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Community research

Jewel Gausman, Danielle Lloyd, Thomas Kallon, S V Subramanian, Ana Langer, S Bryn Austin
Many young people experience sexual debut before they are able to manage risk in order to avoid adverse consequences. Gender norms, social position, and power can undermine an adolescent's ability to exercise agency in their first sexual encounters and negotiate safer sexual behavior. This study examines the intersection of psychosocial and interpersonal factors with the social and physical environment to form an ecological understanding of how the determinants that shape sexual activity differ between boys and girls in two urban slums in Monrovia, Liberia...
February 8, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Ioannis Karaouzas, Christos Theodoropoulos, Aikaterini Vourka, Konstantinos Gritzalis, Nikolaos Th Skoulikidis
The environmental factors that determine species richness and community structure in running waters have long been studied, but how these factors hierarchically and/or interactively influence benthic communities remains unclear. To address this research gap, we identified the principal abiotic factors that determine the taxonomic composition and functionality of stream macroinvertebrate communities and explored possible hierarchical and/or interactive patterns. We analyzed a large dataset from Greek rivers, and compared multiple macroinvertebrate metrics and traits between perennial and intermittent watercourses during wet and dry periods...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Giselle S Mosnaim, Sally M Weinstein, Oksana Pugach, Genesis Rosales, Angkana Roy, Surrey Walton, Molly A Martin
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodology of a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of integrated asthma community health workers (CHW) and a certified asthma educator (AE-C) to improve asthma outcomes in low-income minority children in Chicago. METHODS: Child/caregiver dyads were randomized to CHW home visits or education in the clinic from an AE-C. Intervention was delivered in the first year after enrollment. Data collection occured at baseline, 6-, 12-, 18, and 24-months...
February 14, 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Marketa Marvanova, Paul Jacob Henkel
OBJECTIVES: To summarize select continuing pharmacy education (CPE) topics and hours related to geriatric care completed by community, hospital/clinic, and long-term care (LTC)/consultant pharmacists in the previous 12 months, whether pharmacy workplace influenced topic selection or completion, and to describe CPE sources used by community versus hospital/clinic pharmacists. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey (2017). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Licensed pharmacists in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska with primary practice settings in community pharmacies, hospitals, or clinics or those practicing as consultant pharmacists...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Alyssa Nickell, Susan L Stewart, Nancy J Burke, Claudia Guerra, Elly Cohen, Catherine Lawlor, Susan Colen, Janice Cheng, Galen Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a community-based navigator intervention to increase breast cancer patients' and survivors' access to information about health research participation opportunities. METHODS: In the context of a Community Based Participatory Research collaboration, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of the Health Research Engagement Intervention with pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 133). The primary outcome was health research information-seeking behavior...
February 11, 2019: Patient Education and Counseling
Jennifer Todd, Jane E Aspell, David Barron, Viren Swami
Previous research has identified a relationship between interoception and body image, where lower interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with negative body image. However, relationships between facets of interoception and positive body image remain unexplored, and men and older adults remain underrepresented. To overcome these limitations, we assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness (IA) and multiple facets of body image in community adults. An online sample of 646 British adults (447 women) aged 18-76 years completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), the Body Appreciation Scale-2, the Functionality Appreciation Scale, the Authentic Pride subscale from the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale, and the Appearance Orientation and Overweight Preoccupation subscales from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: Body Image
Yi Li, Zhiyu Zhang, Yingxing Duan, Hailei Wang
Microalgal cultivation and harvesting are two main factors that restrict the development of microalgae. To help solve these two questions, flocculating bacteria and recycling culture medium were investigated in this study. Proteins in bacterial cells of Bacillus sp. y3 and y6 exhibited direct flocculation activities on Chlorella vulgaris cells. The recycling culture media after harvest of microalgal biomass by strain y3 and y6 could promote C. vulgaris growth. The determination of bacterial community confirmed that strain Bw in C...
February 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Jérémie Richard, Alexa Martin-Storey, Erin Wilkie, Jeffrey L Derevensky, Thomas Paskus, Caroline E Temcheff
Gambling disorder has serious negative consequences for individual health and wellbeing, while being more prevalent among college student-athletes compared to the general college population. While previous research reports that sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian and bisexual) populations have higher rates of addictive behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse, no previous research has explored risk for gambling disorder symptomatology by sexual identity status. The aim of the current study is to identify differences in the severity of gambling disorder symptomatology between sexual minority and heterosexual student-athletes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Gambling Studies
Steve Lefever, Ali Rihani, Joni Van der Meulen, Filip Pattyn, Tom Van Maerken, Jo Van Dorpe, Jan Hellemans, Jo Vandesompele
For a wide range of diseases, SNPs in the genome are the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Therefore, targeted detection of these variations is of high importance for early diagnosis and (familial) screenings. While allele-specific PCR has been around for many years, its adoption for SNP genotyping or somatic mutation detection has been hampered by its low discriminating power and high costs. To tackle this, we developed a cost-effective qPCR based method, able to detect SNPs in a robust and specific manner...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Deepa Rao, Ahmed Elshafei, Minh Nguyen, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Sarah Frey, Vivian F Go
BACKGROUND: Researchers have long recognized that stigma is a global, multi-level phenomenon requiring intervention approaches that target multiple levels including individual, interpersonal, community, and structural levels. While existing interventions have produced modest reductions in stigma, their full reach and impact remain limited by a nearly exclusive focus targeting only one level of analysis. METHODS: We conducted the first systematic review of original research on multi-level stigma-reduction interventions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
