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Tao Xu, Ben Liu, Yan Cui, Junfeng He, Jiangfeng Fan, Sijiu Yu
In order to clarify and reveal the morphological characteristics of yak placentomes, placentomes obtained from 151 to 180 days of pregnant yaks were observed using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that sessile, dome-shaped yak placentomes seemed to have a relatively complex villous-crypt architecture pattern. There was a straight maternal plate beneath the placentome. Plentiful uterine glands and a dense cellular layer were present in the endometrium lamina propria close to the maternal plate...
March 19, 2019: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Wei Liu, Yongjie Wu, Shane G DuBay, Chenhao Zhao, Bin Wang, Jianghong Ran
Variation in grassland vegetation structure influences the habitat selection of insectivorous birds. This variation presents a trade-off for insectivorous predators: Arthropod abundance increases with vegetation height and heterogeneity, but access to arthropod prey items decreases. In contrast, grazing by large herbivores reduces and homogenizes vegetation, decreasing total arthropod abundance and diversity. However, the presence of livestock dung may help counteract the overall reduction in invertebrates by increasing arthropods associated with dung...
February 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Rui Hu, Huawei Zou, Zhisheng Wang, Binghai Cao, Quanhui Peng, Xiaoping Jing, Yixin Wang, Yaqun Shao, Zhaoxi Pei, Xiangfei Zhang, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang, Suonan Zhao, Yuqing Zhou, Xiangying Kong
Growth retardation reduces the incomes of livestock farming. However, effective nutritional interventions to promote compensatory growth and the mechanisms involving digestive tract microbiomes and transcripts have yet to be elucidated. In this study, Qinghai plateau yaks, which frequently suffer from growth retardation due to malnutrition, were used as an experimental model. Young growth-retarded yaks were pastured (GRP), fed basal ration (GRB), fed basal ration addition cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH; GRBC) or active dry yeast (ADY; GRBY)...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sadhan K Basumatary, Hukam Singh, H Gregory McDonald, Swati Tripathi, Anil K Pokharia
The study reports the micro- and macrobotanical remains on wild Yak dung, providing evidence for understanding the diet, habitat, and ecology of extant and extinct megaherbivores. Grasses are the primary diet of the yak as indicated by the abundance of grass pollen and phytoliths. Other associated non-arboreal and arboreal taxa namely, Cyperacaeae, Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Prunus, and Rhododendron are also important dietary plants for their living. The observation of plant macrobotanical remains especially the vegetative part and seeds of the grasses and Cyperaceae is also in agreement with the palynodata...
2019: PloS One
Yangyang Pan, Meng Wang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Qiang Zhang, Jinglei Wang, Rui Ma, Gengquan Xu, Jam Kashif, Libin Wang, Jiangfeng Fan, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu
The fusion of sperm and oocytes determines the fertilization competence and subsequent development of embryos, which, in turn, can be affected by various proteins and DNA methylation. However, several factors in this whole regulation process remain unknown, especially in yaks. Here, we report that fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is an important growth factor that can enhance the maturation rate of yak oocytes and the motility of frozen spermatozoa. Subsequent blastocyst quality was also improved by increasing the total cell number and level of pregnancy-associated protein in blastocysts...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xiaoxi Ji, Weili Xu, Jie Cui, Ying Ma, Shaobo Zhou
Bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has shown many health benefits, however, there has not been much study on non-cattle MFGMs. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-proliferation effects and investigate the mechanisms of MFGMs from bovine, goat, buffalo, yak and camel milk in HT-29 cells. Results showed that protein content in MFGM of yak milk is the highest among five MFGM. All MFGMs reduced cellular viability which was in agreement with cell morphology and apoptosis. However, the number of cells in S-phase from 24 h to 72 h was increased significantly by treatment with goat, buffalo and bovine MFGMs (100 μg/mL), but not yak and camel...
February 22, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kun Li, Houqiang Luo, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Shahzad, Rao Zahid Abbas
BACKGROUND: Sarcocystosis is a worldwide distributed parasitic zoonosis. However, scarce knowledge is available about the infection of sarcocystosis in yaks. RESULTS: Herein, we conducted this study to survey the seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. A total of 2549 serum samples were obtained during 2011-2017, which were assayed using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that the overall seroprevalence of sarcosporidiosis in QTP yaks was 0...
