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Hodaka Moriyama, Manabu Watanabe, Shinya Kusachi, Yasuyuki Oda, Eiichi Sato
To improve the image quality of photon-counting energy-dispersive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and to reduce the incident dose for the object, we have developed a low-dose low-scattering CT scanner with high-spatial and -energy resolutions using a cooled cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. X-ray photons are absorbed by the CdTe crystal, and the event pulses from the shaping amplifier are input to a high-speed triple-energy (TE) counter. In the TE-CT, four 3.0-mm-thick lead (Pb) pinholes are used. The line-beam diameter is roughly reduced using the first 2...
February 10, 2019: Ultramicroscopy
Sandra Konopnicki, Romain Nicot, Matthias Schlund, Joel Ferri
PURPOSE: Class II dento-facial deformity due to inferior alveolar retrusion may be difficult to treat using conventional surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to report on total mandibular subapical osteotomy (TMSO) to correct inferior alveolar retrusion, to describe its indications, the surgical technique and to analyse the aesthetic, occlusal changes and stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with TMSO from January 2004 to December 2014 were included and analysed retrospectively...
February 13, 2019: International Orthodontics
Nisa Gül Amuk, Erol Karsli, Gokmen Kurt
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of dental measurements between conventional plaster models, digital models obtained by impression scanning and plaster model scanning. PURPOSE: To evaluate and to compare the accuracy and reliability of tooth size, arch width and Bolton tooth size discrepancy measurements on 3 Dimensional (3D) digital models obtained by plaster dental model scanning, dental impression scanning and conventional plaster models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out on the maxillary and mandibular dental models of 25 patients with Angle Class I molar relationship and minimal crowding...
February 13, 2019: International Orthodontics
M Güttler, A Generalov, S I Fujimori, K Kummer, A Chikina, S Seiro, S Danzenbächer, Yu M Koroteev, E V Chulkov, M Radovic, M Shi, N C Plumb, C Laubschat, J W Allen, C Krellner, C Geibel, D V Vyalikh
Application of the Luttinger theorem to the Kondo lattice YbRh2 Si2 suggests that its large 4f-derived Fermi surface (FS) in the paramagnetic (PM) regime should be similar in shape and volume to that of the divalent local-moment antiferromagnet (AFM) EuRh2 Si2 in its PM regime. Here we show by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that paramagnetic EuRh2 Si2 has a large FS essentially similar to the one seen in YbRh2 Si2 down to 1 K. In EuRh2 Si2 the onset of AFM order below 24.5 K induces an extensive fragmentation of the FS due to Brillouin zone folding, intersection and resulting hybridization of the Fermi-surface sheets...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Jianhua Peng, Xiaohang Jia, Jingtao Wang, Yiping Hu
Based on the Gullstrand I model eye, a simplified model eye for testing fundus imaging device is designed. The model eye can reach the following requirements:(1) The refractive characteristics of the ocular refractive tissue are simulated, and the equivalent focal length in air is 17 mm; (2) The differences between relative refractive index differences of the adjacent materials of the simplified model eye and relative refractive index differences of any adjacent two layers (cornea and aqueous humor, aqueous humor and lens, lens and vitreous body) of the Gullstrand I model eye are not more than 1%; (3) In the case of the incident aperture diameter of 3 mm, the differences of radii of the diffuse spots formed by the paraxial light and the axial light are not more than 15%; (4) The differences of angles of chief ray and tangent line of the fundus are not more than 1°; (5) In the case of the incident aperture diameter of 3 mm, the differences of MTF values of the near axis light are not more than 0...
January 30, 2019: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Zhuang Liu, Wei Luo, Chuanxi Duan
The rovibrational spectrum of the Ar-NO open-shell complex has been measured in the 5.3 µm region using distributed feed-back quantum lasers to probe the direct absorption in a slit-jet supersonic expansion. Five P-subbands, namely, P' ←P″ :1/2←3/2,1/2←1/2,3/2←1/2,5/2←3/2, and 7/2←5/2, are observed, with J up to 15.5. The hyperfine structure due to the nuclei spin of 14 N (I = 1) can be partially resolved in the P' ←P″ :1/2←3/2,1/2←1/2, and 3/2←1/2 subbands. The fine structure of the observed spectrum is analyzed using a modified semi-rigid rotor Hamiltonian [W...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Oana Cojocaru-Miredin, Henning Hollermann, Antonio M Mio, Anthony Wang, Matthias Wuttig
Interfacial phase change memory devices based on a distinct nanoscale structure called superlattice have been shown to outperform conventional phase-change devices. This improvement has been attributed to the hetero-interfaces, which play an important role for the superior device characteristics. However, the impact of grain boundaries, usually present in large amounts in a standard sputter-deposited superlattice film, on the device performance has not yet been investigated.
