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virus diagnosis

Chen-Ta Chi, Gar-Yang Chau, Rheun-Chuan Lee, Yen-Ying Chen, Hao-Jan Lei, Ming-Chih Hou, Yee Chao, Yi-Hsiang Huang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) is a rare primary liver cancer. Preoperative diagnosis of cHCC-CCA is difficult, and outcome of cHCC-CCA is obscured. Our study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and radiological features of cHCC-CCA and compare their outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). METHODS: From August 2010 to December 2017, 891 patients undergoing liver tumor resection in Taipei Veterans General Hospital, including 30 patients with pathology-proven cHCC-CCA, 819 HCC, and 42 ICC were retrospectively reviewed...
March 12, 2019: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
Di Cheng, Yaping Zhang, Dongxiao Wen, Zhuangzhuang Guo, Huaixia Yang, Yanju Liu, Jinming Kong
A novel, simple, and label-free amplification electrochemical impedance method for quantitative detection of Human T-lymphotropic virus types II(HTLV-II) via click chemistry-mediated of hairpin DNA probes (hairpins) with polymers was developed. The hairpins were firstly attached to the gold electrode surface by an S-Au bond, the azido terminals of hairpins were close to the electrode surface, which make it difficult to be approached. After hybridizing with HTLV-II, the hairpins were unfolded and experienced a big configuration change, which made the azido terminals of the hairpins available to conjugate with alkynyl-containing polymer, called P(DEB-DSDA), formed by 1,4-diacetylenebenzene (DEB) and 4,4'-Diazido-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid disodium salt tetrahydrate (DSDA) via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC)...
June 20, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Lalathaksha Kumbar, Jerry Yee
Infection-related causes are second only to cardiovascular events for mortality among end-stage renal disease patients. This review will provide an overview of hemodialysis catheter-, graft-, and fistula-related infections with emphasis on diagnosis and management in specific settings. Use of catheters at the initiation of dialysis has remained unchanged at 80%. Of all access-related bloodstream infections (BSIs), 70% occur in patients with catheters. The risk factors for BSIs in tunneled, cuffed catheters include the duration of the catheter, past catheter-related bacteremia, left-sided internal jugular vein catheters, hypoalbuminemia, and immunosuppression...
January 2019: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nur-Fadhilah Mazlan, Ling Ling Tan, Nurul Huda Abd Karim, Lee Yook Heng, Nur Diyana Jamaluddin, Nurul Yuziana Mohd Yusof, Doris Huai Xia Quay, Bahariah Khalid
An optical genosensor based on Schiff base complex (Zn2+ salphen) DNA label and acrylic microspheres (AMs) as polymer support of the capturing DNA probe (cpDNA) was developed for dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) detection via reflectance spectrophotometric method. The solid-state optical DNA biosensor showed high selectivity and specificity up to one-base mismatch in the target DNA sequence owing to the salphen chemical structure that is rich in localized electrons, and allowed π-π stacking interaction between stacked base pairs of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Jordan J Feld, Lisette A P Krassenburg
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are the most important underlying causes for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Determining the optimal approach for management of the viral infection and the HCC depends on the virus and the stage of the cancer. In patients with HCV-associated HCC, there are multiple reasons to first treat the HCC. Firstly, in case of a curable HCC, the urgency for HCC treatment is important to avoid progression during HCV treatment...
March 14, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Cesar Ortega, Leticia Cañas-Lopez, Rute Irgang, Raúl Fajardo, Matías Poblete-Morales, Benjamin Valladares-Carranza, Diana Tapia-Cammas, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera
Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is an infectious disease responsible for severe economic losses for various cyprinid species, particularly common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio). The causative agent is the SVC virus (SVCV), a member of the Sprivivirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family, and a List 1 pathogen notifiable by the World Organization for Animal Health. This study describes the diagnosis of an SVCV pathogen isolated in October 2015 from wild common carp inhabiting a natural lagoon in central Mexico. While neither an epidemic nor fish mortalities were reported, the collected killed specimens exhibited clinical signs of disease (e...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Fish Diseases
Ahmareen Baten, Masoom Desai, Miguel Melo-Bicchi, Camilo Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide and remains a devastating disease despite antiviral therapy. EEG can be an important tool in the diagnosis of HSE, and we propose that it can be used to monitor the progression of the disease in patients with treatment refractory HSE. METHODS: This is a case report of a patient with HSE who was monitored on continuous EEG (CEEG) throughout course of her disease...
