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Glaucoma diagnosis

Manuel A Schmidt, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Dörfler, Georg Michelson
MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) enables visualisation of the visual system in glaucoma; it has been shown that the atrophy of the optic radiation is more pronounced in glaucoma than in age-matched controls. The atrophy of the optic radiation thereby correlates with OCT and visual field measures. Diffusion tensor imaging permits quantification of the axonal integrity of the optic radiation by calculation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD). Both within and also outside the visual system, there are substantial changes in FA and RD, changes suggesting a complex neurodegenerative disease...
February 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Christof Hänsli, Fabio Meier, Daniel Barthelmes, Christian Böni
PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause recurrent or chronic hypertensive anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Antiviral treatment options include topical ganciclovir or systemic valganciclovir. However, recurrences are common after stopping treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of long-term topical ganciclovir therapy as prophylaxis for recurrent activity. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Retrospective analysis of all CMV uveitis patients seen between 2011 and 2018 at Zurich University Hospital...
February 14, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Sharath M Shankaranarayana, Keerthi Ram, Kaushik Mitra, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
Glaucoma is a serious ocular disorder for which the screening and diagnosis are carried out by the examination of the optic nerve head (ONH). The color fundus image (CFI) is the most common modality used for ocular screening. In CFI, the central region which is the optic disc and the optic cup region within the disc are examined to determine one of the important cues for glaucoma diagnosis called the optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). CDR calculation requires accurate segmentation of optic disc and cup. Another important cue for glaucoma progression is the variation of depth in ONH region...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Jehn-Yu Huang, Chien-Chia Su, Tsing-Hong Wang, I-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Migraine is linked to endothelial dysfunction and is considered to be a systemic vasculopathy. Interestingly, systemic vascular diseases also occur in glaucoma patients and are considered to be vascular risk factors. Whether migraine is simply a concomitant condition in glaucoma patients or a risk factor per se for glaucoma remains unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the risk for open angle glaucoma (OAG) in migraineurs using a 10-year follow-up study that employed a nationwide population-based dataset in Taiwan...
February 13, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
Serek Tekin, Erbil Seven, Muhammed Batur
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of antiglaucomatous drops on the conjunctival thickness. METHODS: Between March 2018 and May 2018, conjunctival thicknesses (epithelium + stroma) were measured with anterior segment OCT in 51 eyes of the control group and 49 eyes who had glaucoma diagnosis at the Van YYU Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department and had been using antiglaucomatous drops for at least 6 months. At 12 o'clock direction, horizontal multisections were taken aiming at the conjunctiva 3-5 mm away from the limbus...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Levi Filler, Murtaza Akhter, Perrin Nimlos
The acute headache in the emergency department (ED) poses a diagnostic dilemma that may overwhelm providers attempting to weigh the cost of advanced workups against the risk of missing serious pathology. While the majority of headache concerns are benign primary headache disorders, identifying life-threatening secondary causes of headache-which may be broadly categorized into structural, infectious, and vascular causes-is the primary focus of evaluation in the ED. Secondary headaches are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and require strict scrutiny of the history and physical examination to adequately risk-stratify patients...
February 2019: Seminars in Neurology
Márcia Waddington-Cruz, Hartmut Schmidt, Marc F Botteman, John A Carter, Michelle Stewart, Markay Hopps, Shari Fallet, Leslie Amass
We describe 542 cases of symptomatic hereditary transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-PN) identified through a review of the literature published between 2005 and 2016. Approximately 18% of the cases were from countries where ATTR-PN is traditionally considered to be endemic (i.e., Portugal, Japan, and Sweden). East Asia (Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea) contributed a sizeable combined proportion (37.0%, n = 200) with Japan (n = 92) and China (n = 71) being the primary contributors. The most common genotypes among the 65 genotypes represented in the sample were Val30Met (47...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Lin Fu, Yau Kei Chan, Li Nie, Qi Dai, Zhenbin Qian, Kendrick Co Shih, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai, Rong Huang, Weihua Pan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the occurrence of ciliochoroidal detachment (CCD), its risk factors and its impact on the success rate after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study carried out at Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China. Patients with uncontrolled glaucoma who underwent AGV implantation alone or combined with phacoemulsification (AGV-Phaco) in the hospital from April 1, 2013 to July 31, 2016 were included...
