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“Blood culture”

Christiane N Nday, Despoina Eleftheriadou, Graham Jackson
It is well established that during Alzheimer disease (AD), gradual loss of neuronal networks occurs in the brain, consequently, affecting cognition and memory tasks of the patients. Among other causative factors, oxidative stress induces changes that are eventually accompanied by an irreversible disruption of synaptic connectivity and death of neurons. Moreover, aging and oxidative stress cause alterations to the blood brain barrier, leading to increased permeability, which are thought to further aggravate the underlying pathology...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Jie Wang, Lanyu Shen, Hong Hong, Jie Li, Hongtai Wang, Xiuzhen Li
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Atrasentan (Atr) has potential therapeutic values for DN. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as vital regulators in the pathophysiology of kidney diseases including DN. Our present study aimed to further explore whether Atr could alleviate kidney injury by regulating microRNA-21(miR-21)/forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in DN mouse models and cell models. Blood glucose concentration and ACR ratio were determined by matching commercial kits. MiR-21 and FOXO1 mRNA level was measured by RT-qPCR assay...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
A P Vieira de Melo, D L Zuza-Alves, W P da Silva-Rocha, L B Ferreira Canário de Souza, E C Francisco, A Salles de Azevedo Melo, G Maranhão Chaves
BACKGROUND: Yeasts of the Candida genus are one of the most common causes of bloodstream infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. We aimed to identify yeasts obtained from blood cultures of patients interned at tertiary hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated some of the major virulence factors of Candida spp., including the ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells, biofilm formation, hemolytic and phospholipase activity...
March 12, 2019: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro, Susana B Bravo, Adriana Rozados-Luís, Mercedes González-Peteiro, Alfonso Varela-Román, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Javier García-Seara, Ezequiel Alvarez
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the type of glycation found in circulating proteins from cardiovascular patients in comparison with healthy control subjects and to explore the pathophysiological molecular effects of these glycomodified proteins on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. METHODS: Human serum albumin pools from 10 subjects each, of patients with heart failure (HF) presenting high or low glycation levels, and from healthy subjects were isolated and purified...
March 12, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Sabrina Yahiya, Ainoa Rueda-Zubiaurre, Michael J Delves, Matthew J Fuchter, Jake Baum
In recent years, the research agenda to tackle global morbidity and mortality from malaria disease has shifted towards innovation, in the hope that efforts at the frontiers of scientific research may re-invigorate gains made towards eradication. Discovery of new antimalarial drugs with novel chemotypes or modes of action lie at the heart of these efforts. There is a particular interest in drug candidates that target stages of the malaria parasite lifecycle beyond the symptomatic asexual blood stages. This is especially important given the spectre of emerging drug resistance to all current frontline antimalarials...
March 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Jessica Howard-Anderson, Kristin E Schwab, Sandy Chang, Holly Wilhalme, Christopher J Graber, Roswell Quinn
Background Scant data exists to guide the work-up for fever in hospitalized patients, and little is known about what diagnostic tests medicine residents order for such patients. We sought to analyze how cross-covering medicine residents address fever and how sign-out systems affect their response. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate febrile episodes that residents responded to overnight. Primary outcomes included diagnostic tests ordered, if an in-person evaluation occurred, and the effect of sign-out instructions that advised a "full fever work-up" (FFWU)...
March 15, 2019: Diagnosis
Marcela Tamayo-Ortiz, Jaime Navia-Antezana
BACKGROUND: Traditional ceramics are a cultural heritage in Mexico, used by the general population in everyday life. These ceramics are glazed with lead oxide and are usually produced in households that share living and working spaces. Glazing is usually performed by women, and children are not restrained from the work space and frequently help, resulting in high levels of lead exposure for all. Interventions that promote a change in technology (such as lead-free glazes or efficient kilns) are often unrealistic for potters with fewer economic resources who depend on their production as their main income...
