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Yield gap

Anna Rasmuson, Kurt VanNess, Cesar Ron, William P Johnson
Recent experiments revealed that roughness decreases the gap in colloid attachment between favorable (repulsion absent) and unfavorable (repulsion present) conditions through a combination of hydrodynamic slip and surface interactions with asperities. Hydrodynamic slip was calibrated to experimentally-observed tangential colloid velocities, demonstrating that slip length was equal to maximum asperity relief, thereby providing a functional relationship between slip and roughness metrics. Incorporation of the slip length in mechanistic particle trajectory simulations yielded the observed modest decrease in attachment over rough surfaces under favorable conditions, with the observed decreased attachment being due to reduced colloid delivery rather than decreased attraction...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Yingjie Zhao, Hui Liu, Chenyu Wu, Zhaohui Zhang, Qingyan Pan, Fan Hu, Ruiming Wang, Piwu Li, Xiaowen Huang, Zhibo Li
The synthesis of fully sp2-carbon conjugated covalent organic framework (COF) is extremely challenging given the difficulty of "irreversible" carbon-carbon double bond (-C=C-) formation. Here, we report the successful preparation of a 2D COF (TP-COF) based on triazine as central planar units bridged by sp2-carbon linkers through the -C=C- condensation reaction. High-resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) clearly confirmed the tessellated hexagonal pore structure with a pore center-to-center distance of 2 nm...
February 13, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Gleison D P Bossolani, Isabel Pintelon, Jan D Detrez, Roeland Buckinx, Sofie Thys, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Winnok H De Vos, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
BACKGROUND: The intestinal wall has a complex topographical architecture. The multi-layered network of the enteric nervous system and its intercellular interactions are difficult to map using traditional section-based or whole-mount histology. With the advent of optical clearing techniques, it has become feasible to visualize intact tissue and organs in 3D. However, as yet, a gap still needs to be filled in that no in-depth analysis has been performed yet on the potential of different clearing techniques for the small intestine...
February 13, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Monica C Carey, Sara L Adelman, James K McCusker
In an effort to better define the nature of the nuclear coordinate associated with excited state dynamics in first-row transition metal-based chromophores, variable-temperature ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine activation parameters associated with ground state recovery dynamics in a series of low-spin Fe(ii) polypyridyl complexes. Our results establish that high-spin (5 T2 ) to low-spin (1 A1 ) conversion in complexes of the form [Fe(4,4'-di-R-2,2'-bpy')3 ]2+ (R = H, CH3 , or tert -butyl) is characterized by a small but nevertheless non-zero barrier in the range of 300-350 cm-1 in fluid CH3 CN solution, a value that more than doubles to ∼750 cm-1 for [Fe(terpy)2 ]2+ (terpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)...
January 7, 2019: Chemical Science
Helge S Stein, Dan Guevarra, Paul F Newhouse, Edwin Soedarmadji, John M Gregoire
As the materials science community seeks to capitalize on recent advancements in computer science, the sparsity of well-labelled experimental data and limited throughput by which it can be generated have inhibited deployment of machine learning algorithms to date. Several successful examples in computational chemistry have inspired further adoption of machine learning algorithms, and in the present work we present autoencoding algorithms for measured optical properties of metal oxides, which can serve as an exemplar for the breadth and depth of data required for modern algorithms to learn the underlying structure of experimental materials science data...
