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adrenal disease

Kazuhisa Kusuki, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuzo Mizuno
A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital for darkened skin, general fatigue and weight loss. His adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels indicated a primary adrenal insufficiency. 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT showed bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands, with 18 fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis The patient was diagnosed with tuberculous Addison's disease and treated with antituberculosis agents, including rifampicin...
March 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Jianhui Wang, Xiaorui Cheng, Xiaorui Zhang, Gang Liu, Yongan Wang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Mounting evidence has shown that inflammation might drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and contribute to its exacerbation. Previous studies have indicated that indomethacin or atorvastatin are beneficial in treating AD; however, no significant clinical effects have been shown. Furthermore, no study has investigated the efficacy of combining these agents for treating AD. This study sought to determine the effect of a combination of indomethacin and atorvastatin in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD mouse model...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Milena Carla Esposito, Ana Laura Araújo Santos, Rudy Bonfilio, Magali Benjamim de Araújo
Corticosteroids are a class of hormones released by the adrenal cortex, which includes glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and calcium and effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity. Due to their intense immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity, glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of various inflammatory, malignant, allergic conditions such as rhinitis, asthma, dermatological, rheumatic, ophthalmic and neurological diseases, as well as after organ transplants...
March 14, 2019: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Anson Tang, Charles R Rosenfeld, Michel Mikhael, Michael J McPhaul, Joshua D Koch
OBJECTIVES: Determine incidence of preoperative adrenal insufficiency in neonates >35 weeks gestation with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with bypass and effects of prophylactic methylprednisolone on postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and hemodynamic stability. DESIGN: Prospective observational study in 36 neonates with preoperative adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation tests and serial total cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurements before and after surgery...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Rajiv Balyan, Ma Cai, Wenhong Zhao, Zhao Dai, Yujia Zhai, Guangping Chen
BackgroundSulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. SULTs also regulate the biological activities of biological signaling molecules, such as various hormones, bile acids, and monoamine neurotransmitters; therefore, they play critical roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. People are subject to various kinds of physical, chemical, toxicological, physiological, and psychological stresses at one time or another. The study of the effects produced by stress may lead to finding novel remedies for many disease conditions...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Yan Xu, Jichun Han, Jinjin Dong, Xiangcheng Fan, Yuanyuan Cai, Jing Li, Tao Wang, Jia Zhou, Jing Shang
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, an increasing number of studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with an HFD for 30 and 50 days. The results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in 30-day HFD-induced NAFLD rats by regulating fatty acid related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc...
March 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeroen de Filette, Corina Emilia Andreescu, Filip Cools, Bert Bravenboer, Brigitte Velkeniers
Monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programed cell death 1 (PD-1), or its ligand (PD-L1) have become the mainstay for advanced malignancies. The incidence of endocrine adverse events provoked by these immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is based on data from randomized controlled trials, which have their drawbacks. PubMed was searched through August 22nd, 2017, by 2 reviewers independently (J.d.F. and C.E.A.). Early phase I/II, phase III experimental trials, prospective and retrospective observational studies were included...
March 2019: Hormone and Metabolic Research
Ji Li, Yabin Zou, Bin Wang, Xiangwei Meng, Xun Sun
RATIONALE: Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare malignancy due to the absence of lymphatic tissues in the kidney, and patients with PRL have been reported to have a poor prognosis due to its rapid invasiveness and limited treatment strategies. Colon cancer is the third most common cancer, and has a high mortality rate. Both malignant diseases predominantly affected elderly men; however, a case with concomitant occurrence of the 2 cancers is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 78-year-old male patient with abdominal pain came to our hospital...
March 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catarina Ferraz Liz, Alberto Rocha
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an autossomic recessive condition. The most common mutation is in the CYP21A2 gene situated in chromosome 6, leading to a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical presentation ranges from light hyperandrogenism to potentially fatal adrenal salt-losing crisis. In this study, we describe a case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a male newborn. CASE: A male newborn was brought to the emergency department owing to an episode of regurgitation after feeding, followed by pallor of the skin and decreased activity...
March 7, 2019: Pediatric Emergency Care
Nydia Burgos, Hans K Ghayee, Naykky Singh-Ospina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease characterized by cortisol deficiency. The evaluation of patients suspected of having adrenal insufficiency can be challenging because of the rarity of the disease and limitations in the biochemical assessment of the cortisol status by either basal or dynamic testing [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test]. Prompt and adequate diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid adverse outcomes. We aimed to summarize the recent developments in the conduction and interpretation of the ACTH stimulation test for the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency...