July 27, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Sarah Logan, Thiago Arzua, Scott G Canfield, Emily R Seminary, Samantha L Sison, Allison D Ebert, Xiaowen Bai
Neurological disorders have emerged as a predominant healthcare concern in recent years due to their severe consequences on quality of life and prevalence throughout the world. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and the interactions between different brain cell types is essential for the development of new therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are invaluable tools for neurological disease modeling, as they have unlimited self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Mounting evidence shows: (i) various brain cells can be generated from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures; and (ii) further advances in 3D culture systems have led to the differentiation of iPSCs into organoids with multiple brain cell types and specific brain regions...
March 14, 2019: Comprehensive Physiology
Reeti Khare, Tarush Kothari, Joseph Castagnaro, Bryan Hemmings, May Tso, Stefan Juretschko
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of blood cultures increases with the volume of blood collected. However, hospitals face challenges in collecting adequate fill volume and under-filled blood bottles are ubiquitous. METHODS: Blood bottle fill volumes were measured using an automated monitoring system across multiples sites (10 hospitals, 3 laboratories) within a large suburban/urban health system. Baseline fill volumes were measured for 4 months. A quality improvement program was then implemented over 36 months...
March 14, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Caroline Bouter, Birgit Meller, Carsten O Sahlmann, Johannes Meller
Infective endocarditis displays a serious condition with high mortality rates. Establishing a reliable diagnosis can be challenging. This study evaluates granulocyte imaging with 99m Tc-Besilesomab-SPECT/CT in order to determine the clinical value of the method and its possible redefinition through the addition of hybrid imaging. The study comprises 26 consecutive patients with suspected infectious endocarditis or prosthetic valve infection that underwent 99m Tc-Besilesomab-SPECT/CT in our facility between December 2016 and September 2018...
2019: Frontiers in Medicine
Narjes Feizabadi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mojtaba Fathali, Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki, Mahdi Dadgoo, Hossein Kazemian, Jalil Kardan-Yamchi, Sonia Hesam Shariati
Background and Objectives: Bacterial pathogens, in particular drug resistant strains, involved in chronic rhinosinusitis may result in treatment failure. Ultrasound waves are able to destroy bacterial population in sinus cavities and can recover patients. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with chronic sinusitis and 10 healthy controls were treated by continuous ultrasound waves. Clinical specimens were collected before and after treatment. Serial diluted specimens were cultured on blood agar, chocolate and MacConkey agar plates for bacterial isolation...
December 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Hang Su, Yan Cheng, Sruthi Sravanam, Saumi Mathews, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y Poluektova, Prasanta K Dash, Howard E Gendelman
Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) tissue compartments are established soon after viral infection. However, the timing in which virus gains a permanent foothold in tissue and the cellular factors that control early viral-immune events are incompletely understood. These are critical events in studies of HIV-1 pathogenesis and in the development of viral reservoirs after antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, factors affecting the permanence of viral-tissue interactions underlie barriers designed to eliminate HIV-1 infection...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Nuria Salas-Massó, Quyen Than Linh, Wai Hoe Chin, Anders Wolff, Karl B Andree, M Dolors Furones, María José Figueras, Dang Duong Bang
The genus Arcobacter (Vandamme et al., 1991), comprised of Campylobacter -related species, are considered zoonotic emergent pathogens. The presence of Arcobacter in food products like shellfish, has an elevated incidence worldwide. In this study, we developed a specific viable quantitative PCR (v-qPCR), using the dye propidium monoazide (PMA), for quantification of the viable Arcobacter spp. cells in raw oysters and mussels. The high selectivity of primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 38 different species, 20 of them from the genus Arcobacter ...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Halyna Loi, Frederic Boal, Helene Tronchere, Mathieu Cinato, Solomiia Kramar, Oleksandra Oleshchuk, Mykhaylo Korda, Oksana Kunduzova
Cardiovascular complications are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Metformin is currently the first-line blood glucose-lowering agent with potential relevance to cardiovascular diseases. However, the underpinning mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here, we report that metformin represses cardiac apoptosis at least in part through inhibition of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) pathway. In a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), treatment with metformin attenuated cardiac and hypertrophic remodeling after 14 days of post-reperfusion...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mohammad Nikbakht, Babak Pakbin, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