 Therefore, in the present work, we investigate the structure and composition of superlattice films by high resolution X-ray diffraction cross-linked with state-of-the art methods, such as correlative microscopy, i...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Victoria Aladin, Marc Vogel, Robert Binder, Irene Burghardt, Beatrix Suess, Björn Corzilius
While dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) under magic-angle spinning (MAS) is generally a powerful method capable of greatly enhancing the sensitivity of solid-state NMR, the displacement of nuclear spin polarization far from thermal equilibrium (i.e., hyperpolarization) also gives rise to peculiar spin dynamics. Here, we elucidate how Specific Cross-Relaxation Enhancement by Active Motions under DNP (SCREAM-DNP) can be utilized in order to selectively obtain MAS NMR spectra of an RNA aptamer in a tightly bound complex with a methyl-bearing ligand (tetracycline) due to the effective CH₃-reorientation at an optimized sample temperature of ~160 K...
February 15, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Jinxin Zhang, Shujie Yang, Chuyi Chen, Jessica H Hartman, Po-Hsun Huang, Lin Wang, Zhenhua Tian, Peiran Zhang, David Faulkenberry, Joel N Meyer, Tony Jun Huang
Controllable, precise, and stable rotational manipulation of model organisms is valuable in many biomedical, bioengineering, and biophysics applications. We present an acoustofluidic chip capable of rotating Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in both static and continuous flow in a controllable manner. Rotational manipulation was achieved by exposing C. elegans to a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field that generated a vortex distribution inside a microchannel. By selectively activating interdigital transducers, we achieved bidirectional rotation of C...
February 15, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Chien-Chung Jeng, Yi-Cheng Wang, Ying-Yu Chen, Shiuan-Yeh Chen
Dark-field microscopy is widely used to image micro/nano particles or characterize their optical response (scattering spectrum). If laser excitation is incorporated into the microscope, the microscope can further probe chemical (molecular) properties of these objects through Raman scattering. However, when the size of the particles is comparable to or smaller than the characteristic sizes of the laser beam, the conventional setup using on-axis excitation usually suffers from undesired background signals produced by illuminated substrates below the target particles...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Rolf Follath, Takahisa Koyama, Vladimir Lipp, Nikita Medvedev, Kensuke Tono, Haruhiko Ohashi, Luc Patthey, Makina Yabashi, Beata Ziaja
In this report, we analyse X-ray induced damage of B4 C-coated bilayer materials under various irradiation geometries, following the conditions of our experiment performed at the free-electron-laser facility SACLA. We start with the discussion of structural damage in solids and damage threshold doses for the experimental system components: B4 C, SiC, Mo and Si. Later, we analyze the irradiation of the experimentally tested coated bilayer systems under two different incidence conditions of a linearly polarized X-ray pulse: (i) grazing incidence, and (ii) normal incidence, in order to compare quantitatively the effect of the pulse incidence on the radiation tolerance of both systems...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mamiko Noguchi, Michal Glinka, Graham R Mayberry, Kimihiro Noguchi, Jack P Callaghan
Potential alternatives for conventional sitting and standing postures are hybrid sit-stand postures (i.e., perching). The purposes of this study were i) to identify where lumbopelvic and pelvic angles deviate from sitting and standing and ii) to use these breakpoints to define three distinct postural phases: sitting, perching, and standing, in order to examine differences in muscle activations and ground reaction forces between phases. Twenty-four participants completed 19 one-minute static trials, from sitting (90°) to standing (180°), sequentially in 5°trunk-thigh angle increments...
February 14, 2019: Ergonomics
Ivan Devic, José Manuel Encarnación Escobar, Detlef Lohse
We calculate the equilibrium shape of a droplet sitting on a tilted substrate with a ''chemical step'', i.e., different lypophilicity at the two sides of the step. This problem can be generalized to that of a droplet experiencing a body force, pushing it from the lyophilic part to the lyophobic part of the substrate. We present phase diagrams, in which we show for which droplet sizes there are dynamically inaccessible equilibrium shapes. We also identify what determines the threshold volume. While this given system was studied previously in the literature using contact angle hysteresis laws, we present the full static thermodynamical solution of the interfacial energy including the contact energy, while omitting the hysteresis effects from the contact line...