January 7, 2019: Chemical Science
S Rosy Christy, L Srimathi Priya, M Durka, A Dinesh, N Babitha, S Arunadevi
In this present study, semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by microwave irradiation (ZnO-MIM) and conventional combustion (ZnO-CCM) method, respectively using Aloe vera plant extract as reducing agent. Crystal structure, purity and surface morphology of the samples were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectral studies was used to analysis the optical property and band gap energy of the samples...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yuedong Guo, Changchun Song, Wenwen Tan, Xianwei Wang, Yongzheng Lu
Eurasian permafrost serves as an important nitrogen source for linked aquatic and oceanic ecosystems. To fill in the data gaps in the southern margin of the Eurasian permafrost, nitrogen dynamics in the two rivers that drain the permafrost in the Great Xing'an Mountains of northeast China were investigated during the 2012-2015 growing seasons. The mean concentration of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in the two catchments was 0.63 mg L-1 , which is generally higher than other permafrost catchments around the Arctic Ocean...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Matthias Kick, Karsten Reuter, Harald Oberhofer
We implemented the popular Hubbard density-functional theory +U (DFT+U) method in its spherically averaged form in the all-electron, full-potential DFT code FHI-aims. There, electronic states are expressed in a basis of highly localized numeric atomic orbitals (NAO) which straightforwardly lend themselves as projector functions for the DFT+U correction, yielding the necessary occupations of the correlated Hubbard subspace at no additional cost. We establish the efficacy of our implementation on the prototypical bulk NiO and obtain the well known band-gap opening effect of DFT+U...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Md A Hakim, Erik J Behringer
Cerebral arteries and their respective microcirculation deliver oxygen and nutrients to the brain via blood flow regulation. Endothelial cells line the lumen of blood vessels and command changes in vascular diameter as needed to meet the metabolic demand of neurons. Primary endothelial-dependent signaling pathways of hyperpolarization of membrane potential (Vm) and nitric oxide typically operate in parallel to mediate vasodilation and thereby increase blood flow. Although integral to coordinating vasodilation over several millimeters of vascular length, components of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) have been historically difficult to measure...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
U N Roy, G S Camarda, Y Cui, R Gul, A Hossain, G Yang, J Zazvorka, V Dedic, J Franc, R B James
Because of its ideal band gap, high density and high electron mobility-lifetime product, cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is currently the best room-temperature compound-semiconductor X- and gamma-ray detector material. However, because of its innate poor thermo-physical properties and above unity segregation coefficient for Zn, the wide spread deployment of this material in large-volume CZT detectors is still limited by the high production cost. The underlying reason for the low yield of high-quality material is that CZT suffers from three major detrimental defects: compositional inhomogeneity, high concentrations of dislocation walls/sub-grain boundary networks and high concentrations of Te inclusions/precipitates...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Dorothea Schultheis, Matthias Weißkopf, Christoph Schaub, Salim Ansari, Van Anh Dao, Daniela Grossmann, Upalparna Majumdar, Muhammad Salim Hakeemi, Nicole Troelenberg, Tobias Richter, Christian Schmitt-Engel, Jonas Schwirz, Nadia Ströhlein, Matthias Teuscher, Gregor Bucher, Manfred Frasch
Although muscle development has been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster there are still many gaps in our knowledge, and it is not known to which extent this knowledge can be transferred to other insects. To help in closing these gaps we participated in a large-scale RNAi screen that used the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum , as a screening platform. The effects of systemic RNAi were screened upon double-stranded RNA injections into appropriate muscle-EGFP tester strains. Injections into pupae were followed by the analysis of the late embryonic/early larval muscle patterns, and injections into larvae by the analysis of the adult thoracic muscle patterns...
February 7, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Wei Cai, Bingcheng Zhu, Shuai Zhang, Chuan Qin, Yuan Jiang, Xin Wang, Fenghua Zhang, Yongjin Wang
The multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) inherently exhibits simultaneous behavior because of the overlap between the emission spectra and spectral responsivity of the MQW-diode. This feature makes it feasible to form a full-duplex light communication system when two identical MQW-diodes separately function as a transmitter and a receiver at the same time. To verify spatial full-duplex light communication, we fabricated and characterized a monolithic multicomponent system by integrating two InGaN waveguide-based MQW-diodes into a single chip...
February 4, 2019: Optics Express
Jian Lin, Qi Liu, Zenghui Yue, Kariem Diefenbach, Liwei Cheng, Yuejian Lin, Jian-Qiang Wang
Expanding the family of f-element bearing molybdate iodates via hydrothermal reactions has yielded ten new rare-earth molybdate iodates with two distinct phases, Ln(MoO2)(IO3)4(OH) (LnMoIO-1, Ln = Ce and Pr) and Ln(Mo2O7)(IO3)(H2O)2 (LnMoIO-2, Ln = Gd-Yb, and Y), as well as the first thorium molybdate iodate, ThF(MO4)(IO3) (ThFMoIO). All three structures exhibit three dimensional frameworks and are exclusively built from lanthanide/actinide polyhedra bridged by molybdates and iodates. Furthermore, the coordination versatility of molybdates (octahedral, square pyramidal, and tetrahedral geometries) results in a diversity of structures...