February 6, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
Homa Hassankarimi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Noori, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpour, Shahin Yazdani, Fatemeh Radinmehr
PURPOSE: To evaluate discrete wavelet transform coefficients and identify descriptors of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) waveforms in order to determine PERG characteristics for optimizing the diagnosis of early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Pattern electroretinogram was performed in 30 normal eyes and 30 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma according to the ISCEV protocol. The check size was 0.8° and 16°, and the color was black/white in both groups...
February 6, 2019: International Ophthalmology
Przemysław Zabel, Jakub J Kałużny, Monika Wiłkość-Dębczyńska, Martyna Gębska-Tołoczko, Karolina Suwała, Robert Kucharski, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess and compare peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG), and healthy controls with the use of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients with AD, 30 patients with POAG, 30 patients with PPG, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Only 1 randomly selected eye of each patient was analyzed...
February 5, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Suneeta Dubey, Kanika Jain, Saptarishi Mukherjee, Neha Sharma, Julie Pegu, Monica Gandhi, Madhu Bhoot
PURPOSE: To study the current profile of secondary glaucoma in all age groups of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital in Northern India Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, files of 5725 patients who were newly diagnosed to have glaucoma in our tertiary eye care centre from January 2014 to December 2016 were reviewed. Detailed data were collected from patient's records, including history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings, gonioscopy, and fundus findings...
February 4, 2019: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sonia Sethi, Avrey Thau, Paige Kaplan, Stephanie B Asher, Alex V Levin
We report the case of a 12-year-old girl diagnosed with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome with novel ocular features. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, including developmental delay, sparse hair, and craniofacial features along with de novo mutation in SMARCA2. Eye findings included bilateral glaucoma, cataracts, and degenerative vitreoretinopathy. Given the absence of an associated recognizable disorder and the low prevalence of the low prevalence of these ocular findings in the general population, we suggest that these ocular features may not be chance association...
January 29, 2019: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Carys A Pugh, Lindsay L Farrell, Ailsa J Carlisle, Stephen J Bush, Adam Ewing, Violeta Trejo-Reveles, Oswald Matika, Arne de Kloet, Caitlin Walsh, Stephen C Bishop, James G D Prendergast, Joe Rainger, Jeffrey J Schoenebeck, Kim M Summers
Goniodysgenesis is a developmental abnormality of the anterior chamber of the eye. It is generally considered to be congenital in dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ), and has been associated with glaucoma and blindness. Goniodysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma initially emerged in Border Collies in Australia in the late 1990s and has subsequently been found in this breed in Europe and the USA. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic basis of goniodysgenesis in Border Collies. Clinical diagnosis was based on results of examinations by veterinary ophthalmologists of affected and unaffected dogs from eleven different countries...
January 29, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yi Sun, Wenbin Huang, Fei Li, Hao Li, Liping Wang, Yan Huang, Xiulan Zhang
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, which is now viewed as a disease of brain with pathogenesis not fully understood. The main diagnostic methods are examining the retinal nerve fiber layer through optical coherence tomography and investigating visual field defect, but these methods present disadvantages in clinical practice. Studies have shown that patients with glaucoma often suffer negative emotion like anxiety and depression which is related to abnormal or reduced amygdala...