Lymphocyte proliferation assays are widely used to assess the cell-mediated immunity. Current in vitro testing methods that are being used have extensive applications but still more problematic, due to the technical complexity and the needs for specialized equipment and reagents. Electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry represent a very promising tool for the development of label-free in vitro assays of cell proliferation and viability. Here, a novel procedure based on voltammetric behaviours of proliferating cells was fabricated...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Roby P Bhattacharyya, Mark Walker, Rich Boykin, Sophie S Son, Jamin Liu, Austin C Hachey, Peijun Ma, Lidan Wu, Kyungyong Choi, Kaelyn C Cummins, Maura Benson, Jennifer Skerry, Hyunryul Ryu, Sharon Y Wong, Marcia B Goldberg, Jongyoon Han, Virginia M Pierce, Lisa A Cosimi, Noam Shoresh, Jonathan Livny, Joseph Beechem, Deborah T Hung
Rapid bacterial identification remains a critical challenge in infectious disease diagnostics. We developed a novel molecular approach to detect and identify a wide diversity of bacterial pathogens in a single, simple assay, exploiting the conservation, abundance, and rich phylogenetic content of ribosomal RNA in a rapid fluorescent hybridization assay that requires no amplification or enzymology. Of 117 isolates from 64 species across 4 phyla, this assay identified bacteria with >89% accuracy at the species level and 100% accuracy at the family level, enabling all critical clinical distinctions...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kunal Malhotra, Preethi Yerram
Infective endocarditis (IE)-related glomerulonephritis (GN) typically resolves with the treatment of IE. A 59-year-old woman with a baseline creatinine of 0.7 mg/dL presented with rash on her legs, night sweats and weight loss for 3 weeks. Further evaluation revealed IE. Her blood cultures grew gamma-haemolytic streptococcus, which subsequently cleared on appropriate antibiotic therapy. Her creatinine, however, progressively worsened requiring haemodialysis. Kidney biopsy showed immune complex-mediated necrotising and crescentic GN...
March 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Daniel S Green, Ana T Nunes, Kevin W Tosh, Virginia David-Ocampo, Vicki S Fellowes, Jiaqiang Ren, Jianjian Jin, Sue-Ellen Frodigh, Chauha Pham, Jolynn Procter, Celina Tran, Irene Ekwede, Hanh Khuu, David F Stroncek, Steven L Highfill, Kathryn C Zoon, Christina M Annunziata
BACKGROUND: Monocytes are myeloid cells that reside in the blood and bone marrow and respond to inflammation. At the site of inflammation, monocytes express cytokines and chemokines. Monocytes have been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor cells in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interferon Alpha, Interferon Gamma, and IL-6. We have previously shown that monocytes stimulated with both interferons (IFNs) results in synergistic killing of ovarian cancer cells. We translated these observations to an ongoing clinical trial using adoptive cell transfer of autologous monocytes stimulated ex vivo with IFNs and infused into the peritoneal cavity of patients with advanced, chemotherapy resistant, ovarian cancer...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Agnès Esiéné, Paul Owono Etoundi, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Arlette Junette Mbengono Metogo, Jacqueline Ze Minkande
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is an underestimated pathology in sub-Saharan Africa associated with severe emergencies, and even death in case of late presentation. We herein present a case of severe envenomation managed at the surgical emergency department of the Yaoundé Central Hospital. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 47-year-old female farmer with no relevant past history who sustained a snakebite by an Echis occellatus viper during an agricultural activity...
March 12, 2019: BMC Emergency Medicine
Mehdi Hage-Sleiman, Nicolas Derre, Charlotte Verdet, Gilles Pialoux, Olivier Gaudin, Patricia Senet, Muriel Fartoukh, Mathieu Boissan, Marc Garnier
BACKGROUND: During fulminant meningococcal septicaemia, meningococci are often observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) although the patients have frequently no meningeal symptoms. Meningococcal meningitis, by contrast, usually features clinical meningeal signs and biochemical markers of inflammation with elevated white blood cell count (pleiocytosis) in the CSF. Cases of typical symptomatic meningitis without these biochemical features are uncommon in adults. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old male presented with meningococcal purpura fulminans and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome requiring hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit...
March 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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