February 6, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wendy Keung, Patrick K W Chan, Peter C Backeris, Eugene K Lee, Nicodemus Wong, Andy O T Wong, Gabriel K Y Wong, Camie W Y Chan, Bernard Fermini, Kevin D Costa, Ronald A Li
Traditional drug discovery is an inefficient process. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes can potentially fill the gap between animal and clinical studies, but conventional 2D cultures inadequately recapitulate the human cardiac phenotype. Here, we systematically examined the pharmacological responses of engineered human ventricular-like cardiac tissue strips (hvCTS) and organoid chambers (hvCOC) to 25 cardioactive compounds covering various drug classes. While hvCTS effectively detected negative and null inotropic effects, the sensitivity to positive inotropes was modest...
February 5, 2019: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ujjwala M Warawdekar
This protocol was developed to assess communication in tumor cells and to provide a dependable and standardized assay for the in vitro determination of gap junction function. The method is noninvasive; in this method, the cell population under study is divided such that 1 fraction is loaded with a lipophilic cell plasma membrane permeable dye, calcein acetoxymethyl ester, that is hydrolyzed upon cellular uptake by cytoplasmic esterases to yield calcein, a fluorescent and membrane-impermeable molecule. The other fraction is loaded with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD)/1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate [Dil; DilC18 (3)], which is a lipophilic membrane dye that diffuses laterally to stain the entire cell membrane, is impermeable, and attains an orange-red fluorescence upon incorporation into membranes...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Spencer B Huggett, Evan A Winiger, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings
Human laboratory studies and twin research investigating relationships between alcohol use/pathology and gambling generally have yielded contradictory results, sometimes suggesting causal relationships and common genetic risk factors. 2860 individuals (mean age: 25.60, s.d = 3.21, 50.62% female) from separate clinical (n = 636) and community based (twin) samples (n = 2224) were used to assess associations between past year alcohol use and frequency of past year gambling behaviors (gambling frequency)...
January 21, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Anna Ugalde, Cadeyrn J Gaskin, Nicole M Rankin, Penelope Schofield, Anna Boltong, Sanchia Aranda, Suzanne Chambers, Meinir Krishnasamy, Patricia M Livingston
OBJECTIVE: Informal caregivers provide substantial support for people living with cancer. Previous systematic reviews report on the efficacy of cancer caregiver interventions, but not their potential to be implemented. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the potential for cancer caregiver interventions to be implemented into practice. METHODS: We searched three electronic databases to identify cancer caregiver interventions on 5 January 2018. We operationalised six implementation outcomes from Proctor et al...
February 4, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Héctor E Alcalá, Sandhya V Shimoga
Introduction: Recent research has highlighted disparities in people who perceive as trustworthy sources of e-cigarette health information. Research has yet to examine if trusting a particular source of information is associated with use of e-cigarettes or perceptions of e-cigarette harm. We use a nationally representative survey of American adults to address these gaps in knowledge. Methods: This study used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3738)...
January 26, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Peter D Kvam
Despite the prevalence of real-world and laboratory tasks where people select among many options, cognitive models have traditionally focused on choices among small sets of alternatives. This has resulted in theoretical and empirical gaps in understanding the decision processes that go into selections among many alternatives or responses that fall along a continuum. This paper addresses these issues by modeling decisions in a perceptual study where participants produce continuous orientation judgments. The experiments showed that manipulations of stimulus difficulty and time pressure have parallel effects to binary choice, with greater stimulus difficulty yielding slower and less accurate responses and time pressure resulting in faster responses at the expense of accuracy...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Aaron Forde, Talgat M Inerbaev, Erik K Hobbie, Dmitri S Kilin
Fully inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are of interest for photovoltaic and light emitting devices due to their electronic properties which can be tuned/optimized via halide composition, surface passivation, doping, and confinement. Compared to bulk materials, certain excited-state properties in NCs can be adjusted due to electronic confinement effects such as suppressed hot carrier cooling and enhanced radiative recombination. Here we use spinor Kohn-Sham orbitals (SKSOs) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction as a basis to compute excited-state dissipative dynamics simulations on a fully-passivated CsPbBr3 NC atomistic model...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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