February 18, 2019: Acta Parasitologica
Jiang Hu, Bingang Shi, Jianpeng Xie, Huitong Zhou, Jiqing Wang, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Zhidong Zhao, Yuzhu Luo
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 ( DGAT2 ) plays a key role in the synthesis of animal triglycerides (TGs). This study investigated the relative expression of the DGAT2 gene in tissues, variation in the gene, and its association with carcass and meat quality traits in yaks ( Bos grunniens ). DGAT2 was found to be expressed in twelve tissues investigated, but the highest expression was detected in subcutaneous fat, and moderate levels were observed in the liver, heart, longissimus dorsi muscle, and abomasum...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Lili Zhao, Min Du, Jing Gao, Biyuan Zhan, Xueying Mao
The aim of the present study was to compare the different bioactivities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins between yak and cow, and identified the differential MFGM proteins. In this study, 156 differential MFGM proteins between yak and cow were identified with various health-related bioactivities including anti-adhesion of bacteria and viruses, glucose and lipid metabolism, immunoregulation, antioxidant activity, anti-cancer and neural regulation by GOBP and KEGG pathway analysis. The efficacy of differential MFGM proteins from cow and yak milk on glucose and lipid metabolism was verified by in vitro HepG2 cells...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Liang-Li Song, Yan Cui, Si-Jiu Yu, Peng-Gang Liu, Jun-Feng He
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are important for the hair follicle (HF) cycle, but it is unclear whether they participate in HF regression in yak skin. In this study, we investigated the role of TGF-β, TGF-βRII, and HSP70 in the transition from anagen to catagen of HFs. The results showed that TGF-β2 transcription was significantly higher than that of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 in the same periods. Meanwhile, the expressions of TGF-β2, TGF-βRII, and caspase-3 were higher in the catagen phase than that in mid-anagen, and some TGF-βRII-positive HF cells were terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shengsheng Li, Qunli Yu, Ling Han, Yimin Zhang, Xiaojing Tian, Suonan Zhao
A label-free proteomics method was used to explore the effects of differentially expressed proteins on the tenderness of yak rumen smooth muscle during postmortem storage (0, 3 and 7 days) at 3 ± 1 °C. The tenderness improved significantly during storage. A total of 212 differentially expressed proteins were identified by the following comparisons: Day 3 vs.0, day 7 vs.0, and day 7 vs.3. Twenty-eight proteins were correlated with the WBSF of yak rumen smooth muscle. Calpastatin, ADP/ATP translocase 1, zyxin, LMOD1 protein, tropomyosin α-3 chain, thrombospondin-4 and UQCRC1 protein are highly related to smooth muscle tenderness, and thus, they are candidates indicators of yak rumen smooth muscle tenderness during storage...
February 2019: Food Research International
Chao Yang, Jianbo Zhang, Anum Ali Ahmad, Pengjia Bao, Xian Guo, Ruijun Long, Xuezhi Ding, Ping Yan
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary energy levels on serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as gene expression of their associated binding proteins and receptors in yak. Fifteen adult male yaks with BW of 276.1 ± 3.5 kg were allotted in three dietary groups and were fed with low (LE), medium (ME), and high energy (HE) level diet having different NEg of 5.5 MJ/kg, 6.2 MJ/kg, 6.9 MJ/kg, respectively. The effects of these treatments on ADG, BW, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio were significant ( p < 0...
January 28, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Hui Wang, Zhixin Chai, Dan Hu, Qiumei Ji, Jinwei Xin, Chengfu Zhang, Jincheng Zhong
BACKGROUND: Genomic structural variation represents a source for genetic and phenotypic variation, which may be subject to selection during the environmental adaptation and population differentiation. Here, we described a genome-wide analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in 16 populations of yak based on genome resequencing data and CNV-based cluster analyses of these populations. RESULTS: In total, we identified 51,461 CNV events and defined 3174 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) that covered 163...
