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Extremely events

Micòl Mastrocicco, Nicolò Colombani, Elisa Soana, Fabio Vincenzi, Giuseppe Castaldelli
Nitrate and ammonium are common inorganic contaminants of anthropogenic origin in many shallow aquifers around the world, while nitrite is less common, but it is most harmful than nitrate and ammonium due to its high reactivity. This paper presents evidence of nitrite accumulation after intense rainfalls in soil samples collected in an agricultural field characterized by organic matter chronic depletion. Moreover, an intact core from the same site was also collected to perform an unsaturated column experiment (60 cm long and 20 cm outer diameter) mimicking heavy rainfalls (230 mm in 2 days)...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Todd A Miano, Grigor Abelian, Mark J Seamon, Kristen Chreiman, Patrick M Reilly, Niels D Martin
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events are tracked in trauma registries and by administrative datasets. Both databases are used to assess outcomes despite having varying processes for data capture. STUDY DESIGN: This study was performed at an urban, university-based, level-one trauma center from 2004-2014. Retrospective review of the trauma registry and the hospital's administrative database was performed querying for all VTEs. Each VTE was then validated through manual chart review...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Yuya Kato, Miki Fujimura, Kenichi Sato, Hidenori Endo, Teiji Tominaga
Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is an uncommon late complication after cranial irradiation. Its hemorrhagic presentation from the associated pseudo-aneurysm is extremely rare, and the optimal management strategy is undetermined. We herein report a 36-year-old man who developed intraventricular hemorrhage from a pseudo-aneurysm at the extended left anterior choroidal artery as an abnormal collateral of MMS 30 years after surgical removal and cranial irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma. Catheter angiography confirmed the diagnosis of MMS, and multiple pseudo-aneurysms were evident at the ipsilateral abnormal choroidal collateral, one of which was considered to be a source of bleeding...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Hugo Ramiro Poma, Arti Kundu, Stefan Wuertz, Verónica Beatriz Rajal
Recreational waters are a source of many diseases caused by human viral pathogens, including norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and enterovirus (EV). Water samples from the Arenales river in Salta, Argentina, were concentrated by ultrafiltration and analyzed for the concentrations of NoV GII and EV by quantitative PCR. Out of 65 samples, 61 and 59 were non-detects (below the Sample Limit of Detection limit, SLOD) for EV and NoV GII, respectively. We hypothesized that a finite number of environmental samples would lead to different conclusions regarding human health risks based on how data were treated and fitted to existing distribution functions...
February 4, 2019: Water Research
Philip Barter, Jacques Genest
This debate is designed to review the usefulness of the cholesterol mass within high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) to predict the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). PRO: There is much current confusion regarding the role of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). While it is an established fact that the concentration of HDL cholesterol is a robust, independent, inverse predictor of the risk of having an ASCVD event, recent studies have questioned whether HDLs actually protect against ASCVD...
January 16, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Brendan M Smalec, Thomas N Heider, Brianna L Flynn, Rachel J O'Neill
A common feature of eukaryotic centromeres is the presence of large tracts of tandemly arranged repeats, known as satellite DNA. However, these centromeric repeats appear to experience rapid evolution under forces such as molecular drive and centromere drive, seemingly without consequence to the integrity of the centromere. Moreover, blocks of heterochromatin within the karyotype, including the centromere, are hotspots for chromosome rearrangements that may drive speciation events by contributing to reproductive isolation...
February 15, 2019: Chromosome Research
Ian Joseph Cohen, Helen Toledano, Jerry Stein, Yehuda Kollender, Eyal Fenig, Osnat Konen, Zvi Bar-Sever, Josephine Issakov, Meora Feinmesser, Smadar Avigad, Shifra Ash
PURPOSE: We report the unexpected absence of early relapse (before 30 months) in 24 consecutive patients with isolated limb primary Ewing sarcoma treated with an intensified pilot protocol, SCMCIE94. METHODS: Clinical data for the study were collected retrospectively from the patient files. The protocol included 6 courses of chemotherapy, split radiation, and limb salvage surgery. This SCMCIE94 protocol had been used in almost all the patients described in an earlier report, in whom those with non-pelvic isolated tumors and low/absent CD56 expression in Ewing sarcoma tumor cells were all long-term survivors...
