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Endocrine physiology

Xiaohong Liu, Ali R Khansari, Lluis Tort
The pituitary is a central organ of the neuro-endocrine system in fish that plays critical roles in various physiological processes, including stress response and behavior. Although it is known that pituitary hormones can have a direct or indirect influence stimulating or suppressing the immune responses, whether there is a local immune response in the pituitary or what is the effect of the immune stimulus on the pituitary function in fish is unknown. With the aim to understand the interaction between the immune responses and the endocrine axes at the pituitary level, particularly the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal (HPI) axis, pituitaries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cultured in vitro, incubated with bacterin, or bacterin plus CRH, cortisol, human recombinant IL1β, or spleen medium for 3h, and then genes involved in pro-inflammation (il1β, il8, tnfα1, ifnγ), anti-inflammation (tgfβ1b, il10), immune modulation (mhcIIa, c3, mif) and stress response (crhbp, pomca, pomcb, gr1) were tested...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
James Palmer, Viraj Pandit, Muhammad Zeeshan, Narong Kulvatunyou, Mohammad Hamidi, Kamil Hanna, Mindy Fain, Janko Nikolich-Zugich, El-Rasheid Zakaria, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiological reserves, increased inflammation, and decreased anabolic-endocrine response. The biomarkers associated with frailty are poorly understood in trauma. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between frailty and immune: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2Rα, TNF-α and endocrine biomarkers: Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), and growth hormone(GH) in trauma patients. METHODS: We conducted a one-year(2017-2018) prospective analysis of geriatric(≥ 65y) trauma patients admitted to our level-1 trauma center...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Caroline E Geisler, Susma Ghimire, Randy L Bogan, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to fasting, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and prolonged exercise. β-OH butyrate acts as a transcriptional regulator and at G-protein coupled receptors to modulate cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of NAFLD. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the hepatic fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to elevate β-OH butyrate production...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Heitor O Santos, Filipe J Teixeira
Hypogonadism affects an extensive part of the male population, especially among the elderly. The quest for treatment regarding low levels of serum testosterone and male infertility has, therefore, worldwide relevance. Zinc has important biological actions insofar as the male reproductive physiology and endocrine system. In general, a common and safe recommendation for zinc in the treatment of male hypogonadism is 220 mg of zinc sulfate (equivalent to 50 mg of elemental zinc) twice a day, over one to four months...
February 15, 2019: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Shahrzad Bozchelou, Mohammad Delirrad
One of the major challenges in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for drug dependence is the physiological side effects on endocrine hormones. Because of the key role of the thyroid gland in the normal functioning of the human body and brain, this study examined the effect of MMT on thyroid function. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) were evaluated in normal and user treated with MMT who were referred to the Province Clinical & Pathology Center of Urmia, Iran. The study was conducted for three months using the Case Series method...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Victoria Higgins, Shabnam Hooshmand, Khosrow Adeli
BACKGROUND: Reference intervals (i.e. normative ranges) established from a healthy reference population are essential to accurately interpret disease biomarkers. Biomarker concentration may partially depend on associations with other biomarkers due to various physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this study, a robust correlation analysis was performed to identify physiological biomarker associations in the healthy pediatric CALIPER cohort METHODS: Population reference values for 35 biochemical and 20 fertility/endocrine markers were analyzed for correlations in all subjects, male adolescents, female adolescents, and young children...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Biochemistry
Stella Campo, Luz Andreone, Verónica Ambao, Mariela Urrutia, Ricardo S Calandra, Susana B Rulli
The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone plays an important role in the regulation of gametogenesis. It is synthesized and secreted as a family of glycoforms with differing oligosaccharide structure, biological action, and half-life. The presence of these oligosaccharides is absolutely necessary for the full expression of hormone bioactivity at the level of the target cell. The endocrine milieu modulates the glycosylation of this hormone. During male sexual development a progressive increase in FSH sialylation and in the proportion of glycoforms bearing complex oligosaccharides are the main features in this physiological condition...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cassandra J Meakin, Elizabeth M Martin, John T Szilagyi, Leena A Nylander-French, Rebecca C Fry
Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with adverse developmental and reproductive outcomes. These outcomes may be tied to altered functionality of nuclear transcription factors such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the placenta and associated gene expression. The GR pathway is integral for proper fetal and placental development, and perturbations in this pathway may underlie observed associations between prenatal iAs exposure and adverse birth outcomes. We therefore set out to investigate whether iAs modulates the GR signaling pathway in placental cells...
