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plant innate immunity

Jose Laparra, Bartosz Fotschki, Claudia Haros
Imbalances in innate immunity and the activity of innate immune cells are implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Plant seeds are good sources of protease inhibitors, which can have a significant influence on human health disorders, especially in the field of cancer prevention. To elucidate the impact and preventive effects of immunonutritional serine-type protease inhibitors (STPIs) on HCC, it was used an established model of chemically induced liver injury. Injured livers induced Akt as well as hepatic infiltration of NKG2D + and CD74 + cells...
January 22, 2019: Oncotarget
Haixiang Yu, Hanbin Bao, Zhongming Zhang, Yangrong Cao
Plant innate immunity plays an important role in regulating symbiotic associations with rhizobia, including during rhizobial infection, rhizobial colonization, and bacteroid differentiation in leguminous plants. Here we propose that an immune signaling pathway similar to plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is required for the regulation of bacteroid differentiation in Medicago truncatula nodules.
February 13, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Wenyi Wang, Gad Galili
miRNAs act as negative modulators of target genes and play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation through sequence-specific mRNA cleavage and translational inhibition. Two recent reports highlight the orchestrated role of miRNA2111 and miRNA172b in plant innate immunity [1,2] (Science 2018;362:233-236; Plant Cell 2018;30:2779-2794).
February 4, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Nurinanda Prisky Qomaladewi, Nur Aziz, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Piper cubeba L. is a plant in the Piperaceae family that is generally found in tropical countries and acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been fully investigated. In this study, we elucidated the anti-inflammatory mechanism by focusing on NF- κ B signaling, which is considered a prototypical inflammatory signaling pathway in both innate and adaptive immune functions. Cellular activity and the molecular target of Pc-ME were identified in macrophage RAW264...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Charles Copeland, Xin Li
Plants rely on a sophisticated innate immune system to recognize pathogens and defend against pathogen attacks. The immune system must be precisely regulated to be capable of mounting a strong and effective defense response while avoiding autoimmunity. Targeted protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays crucial roles in both negative and positive regulations of immunity. In the absence of pathogens, the UPS targets immune receptors and downstream signaling components to maintain their homeostasis...
2019: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Liming Zhao, Barry W Alto, Dongyoung Shin
Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. The leucine-rich repeats (LRR)-containing domain is evolutionarily conserved in many proteins associated with innate immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. We focused on the AaeLRIM1 and AaeAPL1 gene expressions in response to Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection using a time course study, as well as the developmental expressions in the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guozhong Huang, Jianhang Sun, Jiaojiao Bai, Yufang Han, Fenggui Fan, Shuangfeng Wang, Yingying Zhang, Yanmin Zou, Zhifu Han, Dongping Lu
The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) modulate plant growth and development. Cysteine (Cys) residues located in the extracellular domain of a protein are of importance for protein structure by forming disulfide bonds. To date, the systematic study of the functional significance of Cys residues in BR-insensitive1(BRI1)is still lacking. We used the brassinolide (BL)-induced exogenous bri1-EMS-Suppressor 1 (BES1) dephosphorylation in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts as a readout, took advantage of dramatic decrease of BRI1 protein levels during protoplast isolation, and of the strong phosphorylation of BES1 by BR insensitive 2 (BIN2) in protoplasts, developed a protoplast transient system to identify critical Cys sites in BRI1...
January 27, 2019: New Phytologist
Alex Canto-Pastor, Bruno A M C Santos, Adrian A Valli, William Summers, Sebastian Schornack, David C Baulcombe
Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins of the plant innate immune system are negatively regulated by the miR482/2118 family miRNAs that are in a distinct 22-nt class of miRNAs with a double mode of action. First, they cleave the target RNA, as with the canonical 21-nt miRNAs, and second, they trigger secondary siRNA production using the target RNA as a template. Here, we address the extent to which the miR482/2118 family affects expression of NLR mRNAs and disease resistance. We show that structural differences of miR482/2118 family members in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) are functionally significant...
January 24, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Haimin Chen, Rui Yang, Juanjuan Chen, Qijun Luo, Xiaoshan Cui, Xiaojun Yan, William H Gerwick
BACKGROUND: Short chain oxylipins in plants as the main volatile organic carbon have been speculated to playing an important role for plant innate immunity, however, not yet intensively studied and far away established as the fully recognized algae defense signals. RESULTS: The production of 1-octen-3-ol is self-amplified via the fatty acid-oxylipin metabolic cycle through positive feedback loop. Production of 1-octen-3-ol may act as a messenger that induces P. haitanensis to be in a "primed" state and ready for defense by upregulating the synthesis of methyl jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellin A3...
January 22, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Mariya Tsaneva, Kristof De Schutter, Bruno Verstraeten, Els J M Van Damme
Rice ( Oryza sativa ) is one of the main staple crops worldwide but suffers from important yield losses due to different abiotic and biotic stresses. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a classical genetic method which enables the creation of more resistant cultivars but does not yield information on the genes directly involved or responsible for the desired traits. Lectins are known as proteins with diverse functions in plants. Some of them are abundant proteins in seeds and are considered as storage/defense proteins while other lectins are known as stress-inducible proteins, implicated in stress perception and signal transduction as part of plant innate immunity...
January 20, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nadiyah Alqazlan, Hong Diao, Anthony M Jevnikar, Shengwu Ma
We demonstrate for the first time that a fully bioactive human IL-37, a newly discovered cytokine acting as a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity, can be recombinantly produced in plant cells. Interleukin 37 (IL-37), a newly discovered member of the interleukin (IL)-1 family of cytokines, plays a pivotal role in limiting innate inflammation and suppressing acquired immune responses, thus holding high potential for treating a wide array of human inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we have developed transgenic plants as a novel expression platform for production of human IL-37 (IL-37)...
