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Natural disaster

Tom Vardy, Quentin D Atkinson
The persistent threat of natural disasters and their attendant resource shocks has likely shaped our prosocial drives throughout human evolution. However, it remains unclear how specific experiences during these events might impact cooperative decision making. We conducted two waves of four modified dictator-game experiments with the same individuals in Vanuatu ( N = 164), before and after Cyclone Pam in 2015. After the cyclone, participants were generally less likely to show prosocial motives toward both in-group and out-group members and more likely to show parochialism when sharing between groups...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Science
Guanxiong Zhang, Xingzhong Yuan, Kehong Wang
Coal resources play a strategic role in the long-term development of China. Large-scale mining has a considerable impact on the landscape, and it is a long-term heritage of industrialization unique to the Anthropocene. We investigated the macrozoobenthos and water in nine mining subsidence wetlands at different developmental stages (3-20 years) in North China. A total of 68 species were found, and the macrozoobenthos community in the newly formed wetlands showed high diversity. We believe that this high diversity is not random; rather, the high diversity was because of the special origin and development of the wetland...
2019: PeerJ
Leah Emily James, Courtney Welton-Mitchell, John Roger Noel, Alexander Scott James
BACKGROUND: Given the frequency of natural hazards in Haiti, disaster risk reduction is crucial. However, evidence suggests that many people exposed to prior disasters do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when they receive training and have adequate resources. This may be partially explained by a link between mental health symptoms and preparedness; however, these components are typically not integrated in intervention. METHODS: The current study assesses effectiveness of an integrated mental health and disaster preparedness intervention...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Qing Lu, Lixin Pang, Haoqian Huang, Chong Shen, Huiliang Cao, Yunbo Shi, Jun Liu
High-G MEMS accelerometers have been widely used in monitoring natural disasters and other fields. In order to improve the performance of High-G MEMS accelerometers, a denoising method based on the combination of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet threshold is proposed. Firstly, EMD decomposition is performed on the output of the main accelerometer to obtain the intrinsic mode function (IMF). Then, the continuous mean square error rule is used to find energy cut-off point, and then the corresponding high frequency IMF component is denoised by wavelet threshold...
February 18, 2019: Micromachines
Xiao Zhou, Rui Zhen, Xinchun Wu
OBJECTIVE: We examined the trajectories of sleep problems in adolescents after the Wenchuan earthquake, and assessed predictors such as posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. METHODS: We surveyed adolescents at 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In total, 391 adolescents completed self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: We identified five latent sleep problem trajectories, specifically, U-shaped (3.8%), low-stable (68.0%), high-stable (10...
February 19, 2019: Psychology & Health
Kyung Don Yoo, Hyo Jin Kim, Yunmi Kim, Jae Yoon Park, Sung Joon Shin, Seung Hyeok Han, Dong Ki Kim, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim
In 2016 and 2017, there were earthquakes greater than 5.0 in magnitude on the Korean Peninsula, which has previously been considered an earthquake-free zone. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, as the term "renal disaster" suggests. In the event of a major earthquake, patients on hemodialysis face the risk of losing maintenance dialysis due to infrastructure disruption. In this review, we share the experience of an earthquake in Pohang that posed a serious risk to patients on hemodialysis...
February 18, 2019: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Freda DeKeyser Ganz, Ilana Margalith, Julie Benbenishty, Miriam Hirschfeld, Nurit Wagner, Orly Toren
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the willingness of Israeli registered nurses to work under threatening conditions, their perceived level of threat, and perceptions of peer willingness to report to work. DESIGN: This descriptive study was based on a convenience sample of registered nurses working in four hospitals throughout Israel from internal medicine, surgical, emergency, and intensive care units. METHODS: A questionnaire designed by the investigators was administered to registered nurses while on duty...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Rong Zhang, Zhao-Yue Chen, Li-Jun Xu, Chun-Quan Ou
BACKGROUND: Drought is a major natural disaster that causes severe social and economic losses. The prediction of regional droughts may provide important information for drought preparedness and farm irrigation. The existing drought prediction models are mainly based on a single weather station. Efforts need to be taken to develop a new multistation-based prediction model. OBJECTIVES: This study optimizes the predictor selection process and develops a new model to predict droughts using past drought index, meteorological measures and climate signals from 32 stations during 1961 to 2016 in Shaanxi province, China...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jonathan Braun Bsc, S David Gertz, Ariel Furer, Tarif Bader, Hagay Frenkel, Jacob Chen, Elon Glassberg, Dean Nachman
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), commonly referred to as drones, have been made widely available in recent years leading to an exponential growth in their roles and applications. The rapidly developing field of medical drones is on the verge of revolutionizing pre-hospital medicine enabling advanced healthcare delivery to once-inaccessible patients. The aim of this review is to clarify the basic technical properties of currently available medical drones and review recent advances and their usefulness in military and civilian healthcare missions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Carol Ireton-Jones, Kari Nishikawa, Reid Nishikawa
Natural disasters are most often weather related but can also be unrelated to weather. Either way, these disrupt "normal" life for a short or extended period of time. When someone depends on electricity, clean water, and transportation services for life-sustaining therapies such as home nutrition support, it is important to have a plan in place-even if it is never used. Understanding supply needs, access to home utilities, and when to change location should be discussed, determined, and defined. In this article, the authors strive to provide this information for home parenteral and enteral nutrition support patients (consumers), caregivers, and clinicians...