February 12, 2019: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Elba Garreta-Lara, Antonio Checa, David Fuchs, Romà Tauler, Silvia Lacorte, Craig E Wheelock, Carlos Barata
Neuro-active pharmaceuticals have been reported to act as endocrine disruptors enhancing reproduction in the model crustacean Daphnia manga at environmental concentrations of ng/L. Oxylipins and more specifically eicosanoids, which are lipid mediators formed from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are known to regulate reproduction together with other physiological processes in insects. In D. magna, the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and their putative role in the regulation of reproduction has been studied using transcriptomics, genomics and exposures to cyclooxygenase inhibitors...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christina Glantschnig, Mascha Koenen, Manuel Gil Lozano, Michael Karbiener, Ines Pickrahn, Jasmine Williams-Dautovich, Rucha Patel, Carolyn L Cummins, Maude Giroud, Götz Hartleben, Elena Vogl, Matthias Blüher, Jan Tuckermann, Henriette Uhlenhaut, Stephan Herzig, Marcel Scheideler
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) represents the crucial molecular mediator of key endocrine, glucocorticoid hormone-dependent regulatory circuits, including control of glucose, protein, and lipid homeostasis. Consequently, aberrant glucocorticoid signaling is linked to severe metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia, all of which also appear upon chronic glucocorticoid therapy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Of note, long-term glucocorticoid exposure under these therapeutic conditions typically induces glucocorticoid resistance, requiring higher doses and consequently triggering more severe metabolic phenotypes...
February 11, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Shibani Kanungo, Jacob Morton, Mekala Neelakantan, Kevin Ching, Jasmine Saeedian, Amy Goldstein
Primary mitochondrial disorders are a group of clinically variable and heterogeneous inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), resulting from defects in cellular energy, and can affect every organ system of the body. Clinical presentations vary and may include symptoms of fatigue, skeletal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, short stature, failure to thrive, blindness, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, hearing loss, hypoglycemia, diabetes mellitus, learning difficulties, intellectual disability, seizures, stroke-like episodes, spasticity, dystonia, hypotonia, pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, gastrointestinal reflux, dysmotility, gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction, cardiomyopathy, cardiac conduction defects, and other endocrine, renal, cardiac, and liver problems...
December 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Antonio Citro, Philipp T Moser, Erica Dugnani, Konrad T Rajab, Xi Ren, Daniele Evangelista-Leite, Jonathan M Charest, Andrea Peloso, Bruno K Podesser, Fabio Manenti, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, Harald C Ott
Islet transplantation is superior to extrinsic insulin supplementation in the treating severe Type 1 diabetes. However, its efficiency and longevity are limited by substantial islet loss post-transplantation due to lack of engraftment and vascular supply. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel approach to bio-fabricate functional, vascularized islet organs (VIOs) ex vivo. We endothelialized acellular lung matrixes to provide a biocompatible multicompartment scaffold with an intact hierarchical vascular tree as a backbone for islet engraftment...
January 24, 2019: Biomaterials
Salomé Bourg, Laurent Jacob, Frédéric Menu, Etienne Rajon
Recent empirical evidence suggest that trade-off relationships can evolve, challenging the classical image of their high entrenchment. For energy reliant traits, this relationship should depend on the endocrine system that regulates resource allocation. Here we model changes in this system by mutating the expression and conformation of its constitutive hormones and receptors. We show that the shape of trade-offs can indeed evolve in this model through the combined action of genetic drift and selection, such that their evolutionarily expected curvature and length depend on context...