January 18, 2019: BMC Genomics
Jia Loon Chong, Lian Leng Low, Darren Yak Leong Chan, Yuzeng Shen, Thiri Naing Thin, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, David Bruce Matchar
INTRODUCTION: The identification of population-level healthcare needs using hospital electronic medical records (EMRs) is a promising approach for the evaluation and development of tailored healthcare services. Population segmentation based on healthcare needs may be possible using information on health and social service needs from EMRs. However, it is currently unknown if EMRs from restructured hospitals in Singapore provide information of sufficient quality for this purpose. We compared the inter-rater reliability between a population segment that was assigned prospectively and one that was assigned retrospectively based on EMR review...
January 15, 2019: Singapore Medical Journal
Habtamu Abera Goshu, Min Chu, Wu Xiaoyun, Bao Pengjia, Ding Xue Zhi, Ping Yan
Copy number variation (CNV) influences the mRNA transcription levels and phenotypic traits through gene dosage, position effects, alteration of downstream pathways, and modulation of the structure and position of chromosomes. A previous study using the read depth approach to genome resequencing analysis revealed CNVs of the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene in the copy number variable regions (CNVRs) of yak breeds may influence muscle development and therefore the phenotypic traits of yak breeds. Further work is required to attain a more complete understanding and validate the importance of the detected CNVR of the CHKB gene found in yak breeds, because there is no association studies of the CHKB gene with yak growth traits that have been reported...
January 11, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Chong-Mei Ruan, Jing Wang, Yong-Xin Yang, Jun-Jie Hu, You-Ji Ma, Yong Zhang, Xing-Xu Zhao
To explore the protein expression profiles of white yak (Bos grunniens) testis at different sexual developmental stages. The protein profiles of yak testis were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis and the expression levels of 298 protein spots were analyzed. Mass spectrometry was performed to identify those significantly differential expressed proteins; Western blotting was used to confirm the results. During the developmental stages, 29 protein spots showed more than twofold differences (p < 0...
January 9, 2019: Animal Science Journal
Xiu-Kai Cao, Jie Cheng, Yong-Zhen Huang, Xiao-Gang Wang, Yu-Lin Ma, Shu-Jun Peng, Buren Chaogetu, Zhaxi Zhuoma, Hong Chen
Despite of favorable characteristics of high protein, low fat, and free-pollution, yak meat has intrinsically poor performance in tenderness and color, which is ever challenging yak sector. To this end, a three-way cross system was first developed for high quality beef of the Tibetan Plateau using Angus cattle ( Bos taurus) as terminal sire to mate with 1/2 yak (F1) generated from♂Qaidam cattle ( Bos taurus) × ♀yak ( Bos grunniens). The withers height, chest girth, and body weight of 1/4 yak (F2) were all great higher than that of yak and 1/2 yak ( P < 0...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aoyun Li, Xiong Jiang, Yaping Wang, Lihong Zhang, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Zhixing Li, Muhammad Waqas, Jiakui Li
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis 18 (BS-18) isolated from free-ranging Tibetan yaks in high altitude regions of Tibet (3600 m) on growth performance and gut microbial community in mice. In this study, mice (15-day-old) were used as an animal model and raised under standard conditions. A total of 20 KM mice were divided equally into two groups: control group (feed and drink freely), experimental group (feed and drink freely + 1 × 109  CFU/day BS-18). The intestines (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum) and organs (liver, spleen, kidney) were collected from all the mice at day 18 for high throughput sequencing and HE staining...
December 21, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
H N Gao, H Y Guo, H Zhang, X L Xie, P C Wen, F Z Ren
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are an important part of the intestinal barrier. Barrier function was disrupted under hypoxia, but milk-derived exosomes can regulate the intestinal barrier function. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between yak milk exosomes and hypoxia in IEC remain poorly understood. In this follow-up study, we proposed an effective optimization method for purifying yak-milk-derived exosomes. The Western blot analyses indicated that the expression of the proteins of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (TSG101), proteins of the tetraspanin family (CD63), and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) proteins from yak-milk-derived exosomes were significantly higher than those in cow-milk-derived exosomes...
February 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Yuanfang Xu, Juan Sun, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu, Junfeng He, Penggang Liu, Qian Zhang
To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology as well as the expression and localization of IgA and IgG in yak pharyngeal tonsils, 20 healthy yaks were divided into four age groups [newborn (1-7 days old), juvenile (5-7 months old), adult (3-6 years old) and old (7-10 years old)]. Morphologic characteristics were observed by histological techniques. The expression and localization of IgA and IgG in pharyngeal tonsils were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
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