February 14, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
D V Pominova, I D Romanishkin, P V Grachev, A V Borodkin, A S Vanetsev, E O Orlovskaya, Yu V Orlovskii, I Sildos, V B Loschenov, A V Ryabova
To improve methods of laser hyperthermia for the treatment of bulk malignant neoplasms, an urgent task is the development of techniques and devices that automatically control heating at a given tissue depth and ensure its uniformity. The article proposes the concept of a system for performing hyperthermia with real-time spectroscopic temperature control and surface cooling, which allows to record spectra of diffusely scattered radiation and fluorescent signal from various depths of biological tissues by the means of the variation of the angle and distance between the fiber source of laser radiation and the receiving fiber...
February 14, 2019: Lasers in Medical Science
Jehn-Yu Huang, Chien-Chia Su, Tsing-Hong Wang, I-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Migraine is linked to endothelial dysfunction and is considered to be a systemic vasculopathy. Interestingly, systemic vascular diseases also occur in glaucoma patients and are considered to be vascular risk factors. Whether migraine is simply a concomitant condition in glaucoma patients or a risk factor per se for glaucoma remains unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the risk for open angle glaucoma (OAG) in migraineurs using a 10-year follow-up study that employed a nationwide population-based dataset in Taiwan...
February 13, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
M K Roy, M T Alam, M W Rahman, M S Islam, K A Sayeed, M Z Kamal, M K Alamgir, B Nandi, A M Mohiuddin
The aim of this prospective experimental study was to analyze the radiological and clinical results of the supra condylar fracture of Humerus in children and conducted the functional outcome of closed reduction and internal fixation by percutaneous Kirschner-wire from lateral side and crossed technique in the National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Rehabilitation (NITOR), Sher-E-Bangla Nagor, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2013. Patients diagnosed as closed Supracondylar fracture of Humerus in children due to trauma were the study population...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Claudio I Perez, Sunee Chansangpetch, Anwell Nguyen, Max Feinstein, Marta Mora, Mai Badr, Marisse Masis, Travis Porco, Shan C Lin
Purpose/Aim: To evaluate the best formula to predict intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study. We included consecutive patients with or without glaucoma, either with open or narrow angles but without peripheral anterior synechiae, who underwent phacoemulsification. Clinical factors and anterior segment parameters measured with optical biometry and optical coherence tomography were evaluated as preoperative predictors for IOP reduction at 6 months postoperatively...
February 12, 2019: Current Eye Research
Briana A Capistran, Gary J Blanchard
The influence of the copper (II) ion on the formation, morphology, and organization of an arachidic acid monolayer was investigated using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers, -A isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). Our findings indicate that a Cu2+-complexed LB film exhibits order that depends on the subphase pH, analogous to other metal ions.1-2 The metal ion facilitates formation of solid-phase films at surface pressures as low at 5 mN/m. The films exhibit a rigid, ordered phase, evidenced by the absence of a collapse point and an increase in surface pressure rather than the typical sharp decrease in surface pressure indicative of film failure...
February 12, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
L Aragonés, J I Pagán, I López, F J Navarro-González, Y Villacampa
Coastal erosion and lack of sediment supply are a serious global problem. It is therefore necessary to determine the depth of closure (DoC) of a beach-key parameter in the calculation of the sand volume and the location of the beach protection elements-in a precise way. For this reason, this work generates a numerical model based on Galerkin's formulation of finite elements that provides sufficient precision for the determination of DoC with a minimum investment. Thus, after the generation of three models in which the difference was the dependent variables, the least complex has been chosen...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kota Nagura, Alexey Bogdanov, Natalia Chumakova, Andrey Kh Vorobiev, Satori Moronaga, Hirohiko Imai, Tetsuya Matsuda, Yohei Noda, Tomoki Maeda, Satoshi Koizumi, Koichi Sakamoto, Tsukuru Amano, Fumi Yoshino, Tatsuhisa Kato, Naoki Komatsu, Rui Tamura
Metal-free magnetic mixed micelles (mean diameter: 16 nm) composed of biocompatible surfactant Tween 80 and hydrophobic pyrrolidine-<i>N</i>-oxyl radical were prepared by mixing them in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The magnetic mixed micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The stability of the micelles is found to depend on the length of alkyl side chain in the nitroxide compounds and degree of unsaturation in the hydrophobic chain in the surfactant...
February 11, 2019: Nanotechnology
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