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Abhishek Jha, Kristine de Luna, Charlene Ann Balili, Corina Millo, Cecilia Angela Paraiso, Alexander Ling, Melissa K Gonzales, Bruna Viana, Rami Alrezk, Karen T Adams, Isabel Tena, Alice Chen, Jiri Neuzil, Margarita Raygada, Electron Kebebew, David Taieb, M Sue O'Dorisio, Thomas O'Dorisio, Ali Cahid Civelek, Constantine A Stratakis, Leilani Mercado-Asis, Karel Pacak
Background: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors which may cause potentially life-threatening complications, with about a third of cases found to harbor specific gene mutations. Thus, early diagnosis, treatment, and meticulous monitoring are of utmost importance. Because of low incidence of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A ( SDHA )-related metastatic PHEO/PGL, currently there exists insufficient clinical information, especially with regards to its diagnostic and treatment characteristics...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
S Mainguy-Seers, A Bessonnat, K Picotte, J-P Lavoie
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of equine asthma. A recent study reported that nebulisation of injectable dexamethasone had low systemic bioavailability in healthy horses and could represent a cost-effective therapy for equine inflammatory lung diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dexamethasone nebulisation on lung function in severe asthmatic horses. It was hypothesised that dexamethasone administered by nebulisation would be more effective than the same dose administered orally...
March 8, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Francisco J Guarda, Gonzalo P Méndez, Roberto Espinosa, Roger Gejman, Jorge Vega
We report a 23 year old woman presenting with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease, central diabetes insipidus, primary hypothyroidism, vitiligo and universal alopecia. Eleven years later, she presented secondary amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, with mild hyperprolactinemia and central adrenal insufficiency. A magnetic resonance imaging of the sella turcica showed a pituitary mass with suprasellar extension that was resected using a transsphenoidal approach. Pathology confirmed the presence of a lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis...
December 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Pascal Barone
The amino-acid tryptophan (TRY) is converted into kynurenine (KYN) and subsequent metabolites by the tryptophan/catabolites (TRY/CAT) pathway (kynurenine pathway). 'Excito-toxic' and 'neuro-protective' metabolites are produced, which modulate the glutamatergic neurotransmission. The TRY/CAT pathway is activated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal endocrine induction during stress by corticoids hormones, and the excitotoxic branch of the TRY/CAT pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines. During stress and major depressive disorders, it is generally accepted that inflammation induces an imbalance toward the excitotoxic branch of the TRY/CAT pathway, causing changes in brain connectivity in corticolimbic structures and therefore psychocognitive abnormalities...
March 5, 2019: Behavioural Pharmacology
Eleonora P M Corssmit, Olaf M Dekkers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors are mostly encountered as incidentalomas in patients undergoing imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease; although the majority are benign and nonfunctioning, malignant tumors and functioning tumors need to be excluded. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: As a consequence of increased use of technologically improved imaging techniques, the detection of adrenal incidentalomas has continued to increase...
March 5, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Yorran Hardman A Montenegro, Denise de Queiroga Nascimento, Thiago Oliveira de Assis, Simone Silva Dos Santos-Lopes
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important hormonal mechanism of the human body and is extremely programmable during embryonic and fetal development. Analyzing its development in this period is the key to understanding in fact how vulnerabilities of congenital diseases occur and any other changes in the phenotypic and histophysiological aspects of the fetus. The environment in which the mother is exposed during the gestational period can influence this axis. Knowing this, our objective was to analyze in recent research the possible impact of epigenetic programming on the HPA axis and its consequences for fetal development...
March 7, 2019: Annals of Human Genetics
Natalia de M Lyra E Silva, Minh P Lam, Claudio N Soares, Douglas P Munoz, Roumen Milev, Fernanda G De Felice
Neuropsychiatric disorders and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health concerns proposed to be intimately connected. T2D is associated with increased risk of dementia, neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Evidences of the involvement of insulin signaling on brain mechanisms related to depression indicate that insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, could develop in the brains of depressive patients. In this article, we briefly review possible molecular mechanisms associating defective brain insulin signaling with reward system, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in depression...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Shireen Mentor, Ramasamy Thangavel, Mohammad E Ahmed, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Iuliia Dubova, Smita Zaheer, Shankar S Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Mast cell activation plays an important role in stress-mediated disease pathogenesis. Chronic stress cause or exacerbate aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. The severity of inflammatory diseases is worsened by the stress. Mast cell activation-dependent inflammatory mediators augment stress associated pain and neuroinflammation. Stress is the second most common trigger of headache due to mast cell activation. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disease that affects more women than men and woman's increased susceptibility to chronic stress could increase the risk for AD...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
T J Lasisi, Y R Raji, B L Salako
The objectives of this study were to compare levels salivary electrolytes, total protein and immunoglobulin A(IgA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and healthy individuals; and to determine the relationship between thesalivary and blood levels of these factors between the two groups. Ninety-eight participants consisting of 48 patients withCKD and 50 healthy individuals (age and gender matched) were included. Whole saliva and blood samples were collectedand analyzed for concentrations of electrolytes (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, and HCO32-), total protein and IgA...
December 30, 2018: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Kirill Sergeyevich Golokhvast, Stavros Sifakis, Aristides Tsatsakis, Antonis Makrigiannakis
Pregnancy in women with associated endocrine conditions is a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. These disorders may be common, such us thyroid disorders and diabetes, or rare, including adrenal and parathyroid disease and pituitary dysfunction. With the development of assisted reproductive techniques, the number of pregnancies with these conditions has increased. It is necessary to recognize symptoms and correct diagnosis for a proper pharmacotherapeutic management in order to avoid adverse side effects both in mother and fetus...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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