March 15, 2019: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Juan Carlos Mora-Díaz, Pablo Enrique Piñeyro, Elizabeth Houston, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola
The porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is classified as a member of genus Betacoronavirus , family Coronaviridae , sub-family Cornavirinae , and order Nidovirales . PHEV shares the same genomic organization, replication strategy, and expression of viral proteins as other nidoviruses. PHEV produces vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) and/or encephalomyelitis, being the only known neurotropic coronavirus affecting pigs. First clinical outbreak was reported in 1957 in Ontario, Canada. Although pigs are the only species susceptible to natural PHEV infections, the virus displays neurotropism in mice and Wistar rats...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Eleanor R Gray, Judith Heaney, R Bridget Ferns, Patricia C Sequeira, Eleni Nastouli, Jeremy A Garson
Dengue is a vector-transmitted viral infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, with over 50 million apparent cases and a fatality rate of 2.5% of 0.5 million severe cases per annum in recent years. Four serotypes are currently co-circulating. Diagnosis of infection may be by polymerase chain reaction, serology or rapid antigen test for NS1. Both pan-serotype and serotype-specific genome detection assays have been described, however, achieving adequate sensitivity with pan-serotype assays has been challenging...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Virological Methods
Jia Xiao, Fei Wang, Nai-Kei Wong, Jinhan He, Rui Zhang, Ruijuan Sun, Yanying Xu, Yingxia Liu, Wei Li, Kazuo Koike, Weiling He, Hong You, Yinglei Miao, Xiaowei Liu, Mingming Meng, Bin Gao, Hua Wang, Cui Li
Liver diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In most developed countries, the incidence of viral hepatitis is waning as a result of modern advances in disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapies. Expanded programs for systematic immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) have also significantly brought down the number of new cases in many countries, including China. In contrast, with the improvement of living standards, prevalence of metabolic liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is set to rise, which ultimately leads to more cases of end-stage liver diseases (liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
K H Phyo, M M Oo, A D Harries, S Saw, T K Aung, J Moe, S S Thuya, Y Y Mon, A C Min, N N Naing, M S Kyi, S T Aung, H N Oo
SETTING: Two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics providing antiretroviral therapy (ART), Mandalay, Myanmar. OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalent TB at enrolment, incident TB during follow-up and associated risk factors in adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) between 2011 and 2017. DESIGN: Cohort study using secondary data. RESULTS: Of 11 777 PLHIV, 2911 (25%) had prevalent TB at or within 6 weeks of enrolment. Independent risk factors for prevalent TB were being male or single/widowed, daily alcohol consumption, CD4 count 200 cells/μl and anaemia...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
N T T Kyaw, A M V Kumar, K W Y Kyaw, S Satyanarayana, M J Magee, A C Min, J Moe, Z Z Aung, T K Aung, M M Oo, K T Soe, H N Oo, S T Aung, A D Harries
SETTING: Myanmar, a country with a high human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) burden, where the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assays are not routinely available for the diagnosis of latent tuberculous infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT) on the risk of TB disease and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of routinely collected data on PLHIV enrolled into care between 2009 and 2014...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
T Q Lo, L Matlhare, K Mugisha, T D Lere, A Ho-Foster, R Boyd, J Cavanaugh, R Ncube, A P Steenhoff, T Arscott-Mills
SETTING: Diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is difficult; to improve diagnosis , gastric aspiration (GA) was performed in 121 Botswana health facilities. OBJECTIVE: To describe treatment initiation and outcomes in children with a positive GA result and those treated empirically. METHODS: Children with smear or culture-positive GA or those clinically diagnosed were referred for anti-tuberculosis treatment. Treatment initiation and outcomes were assessed from February 2008 to December 2012 using name-based matching algorithms of the GA database; treatment initiation was captured in the electronic TB registry...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
B Crabtree-Ramírez, C Jenkins, K Jayathilake, G Carriquiry, V Veloso, D Padgett, E Gotuzzo, C Cortes, F Mejia, C C McGowan, S Duda, B E Shepherd, T R Sterling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive persons is difficult, particularly in resource-limited settings. The relationship between TB culture status and mortality in HIV-positive persons treated for TB is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated HIV-positive adults treated for TB at or after their first HIV clinic visit in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico or Peru from 2000 to 2015. Anti-tuberculosis treatment included 2 months of isoniazid, rifampicin (RMP)/rifabutin (RBT), pyrazinamide ± ethambutol, followed by continuation phase treatment with isoniazid + RMP/RBT...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Qi Chen, Wei Hu, Huacai Xiong, Shenpeng Ying, Yanyun Ruan, Bo Wu, Hongsheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported the early diagnostic values of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the concentration of plasma EBV-DNA and the number of CD8+ PD-1+ (programmed cell death-1,PD-1) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: This study included 37 patients treated with IMRT. Peripheral blood samples were collected two times for each patient, before radiation therapy and 1 week after the treatment...
