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Viljami R Salmela, Kaisu Ölander, Ilkka Muukkonen, Paul M Bays
Many studies of visual working memory have tested humans' ability to reproduce primary visual features of simple objects, such as the orientation of a grating or the hue of a color patch, following a delay. A consistent finding of such studies is that precision of responses declines as the number of items in memory increases. Here we compared visual working memory for primary features and high-level objects. We presented participants with memory arrays consisting of oriented gratings, facial expressions, or a mixture of both...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Kuan-Hsun Wang, Ju-Chun Hsieh, Chang-Chiang Chen, Hsiao-Wen Zan, Hsin-Fei Meng, Sheng-Yu Kuo, Minh Trâm Ngọc Nguyễn
Salivary urea was reported to be a useful biomarker to reflect the blood urea nitrogen in chronic kidney disease patients. However, as a new biomarker, enormous clinical trials are required to define the intended-use and to verify the specification. In this report, we demonstrated a low-cost easy-operated real-time sensing system (optical fiber-urea-sensing, OFUS, system) to detect salivary urea. We aim to make the system easily reproduced by the community to stimulate abundant clinical tests worldwide. The OFUS system is composed of a simple three-dimensional printed tank to link with two optical fibers, one connecting with a commercial light-emitting diode to deliver the input light signal, the other connecting with a commercial cadmium sulfide photo-conductive cell to detect the sensing signal...
March 7, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Agata Kowalczyk, Jan Krajczewski, Artur Kowalik, Jan L Weyher, Igor Dzięcielewski, Małgorzata Chłopek, Stanisław Góźdź, Anna M Nowicka, Andrzej Kudelski
An early and accurate diagnosis of a specific DNA mutations has a decisive role for effective treatment. Especially, when an immediate decision on treatment most needs to be made, the rapid and precise confirmation of clinical findings is vital. Herein, we show a new strategy for the gene mutation (BRAF c.1799T>A; p. V600E) identification using highly SERS-active and reproducible SERS substrate (photo-etched GaN covered with a thin layer of sputtered gold) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy...
March 12, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jianxin Pan, Li Wang, Charles Lu, Yanming Zhu, Zhunyuan Min, Xi Dong, Hongying Sha
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation associated with donor-recipient mtDNA mismatch in mitochondria replacement therapy leads to unknown risks. Here, to explore whether matching mtDNA haplotypes contributes to ameliorating segregation, we reproduced various degrees of heteroplasmic mice with three single nucleotide polymorphisms to monitor segregation severity. "Segregation" presented in tissues of heteroplasmic mice containing low-level donor mtDNA heteroplasmy, and disappeared as donor mtDNA heteroplasmy levels ascended...
March 5, 2019: IScience
Bhawana Sahu, Sanchi Shah, Kaushiki Prabhudesai, Alessandro Contini, Susan Idicula-Thomas
BACKGROUND: The activation of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) by FSH and the consequent downstream signaling activities are crucial for reproductive health. The role of FSHR in tumor progression as well as osteoporosis advancement has also been well established. Currently, steroid preparations of estrogen and progesterone are being used for managing fertility, in spite of the harmful side effects, as there has not been much success in identification of effective FSHR modulators...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
María Del Carmen Ortuño-Costela, Victoria Cerrada, Marta García-López, Joaquín Arenas, Jesús Martínez, Alejandro Lucia, Rafael Garesse, M Esther Gallardo
A mouse iPSC line, IISHDOi005-A, generated from fibroblasts obtained from a mouse C57BL/6J with an age of 1 year and a half, has been obtained. For this purpose, reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc were delivered using Sendai virus.
March 12, 2019: Stem Cell Research
José García-Sánchez, Ma Del Mar Trigo, Marta Recio
Olive pollen is the main cause of pollinosis in Mediterranean countries. The immunological analysis of Ole e 1, the major allergen of Olea europaea, has usually carried out by means of ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay). However, most published works only specify the methodology related to antigen quantifications, but not the related to protein extraction. Furthermore, the results obtained are not compared with different buffers or modifications of them. The main aim of this study is to obtain an optimized and reproducible ELISA protocol for quantifications of Ole e 1 in the atmosphere...
March 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Borbála Szabó, Zsolt Lang, Gábor Bakonyi, Janine Mariën, Dick Roelofs, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Anikó Seres
Insecticide exposure may cause both transgenerational and multigenerational effects on populations, but the molecular mechanisms of these changes remain largely unclear. Many studies have focused on either transgenerational or multigenerational mechanisms but did neglect the comparative aspects. This study assessed whether the pyrethroid insecticide etofenprox (formulation Trebon® 30 EC) shows transgenerational and/or multigenerational effects on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola)...
March 18, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
E D Alves, A L O Bonfá, G R Pigatto, J A Anselmo-Franci, J A Achcar, N A Parizotto, L H Montrezor
Follicular cystic ovary disease is a common reproductive disorder in women and females of domestic animals, characterized by anovulation and the persistence of follicle is a common cause of reproductive failure in mammalian. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism (HA), chronic anovulation and polycystic ovaries, and it is a common reproductive endocrine disease with clinical manifestations including hirsutism, acne, infertility and obesity that can affect 5-20% of women in their reproductive age...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yuqin Zang, Mengting Dong, Kai Zhang, Chao Gao, Fei Guo, Yingmei Wang, Fengxia Xue
Uterine sarcomas (USs) are a group of rare but aggressive uterine malignancies, accounting for only 1% of the malignant tumors of female reproductive organs. Due to the high rate of recurrence and metastasis, the prognosis of USs is poor. Given the high mortality rate and limited clinical benefit of surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, hormonal therapy has shown good prospects in recent years. Hormonal agents include progestins, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a)...