February 8, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
David M James, Robert A Kozol, Yuji Kajiwara, Adam L Wahl, Emily C Storrs, Joseph D Buxbaum, Mason Klein, Baharak Moshiree, Julia E Dallman
Background and aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently estimated to affect more than 1% of the world population. For people with ASD, gastrointestinal (GI) distress is a commonly reported but a poorly understood co-occurring symptom. Here, we investigate the physiological basis for GI distress in ASD by studying gut function in a zebrafish model of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), a condition caused by mutations in the SHANK3 gene. Methods: To generate a zebrafish model of PMS, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce clinically related C-terminal frameshift mutations in shank3a and shank3b zebrafish paralogues ( shank3abΔC )...
2019: Molecular Autism
Lotem Zinger, Keren Merenbakh-Lamin, Anat Klein Goldberg, Adi Elazar, Shani Journo, Tomer Boldes, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Avishay Spitzer, Tamar Rubinek, Ido Wolf
PURPOSE: Mutations in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of estrogen receptor α (ER) confer constitutive transcriptional activity and resistance to endocrine therapies in breast cancer patients. Accumulating clinical data suggest adverse outcome for patients harboring tumors expressing these mutations. We aimed to elucidate mechanisms conferring this aggressive phenotype. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cells constitutively expressing physiologic levels of ER harboring activating LBD mutations were generated and characterized for viability, invasiveness and tumor formation in vivo...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Thomas G Papathomas, Na Sun, Vasileios Chortis, Angela E Taylor, Wiebke Arlt, Susan Richter, Graeme Eisenhofer, Gerard Ruiz-Babot, Leonardo Guasti, Axel Karl Walch
Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome...
February 6, 2019: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Hirohisa Izumi, Tatsuya Ehara, Hirosuke Sugahara, Takeshi Matsubara, Eri Mitsuyama, Yuki Nakazato, Muneya Tsuda, Takashi Shimizu, Toshitaka Odamaki, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Yasuhiro Takeda
Background: Several types of oligosaccharides are used in infant formula to improve the gut microbiota of formula-fed infants. We previously reported that a combination of 3 oligosaccharides (lactulose, raffinose, and galacto-oligosaccharides; LRG) and Bifidobacterium breve effectively increased B. breve numbers, acetate, and the expression of several immune- and gut hormone-related mRNAs in neonatal mice gut. Objective: We investigated whether changes in neonatal gut microbiota alter gut immune and endocrine development...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Suvi Ruuskanen, Silvia Espín, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Tom Sarraude, Bin-Yan Hsu, Piia Pajunen, Rute A Costa, Marcel Eens, Rita Hargitai, János Török, Tapio Eeva
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) include a wide array of pollutants, such as some metals and other toxic elements, which may cause changes in hormonal homeostasis. In addition to affecting physiology of individuals directly, EDCs may alter the transfer of maternal hormones to offspring, i.e. causing transgenerational endocrine disruption. However, such effects have been rarely studied, especially in wild populations. We studied the associations between environmental elemental pollution (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb) and maternally-derived egg thyroid hormones (THs) as well as nestling THs in great tits (Parus major) using extensive sampling of four pairs of polluted and reference populations across Europe (Finland, Belgium, Hungary, Portugal)...
January 23, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Megan A Zak, Richard G Manzon
Temperature has unequivocal effects on several aspects of fish physiology, but the full extent of its interaction with key endocrine signaling systems to influence metabolic function remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to assess the individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and hyperthyroidism on hepatic metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish by quantifying mRNA abundance and activity of key metabolic enzymes. Fish were exposed to 13 (control), 17 or 21 °C for 0, 4, 8 or 24 days in the presence or absence of low-T4 (1 µg × g body weight-1 ) or high-T4 (10 µg × g body weight-1 ) treatment...
February 2, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maryam Moshref, Bonnie Tangey, Chen Gilor, Klearchos K Papas, Peter Williamson, Lindsey Loomba-Albrecht, Paul Sheehy, Amir Kol
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common spontaneous endocrine disorder in dogs, which is defined by persistent hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. Like type 1 diabetes (T1D) in people, canine DM is a complex and multifactorial disease in which genomic and epigenomic factors interact with environmental cues to induce pancreatic β-cell loss and insulin deficiency, although the pathogenesis of canine DM is poorly defined and the role of autoimmunity is further controversial. Both diseases are incurable and require life-long exogenous insulin therapy to maintain glucose homeostasis...
February 5, 2019: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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