Abbey L Dvorak, Eugenia Hernandez-Ruiz
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) involve entire classes of students researching a question or problem that is of interest to the scholarly community with an unknown outcome to both students and instructor. The purpose of this pre-experimental one-group posttest design study was to explore outcomes of a CURE for music therapy and music education students enrolled in a music psychology course. Specifically, we examined differences in scientific thinking, personal gains, research skills, and attitudes and behaviors of students resulting from their participation in a CURE experience, as well as students' perceived benefits of a CURE experience...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Music Therapy
Lara J Maxwell, Dorcas E Beaton, Beverley J Shea, George A Wells, Maarten Boers, Shawna Grosskleg, Clifton O Bingham, Philip G Conaghan, Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, Maarten P de Wit, Laure Gossec, Lyn March, Lee S Simon, Jasvinder A Singh, Vibeke Strand, Peter Tugwell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.1 methodology for core domain set selection. METHODS: The "OMERACT Way for Core Domain Set selection" framework consists of 3 stages: first, generating candidate domains through literature reviews and qualitative work, then a process of consensus to obtain agreement from those involved, and finally formal voting on the OMERACT Onion. The OMERACT Onion describes the placement of domains in layers/circles: mandatory in all trials/mandatory in specific circumstances (inner circle); important but optional (middle circle); or research agenda (outer circle)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Christiane Groeben
In January 1888, shortly after his Habilitation (Nov. 1887), Theodor Boveri came for the first time as guest investigator to the Naples Zoological Station. The last of his eight research stays took place in spring 1914, the year before his untimely death in 1915. The Naples Station was therefore a constant presence in all his scientific life. At least 20 of his publications are based on research done at Naples. In this paper, I will try to outline the unique working conditions that Boveri found at Naples. By 1888, the Naples Station was already an expanding, smoothly functioning organism...
February 12, 2019: Marine Genomics
Adrienne Baldwin-White, Karen Moses
One in five college women report being sexually assaulted, while men have the greatest likelihood to commit a sexual assault while attending a university. Because freshmen and sophomore college women are particularly vulnerable to victimization, it is important to provide effective sexual assault prevention education. The current study examines a multisession approach to sexual assault prevention at a southwestern university. This exploratory study assesses scores measuring knowledge of sexual assault, knowledge about healthy sexual relationships, and intent to act to prevent a sexual assault or after one has occurred, after students complete at least one of five sexual assault prevention programs (Community of Care, Consent and Respect, Step Up!, Live Well, or Frisky Business)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Tania Ruíz-Vera, Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Sergio Zarazúa, Leticia Carrizales-Yáñez, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
The aim of this research was to investigate circulating expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-126, miR-155, and miR-145) proposed as predictive CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Mean UAs concentration of 19.5 ± 14.0 μg/g creatinine was found after urine samples were analyzed (n = 105). Significant associations between UAs levels and serum expression levels of miR-155 (p < 0.05) and miR-126 (p < 0.05) were observed after adjustment for assessed co-variables...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Julia C Dunn, Alison A Bettis, Nay Yee Wyine, Aye Moe Moe Lwin, Aung Tun, Nay Soe Maung, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA), targeted at school-aged children (SAC) is the method recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of morbidity induced by soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in endemic countries. However, MDA does not prevent reinfection between treatment rounds and research suggests that only treating SAC will not be sufficient to bring prevalence to low levels and possibly interrupt transmission of STH. In countries with endemic infection, such as Myanmar, the coverage, who is targeted, and rates of reinfection will determine how effective MDA is in suppressing transmission in the long-term...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sophie Desjadins, Sylvie Lapierre, Carol Hudon, Alain Desgagné
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Research indicates that sleep efficiency below 80% substantially increases mortality risk in elderly persons. The aim of this study was to identify factors that would best predict poor sleep efficiency in the elderly, and to determine whether associations between these factors and sleep efficiency were similar for men and women and for younger and older elderly persons. METHODS: A total of 2,468 individuals aged 65-96 years (40.7% men) participated...
February 15, 2019: Sleep
William M Jackson, Jerri Chen, Robert H Dworkin
An important aspect of any research endeavor is engaging various stakeholders to work toward the common goal of pushing knowledge forward about the question at hand. Research into pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity could benefit greatly from interventions designed to improve the efforts and dedication of government agencies, pharmaceutical companies, research communities, and most importantly, patients. The Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) symposium is a biennial meeting where updates in research in the field are presented, and issues relevant to the community are discussed in round table discussions...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Anne Boat, Matthew Monteleone, Jennifer J Lee, Lena S Sun
Scientific studies in animal models have demonstrated the neurotoxic effects of anesthetic and sedative drugs on the developing brain. Human studies, however, have been limited and less conclusive. The implications for clinical care remain unclear, and there is a critical need for further research on anesthetic toxicity to ensure safe anesthesia practices for infants and children. The sixth PANDA Symposium organized a session on "Engaging Stakeholders to Support Research" to facilitate dialog around improving communication and collaboration among stakeholders and to promote coordinated research efforts...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Robert Ws Coulter, Jordan M Sang, William Louth-Marquez, Emmett R Henderson, Dorothy Espelage, Simon C Hunter, Matthew DeLucas, Kaleab Z Abebe, Elizabeth Miller, Brooke A Morrill, Kimberly Hieftje, Mark S Friedman, James E Egan
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth) experience myriad substance use and mental health disparities compared with their cisgender (nontransgender) heterosexual peers. Despite much research showing these disparities are driven by experiences of bullying and cyberbullying victimization, few interventions have aimed to improve the health of bullied SGMY. One possible way to improve the health of bullied SGMY is via a Web-accessible game intervention...
February 15, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
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