February 14, 2019: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Matthew M Griffith, Yuichiro Yahata, Fujiko Irie, Hajime Kamiya, Aika Watanabe, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tamano Matsui, Nobuhiko Okabe, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Kazunori Oishi
Outbreaks of infectious diseases can occur after natural disasters as vital services are disrupted and populations move into evacuation centres. National notifiable disease surveillance may be inadequate in these situations because of resource-consuming disease confirmation or system interruptions. Although syndromic surveillance has been used as an alternative in post-disaster situations, no systematic evaluations of it have been published. We evaluated the ad hoc paper-based syndromic surveillance system implemented in evacuation centres in Ibaraki prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Joseph Cuthbertson, Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Andrew Robertson, Frank Archer
Identification and profiling of current and emerging disaster risks is essential to inform effective disaster risk management practice. Without clear evidence, readiness to accept future threats is low, resulting in decreased ability to detect and anticipate these new threats. A consequential decreased strategic planning for mitigation, adaptation or response results in a lowered resilience capacity. This study aimed to investigate threats to the health and well-being of societies associated with disaster impact in Oceania...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Fadwa Al Mughairbi, Ahmed Abdulaziz Alnajjar, Abdalla Hamid
This study examined the effects of psychoeducation and stress management techniques on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Libya. The 41 Libyan patients who volunteered to take part in the study were first assessed using the PTSD Checklist. They attended workshops on PTSD symptoms, stress management techniques, and communication skills on three successive days after which they were asked to answer the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations two weeks after they completed the workshops. Among the 39% of the participants who were diagnosed with PTSD prior to the intervention, 15% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after the intervention...
February 13, 2019: Psychological Reports
Albert Persaud, Geraint Day, Antonio Ventriglio, Susham Gupta, Padmavati Ramachandran, Roxanna Ruiz, Egor Chumakov, Geetha Desai, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Julio Torales, Edgardo Juan Tolentino, Kamaldeep Bhui, Dinesh Bhugra
In the previous accompanying paper, we described geopolitical factors which affect mental health of individuals who suffer directly and indirectly. These disasters whether they are natural or man-made often attract significant amounts of aid and resources - financial and human. In addition, those who offer foreign aid need to be aware of where and how the aid is being spent. In this paper, we propose that aid giving agencies give due attention to the impact the aid should have on mental health of recipients...
December 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Albert Persaud, Geraint Day, Susham Gupta, Antonio Ventriglio, Roxanna Ruiz, Egor Chumakov, Geetha Desai, Joao Castaldelli-Maia, Julio Torales, Edgardo Juan Tolentino, Kamaldeep Bhui, Dinesh Bhugra
Natural and man-made disasters carry with them major burden and very often the focus is on immediate survival and management of resulting infectious diseases. The impact of disasters directly and indirectly on the well-being and mental health of those affected often gets ignored. The reasons are often stigma and lack of attention to mental health consequences. In addition, often the focus is on preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as waterborne or airborne diseases. This is further complicated by the fact that often aid agencies in offering aid tend to focus on communicable diseases and not on mental health of populations...
December 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Seung-Hun Kim, Chansung Jung, Jaeheung Park
This study describes a three-dimensional visualization system with spatial information for the effective control of a tele-operated robot. The environmental visualization system for operating the robot is very important. The tele-operated robot performs tasks in a disaster area that is not accessible to humans. The visualization system should perform in real-time to cope with rapidly changing situations. The visualization system should also provide accurate and high-level information so that the tele-operator can make the right decisions...
February 12, 2019: Sensors
Yang Zhang, Yaolin Liu, Manqi Jin, Ying Jing, Yi Liu, Yanfang Liu, Wei Sun, Junqing Wei, Yiyun Chen
Wuhan city is the biggest city in central China and has suffered subsidence problems in recent years because of its rapid urban construction. However, longtime and wide range monitoring of land subsidence is lacking. The causes of subsidence also require further study, such as natural conditions and human activities. We use small baseline subset (SBAS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) method and high-resolution RADARSAT-2 images acquired between 2015 and 2018 to derive subsidence. The SBAS-InSAR results are validated by 56 leveling benchmarks where two readings of elevation were recorded...
February 12, 2019: Sensors
Meredith T Niles, Benjamin F Emery, Andrew J Reagan, Peter Sheridan Dodds, Christopher M Danforth
Natural hazards are becoming increasingly expensive as climate change and development are exposing communities to greater risks. Preparation and recovery are critical for climate change resilience, and social media are being used more and more to communicate before, during, and after disasters. While there is a growing body of research aimed at understanding how people use social media surrounding disaster events, most existing work has focused on a single disaster case study. In the present study, we analyze five of the costliest disasters in the last decade in the United States (Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, two sets of tornado outbreaks, and flooding in Louisiana) through the lens of Twitter...
2019: PloS One
Ekatherina Zhukova
This article looks at chronic crisis on an empirical example of radiation embodiment by survivors of a nuclear disaster. Developing further the work of Henrik Vigh, this article argues that chronic crisis is conflictual in nature, where some individuals fully embrace it, while others reject it. A total of 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with survivors of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster from Belarus who were below 18 years in 1986 and born in or after 1986. It is shown that survivors do not consider themselves affected, when they argue against social stigma imposed by others and when development discourse in relation to post-communist health care is used as a background against which nuclear victimhood can be argued...
February 13, 2019: Health (London)
E Y Y Chan, A Y T Man, H C Y Lam
Introduction: Disaster epidemiological studies indicate that Asia has the highest frequency of natural disasters. Rural communities are heavily impacted by natural disasters and have different healthcare needs to urban ones. Referencing Asian countries, this paper's objective is to provide an overview of health impacts and the current evidence for designing programmes and policies related to rural health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM). Sources of data: This paper uses published English-only reports and papers retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO on rural disaster and emergency responses and relief, health impact and disease patterns in Asia (January 2000-January 2018)...
February 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
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