March 21, 2019: Cancer Medicine
J O Sotunsa, A A Adeniyi, J O Imaralu, B Fawole, O Adegbola, C O Aimakhu, A S Adeyemi, K Hunyinbo, O A Dada, O O Adetoro, O T Oladapo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the burden and health service events surrounding severe maternal outcomes (SMO) related to life-threatening postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary hospitals. POPULATION: Women admitted for pregnancy, childbirth or puerperal complications. METHODS: All cases of SMO [maternal near miss (MNM) or maternal death (MD)] due to PPH were prospectively identified using WHO criteria over a 1-year period...
March 21, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
A S Adeniran, A N Ocheke, D Nwachukwu, N Adewole, B Ageda, T Onile, A C Umezulike, A P Aboyeji, O T Oladapo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the burden, causes and outcomes of severe non-obstetric maternal complications in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary health facilities. POPULATION: Women admitted with complications during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium. METHODS: All cases of severe maternal outcome (SMO: maternal near-miss or maternal death) due to non-obstetric causes were prospectively identified over a 1-year period...
March 21, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Milan Pour, Zbyněk Brůža, Jiří Kratochvíl, Jeremy N Harvey, Lubomír Rulíšek, Lucie Nováková, Jana Maříková, Jiří Kuneš, Pavel Kočovský
Pyran-2-ones 3 undergo a novel Pd(0)-catalyzed 1,3-rearrangement to afford isomers 6. The reaction proceeds via an η2-Pd complex, whose pyramidalization (confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations) offers a favorable antiperiplanar alignment of the Pd-C and allylic C-O bonds (C), thus allowing the formation of an η3 Pd intermediate. Subsequent rotation and rate-limiting recombination with the carboxylate arm then gives isomeric pyran-2-ones 6. The calculated free energies reproduce the observed kinetics semi-quantitatively...
March 21, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kazuki Hayashi, Masahiro Kikuchi, Yukihiro Imai, Daisuke Yamashita, Megumu Hino, Kyo Ito, Keiji Shimizu, Hiroyuki Harada, Shogo Shinohara
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the usefulness of fused positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) images for surgical planning in patients with oral/oropharyngeal cancer and suspected mandibular invasion. STUDY DESIGN: Individual cohort study. METHODS: Eleven of 17 patients with suspected mandibular invasion of squamous cell carcinoma of the lower gingiva, oropharynx, and buccal mucosa who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced MR imaging (MRI) and had fused PET/MR images were enrolled in this study...
March 21, 2019: Laryngoscope
Stephanie Cheung, Alessandra Parrella, Zev Rosenwaks, Gianpiero D Palermo
Evaluation of reproductive quality of spermatozoa by standard semen analysis is often inadequate to predict ART outcome. Men may be prone to meiotic error and have higher proportion of spermatozoa with fragmented chromatin, capable of affecting the conceptus' health. In men with unexplained infertility, supplementary tests may be pivotal to gain insight into the paternal contribution to the zygotic genome. A total of 113 consenting men were included in the study, with an additional 5 donor specimens used as control...
2019: PloS One
Mostafa Shokoohi, Greta R Bauer, Angela Kaida, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Mina Kazemi, Brenda Gagnier, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience poorer outcomes across the HIV care cascade and overall health, an appreciable proportion of which may not be disease-related but due to socio-structural barriers that impact health. We compared socio-structural determinants of health and self-rated health between WLWH and expected general population values. METHODS: Prevalences of socio-structural determinants and self-rated health were estimated from 1,422 WLWH aged 16+ in the 2013-2015 Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS)...
2019: PloS One
Weike Zhou, Yanni Xiao, Jane Marie Heffernan
Mass media reports can induce individual behaviour change during a disease outbreak, which has been found to be useful as it reduces the force of infection. We propose a compartmental model by including a new compartment of the intensity of the media reports, which extends existing models by considering a novel media function, which is dependent both on the number of infected individuals and on the intensity of mass media. The existence and stability of the equilibria are analyzed and an optimal control problem of minimizing the total number of cases and total cost is considered, using reduction or enhancement in the media reporting rate as the control...
2019: PloS One
Pietro Morasso, Amel Cherif, Jacopo Zenzeri
In the study of balance and postural control the (Single) Inverted Pendulum model (SIP) has been taken for a long time as an acceptable paradigm, with the implicit assumption that only ankle rotations are relevant for describing and explaining sway movements. However, more recent kinematic analysis of quiet standing revealed that hip motion cannot be neglected at all and that ankle-hip oscillatory patterns are characterized by complex in-phase and anti-phase interactions, suggesting that the SIP model should be substituted by a DIP (Double Inverted Pendulum) model...
2019: PloS One
Inga Großmann, André Hottung, Artus Krohn-Grimberghe
To what extent is it possible to use machine learning to predict the outcome of a relationship, based on the personality of both partners? In the present study, relationship satisfaction, conflicts, and separation (intents) of 192 partners four years after the completion of questionnaires concerning their personality traits was predicted. A 10x10-fold cross-validation was used to ensure that the results of the linear regression models are reproducible. The findings indicate that machine learning techniques can improve the prediction of relationship quality (37% of variance explained), and that the perceived relationship quality of a partner is mostly dependent on his or her own individual personality traits...
2019: PloS One
Vida Ami Kukula, Eleanor E MacPherson, Irene Honam Tsey, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis is endemic throughout Ghana with elevated infection levels in certain areas e.g. Lake Volta Region. While the primary focus of the national control program is on mass drug administration of praziquantel to school-aged children, Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS), a disease-specific affliction of girls and women, has been largely overlooked. To better focus future actions, our study investigated the perceptions, knowledge and understanding of FGS amongst community members and health providers...
March 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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