January 18, 2019: Plant Cell Reports
Anna Hetmann, Stanisław Kowalczyk
Plants have evolved a multilevel immune system to protect them against infection by a diverse range of pathogens. The first line of plant defense consists of the integral plasma membrane receptors, known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize MAMP/PAMP or DAMP molecules. PRRs activate downstream signaling cascades that culminate in generation of the innate immune response, called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The activation of PTI leads to the induction of basal defense responses, which include influx of Ca2+ in the cytosol, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, callose deposition, stomatal closure, phytoalexins biosynthesis, defence hormone biosynthesis and transcriptional induction of a large suite of defence-related genes...
June 30, 2018: Postepy Biochemii
Tatyana I Odintsova, Marina P Slezina, Ekaterina A Istomina, Tatyana V Korostyleva, Artem S Kasianov, Alexey S Kovtun, Vsevolod J Makeev, Larisa A Shcherbakova, Alexander M Kudryavtsev
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the main components of the plant innate immune system. Defensins represent the most important AMP family involved in defense and non-defense functions. In this work, global RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were performed to explore the diversity of defensin-like (DEFL) genes in the wheat Triticum kiharae and to study their role in induced resistance (IR) mediated by the elicitor metabolites of a non-pathogenic strain FS-94 of Fusarium sambucinum . Using a combination of two pipelines for DEFL mining in transcriptome data sets, as many as 143 DEFL genes were identified in T...
2019: PeerJ
Qingzhan Yang, Mengze Zhang, Jimin Zheng, Zongchao Jia
Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that is involved in the regulation of plant defence, growth and development. A large number of proteins have been shown to have the ability to interact with SA, and NPR4 has been demonstrated to be a receptor of SA that plays significant roles in the innate immune response of plants. In this study, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were used to express full-length AtNPR4 from Arabidopsis thaliana. To facilitate crystallization, T4 lysozyme (T4L) was added to the N-terminus of the AtNPR4 protein...
January 1, 2019: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Hanwen Chen, Hui Lin, Shujun Xie, Bo Huang, Yufeng Qian, Kelie Chen, Yuequn Niu, Han-Ming Shen, Jianting Cai, Peiwei Li, Jianhang Leng, Hao Yang, Dajing Xia, Yihua Wu
Myricetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that exhibits diverse pharmacological properties. The NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 protein) inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex that plays a critical role in the innate immune response and pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory disorders. The present study found that myricetin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome assembly via promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent ubiquitination of NLRP3 and reduction of ROS-dependent ubiquitination of ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which disrupted the interaction between ASC and NLRP3 and inhibited ASC oligomerization...
December 27, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xia Yan, Jun Tao, Hong-Li Luo, Lei-Tao Tan, Wei Rong, Hui-Ping Li, Chao-Zu He
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) secretes a suite of effectors into host plants via the type III secretion system (T3SS), modulating plant immunity defenses. Strain Xcc8004 causes black rot in brassica plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, making it a classical model for the study of Xanthomonas pathogenesis. XopLXcc8004 was defined as a T3SS effctor (T3SE) since its homologues XopLXcv85-10 from X campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv85-10) contribute to virulence in host plants. Except for its virulence on Chinese radish plants, little was previously known about the regulation and function of XopLXcc8004 ...
December 27, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Andrea Lia, Antonia Gallo, Lucia Marti, Pietro Roversi, Angelo Santino
Plants offer a simpler and cheaper alternative to mammalian animal models for the study of endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein folding quality control (ERQC). In particular, the Arabidopsis thaliana ( At ) innate immune response to bacterial peptides provides an easy means of assaying ERQC function in vivo. A number of mutants that are useful to study ERQC in planta have been described in the literature, but only for a subset of these mutants the innate immune response to bacterial elicitors has been measured beyond monitoring plant weight and some physio-pathological parameters related to the plant immune response...
December 27, 2018: Genes
Momoko Takagi, Kohei Hamano, Hiroki Takagi, Takayuki Morimoto, Kazuya Akimitsu, Ryohei Terauchi, Ken Shirasu, Kazuya Ichimura
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have a pivotal role in innate immunity signaling in plants. In Arabidopsis, the MAPK pathway that consists of MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2, and MPK4 is involved in pattern-triggered immunity signaling upstream of defense gene expression. This pathway is partly guarded by SUMM2, a nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein, which is activated by disruption of the MAPK pathway. To identify other components required for the guard mechanism, here we developed a new mutant screening system utilizing a dwarf autoimmune line that overexpressed the N-terminal regulatory domain of MEKK1...
December 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Rouhallah Sharifi, Choong-Min Ryu
Plants and microorganisms (microbes) use information from chemicals such as volatile compounds to understand their environments. Proficiency in sensing and responding to these infochemicals increases an organism's ecological competence and ability to survive in competitive environments, particularly with regard to plant-pathogen interactions. Plants and microbes acquired the ability to sense and respond to biogenic volatiles during their evolutionary history. However, these signals can only be interpreted by humans through the use of state-of the-art technologies...
December 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Elżbieta Terech-Majewska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki, Sylwia Hermańska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Joanna Pajdak-Czaus, Patrycja Schulz
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of trans-resveratrol, a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties, naturally occurring in many fruits and plants on lymphocytes proliferation and also on macrophages metabolic and phagocytic activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunomodulatory effects of the compound on fish immunocompetent cells and determine the type of this interaction (immunosuppression or immunostimulation). Proliferative activity of lymphocytes was studied by MTT assay, and the respiratory burst was evaluated using the respiratory burst activity (RBA) test...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
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