented males as extra-pair mates. Here, we conducted an experimental study of the relationship between male plumage colour and fertilization success in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), which have one of the highest levels of extra-pair mating in birds...
August 2016: Molecular Ecology
Daniel T Baldassarre, Emma I Greig, Michael S Webster
When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals...
February 2016: Biology Letters
Hazel J Nichols, Michael A Cant, Jennifer L Sanderson
Females of many animal species seek mating opportunities with multiple males, despite being able to obtain sufficient sperm to father their offspring from a single male. In animals that live in stable social groups, females often choose to mate outside their group resulting in extra-group paternity (EGP). One reason proposed to explain female choice for extra-group males is to obtain compatible genes, for example, in order to avoid inbreeding depression in offspring. The benefits of such extra-group paternities could be substantial if they result in fitter, outbred offspring...
November 2015: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Yu-Hsun Hsu, Julia Schroeder, Isabel Winney, Terry Burke, Shinichi Nakagawa
Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, ('nonadaptive') models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example, males gained fitness benefits from extra-pair mating, while female and male extra-pair mating behaviours were genetically correlated...
April 2015: Molecular Ecology
Sigrunn Eliassen, Christian Jørgensen
A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods...
2014: PloS One
Kazutaka Ota, Satoshi Awata, Masaya Morita, Ryota Yokoyama, Masanori Kohda
To examine how territorial males counter reproductive parasites, we examined the paternity of broods guarded by territorial males using 5 microsatellite loci and factors that determine siring success in a wild population of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lamprologus lemairii. Females enter rock holes (nests) and spawn inside, and territorial males release milt over the nest openings. Sneakers attempt to dart into the nests, but territorial males often interrupt the attempt. The body size of territorial males (territorial defense ability) and the size of nest opening (the ability to prevent sneakers from nest intrusions) are predicted to be factors that affect paternity at the premating stage, whereas milt quality traits are factors that affect paternity at the postmating stage...
May 2014: Journal of Heredity
Shawn R Garner, Bryan D Neff
The potential role of alternative reproductive tactics in circumventing premating isolating mechanisms and driving hybridization between species has long been recognized, but to date there is little empirical support from natural systems. Hybridization occurs between bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and it is known to be asymmetrical (male bluegill × female pumpkinseed). Here, we test whether this pattern is driven by a recognition failure by pumpkinseed females or by an alternative cuckolder reproductive tactic in bluegill males...
2013: Biology Letters
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