February 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Hsin-Yi Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
To determine whether cataract or glaucoma and combined cataract and glaucoma surgery (CGS) affect glaucoma medication usage.We recruited patients who received new diagnoses of glaucoma, either primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 365.1) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) (ICD-9-CM code 365.2), between 1998 and 2011 and had undergone cataract surgery alone (CS), glaucoma surgery alone (GS), or CGS under the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lili Xie, Mao Mao, Cong Wang, Lusi Zhang, Zheng Pan, Jingming Shi, Xuanchu Duan, Songbo Jia, Bing Jiang
This study aimed to identify potential biomarkers for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis. First, lncRNA and message RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in the aqueous humor (AH) from 10 POAG and 10 control patients were accessed by microarray analyses. Moreover, coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks were drawn to predict potential lncRNA functions. LncRNAs-T267384, ENST00000607393, and T342877 expression were further tested by quantitative real-time PCR in AH from 29 POAG and 30 cataract patients, in iris tissues from 16 POAG patients and 10 controls, and in plasma from 49 POAG patients and 55 healthy controls...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Pathology
Joel N Buxbaum, Thomas Brannagan, Juan Buades-Reinés, Eugenia Cisneros, Isabel Conceicao, Theodoros Kyriakides, Giampaolo Merlini, Laura Obici, Violaine Plante-Bordeneuve, Antoine Rousseau, Yoshiki Sekijima, Akira Imai, Márcia Waddington Cruz, Masahito Yamada
BACKGROUND: Ocular abnormalities have been known to occur in hereditary amyloidotic polyneuropathy since the 1950s. While vitreous opacities and scalloped pupils were described early it has become evident that every component of the eye from the conjunctiva to the retinal vasculature can be involved. Reports from the major centres in Japan, Portugal and Sweden, which primarily treat patients with ATTRV30M, have indicated that with the increased longevity seen in patients treated with liver transplantation the frequency of the more severe eye findings, notably vitreous opacities and subsequent glaucoma, are being detected more frequently...
January 24, 2019: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
Aara Patel, Jane D Hayward, Vijay Tailor, Rodney Nyanhete, Helena Ahlfors, Camila Gabriel, Tommaso B Jannini, Yassir Abbou-Rayyah, Robert Henderson, Ken K Nischal, Lily Islam, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Jane Hurst, Leonardo E Valdivia, Mario Zanolli, Mariya Moosajee, John Brookes, Maria Papadopoulos, Peng T Khaw, Thomas Cullup, Lucy Jenkins, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Jane C Sowden
PURPOSE: To develop a comprehensive next-generation sequencing panel assay which screens genes known to cause developmental eye disorders and inherited eye disease (Oculome test) and to evaluate its diagnostic yield in a paediatric cohort with malformations of the globe, anterior segment anomalies and/or childhood glaucoma. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test. PARTICIPANTS: 277 children age 0-16 years diagnosed with nonsyndromic or syndromic developmental eye defects without a genetic diagnosis...
January 14, 2019: Ophthalmology
Owen M Siggs, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Francesca Pasutto, Andrew Dubowsky, James E H Smith, Deepa Taranath, John Pater, Julian L Rait, Andrew Narita, Lucia Mauri, Alessandra Del Longo, André Reis, Angela Chappell, Lisa S Kearns, Sandra E Staffieri, James E Elder, Jonathan B Ruddle, Alex W Hewitt, Kathryn P Burdon, David A Mackey, Jamie E Craig
Importance: Both primary and secondary forms of childhood glaucoma have many distinct causative mechanisms, and in many cases a cause is not immediately clear. The broad phenotypic spectrum of secondary glaucoma, particularly in individuals with variants in FOXC1 or PITX2 genes associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, makes it more difficult to diagnose patients with milder phenotypes. These cases are occasionally classified and managed as primary congenital glaucoma. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of FOXC1 variants in participants with a suspected diagnosis of primary congenital glaucoma...
January 17, 2019: JAMA Ophthalmology
Srishti Raj, Laxmi Prabhavathi Savla, Faisal Thattaruthody, Natasha Gautam Seth, Sushmita Kaushik, Surinder Singh Pandav
AIM: To find out and compare various predictors of glaucoma-related visual impairments in primary and secondary glaucoma. METHODS: A prospective observational study of patients, who were above 30 years of age. They were diagnosed as primary/secondary glaucoma with visual acuity <20/200 Snellen's/visual field showing less than 20° isopter in at least one eye, with a minimum follow-up of one year at a tertiary center. Patients were classified into advanced and end-stage glaucoma and outcome was assessed according to visual acuity and visual fields to see predictors of visual impairments...
January 15, 2019: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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