March 14, 2019: Diagnostic Pathology
Eva Dopico, Rodrigo Pimenta Del-Rei, Bertha Espinoza, Itziar Ubillos, Nilson Ivo Tonin Zanchin, Elena Sulleiro, Zaira Moure, Paola Alejandra Fiorani Celedon, Wayner Vieira Souza, Edimilson Domingos da Silva, Yara Miranda Gomes, Fred Luciano Neves Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas Disease (CD) diagnosis is based on serological methods employing crude, semipurified or recombinant antigens, which may result in low sensitivity or cross-reactivity. To reduce these restrictions, we developed a strategy involving use of molecules containing repetitive fragments of Trypanosoma cruzi conserved proteins. Diagnostic performance of IBMP-8.1 and IBMP-8.4 chimeric antigens (Molecular Biology Institute of Paraná - IBMP in Portuguese acronym) was assessed to diagnose T...
March 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Satya Parida, M Selvaraj, S Gubbins, R Pope, A Banyard, Mana Mahapatra
Following the successful eradication of rinderpest, the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) have set a goal to globally eradicate Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) by 2030. To support the eradication programme we have quantified the levels of PPR virus (PPRV) nucleic acid excreted in body fluids (blood, feces, saliva, nasal and eye swabs) of PPRV-infected goats to ascertain which days post-infection animals are potentially infectious, and hence direct quarantine activities...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Francis Sena Nuvey, Elijah Paa Edu-Quansah, George Khumalo Kuma, John Eleeza, Ernest Kenu, Samuel Sackey, Donne Ameme, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Katharina Kreppel, Richard Bongo Ngandolo, Edwin Afari, Bassirou Bonfoh
BACKGROUND: Influenza-like Illness (ILI) is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or another respiratory illness with a common set of symptoms. The deaths of four schoolchildren, during a pandemic influenza outbreak in December 2017 in Ghana, raised doubts about the ILI surveillance system's performance. We evaluated the ILI surveillance system in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, to assess the system's attributes and its performance on set objectives. METHODS: CDC guidelines were used to evaluate the data of the ILI surveillance system between 2013 and 2017...
2019: PloS One
Giun-Yi Hung, Ting-Yen Yu, Hsiu-Ju Yen, Ching-Fen Yang, Li-Yih Lin, Jiun-Lin Horng
A 2-year-old Asian girl presented to our facility for the evaluation of thrombocytopenia. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin under the impression of immune thrombocytopenia. However, her body temperature spiked and progressive pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal liver function, coagulopathy, and pulmonary infiltration developed. The final diagnosis was systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome. This type of cancer is extremely rare but occurs more commonly in Asians...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Carla Tilchin, Christina M Schumacher, Kevin J Psoter, Elizabeth Humes, Ravikiran Muvva, Patrick Chaulk, William Checkley, Jacky M Jennings
BACKGROUND: The release of the first drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 marked the beginning of a new era of HIV prevention. Although PrEP is highly efficacious, identifying and ultimately increasing uptake among the highest risk male subgroups remains a challenge. METHODS: Public health surveillance data from 2009 to 2016 was used to evaluate the risk of an HIV diagnosis after a syphilis (ie, primary, secondary, or early latent), gonorrhea, and repeat diagnoses among urban males, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in Baltimore City...
April 2019: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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