February 15, 2019: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
José M Pego-Reigosa, Juliana Restrepo Vélez, Chiara Baldini, Íñigo Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa
The information about comorbidities (excluding lymphoma) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is relatively scarce. Cardiovascular disease, infections, musculoskeletal conditions or malignancy are likely the most relevant comorbid conditions in pSS. Different infections (particularly oral candidal infections) and fibromyalgia are extremely frequent in the daily clinical practice. On the other hand, the incidence of cardiovascular events and cancer in pSS is low, so information about them comes from large epidemiological studies or meta-analysis...
February 15, 2019: Rheumatology
Pierre-Antoine Chuste, Catherine Massonnet, Dominique Gérant, Berndt Zeller, Joseph Levillain, Christian Hossann, Nicolas Angeli, Rémi Wortemann, Nathalie Bréda, Pascale Maillard
The predicted recurrence of adverse climatic events such as droughts, which disrupt nutrient accessibility for trees, could jeopardize the nitrogen (N) metabolism in forest trees. Internal tree N cycling capacities are crucial to ensuring tree survival but how the N metabolism of forest trees responds to intense, repeated environmental stress is not well known. For 2 years, we submitted 9-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to either a moderate or a severe prolonged drought or a yearly removal of 75% of the foliage to induce internal N cycling changes...
February 16, 2019: Tree Physiology
Maryam Azadi, Hossein Azizi, Abbas Haghparast
The developing brain is extremely sensitive to drugs during adolescence. The devastating impacts of opioid abuse in this critical period not only do involve individuals but also are witnessed in the subsequent generations. Therefore, what is recognized as the population susceptible to the effects of opioid abuse could be much greater in number. In this study, we explored the transgenerational effects of morphine exposure in adolescent stage on morphine reward in male offspring through the patriline. Male Wistar rats underwent 10 days of incremental doses of morphine administration during adolescence; the broad spectrum of neurobehavioral alterations in rat adolescence is akin to that of human adolescence...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Adrien Nicolaï, Maria Daniela Barrios Perez, Patrice Delarue, Vincent Meunier, Marija Drndic, Patrick Senet
Solid-state nanopores (SSN) made of 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have emerged as candidate devices for biomolecules sequencing. SSN sequencing is based on measuring the variations in ionic conductance as charged biomolecules translocate through nanometer-sized channels, in response to an external voltage applied across the membrane. Although several experiments on DNA translocation through SSN have been performed in the past decade, translocation of proteins has been less studied, partly due to small protein size and detection limits...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Younan Xia, Chi-Ta Lee, Helan Wang, Ming Zhao, Tung-Han Yang, Madeline Vara
We report a one-pot method for the facile synthesis of Pd@PtnL (nL denotes the number of Pt atomic layers) core-shell icosahedral nanocrystals. The success of this method relies on the use of Na2PdCl4 and Pt(acac)2 as the precursors to Pd and Pt atoms, respectively. Our quantitative analysis of the reduction kinetics indicates that the Pd(II) and Pt(II) precursors are sequentially reduced with a major gap between the two events. Specifically, the Pd(II) precursor is reduced first, leading to the formation of Pd-based icosahedral seeds with a multiply-twinned structure...
February 15, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
Carla Stefania Colaci, Manuel Mendizabal, Fernando Bessone
Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare adverse event to drugs that occasionally leads to severe liver damage, being one of the leading causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in developed countries. DILI is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. Thus, careful history of drug taking and ruling out other competing etiologies is mandatory given that DILI can present with an extremely variable phenotype. Several prognostic scores have been developed to promptly identify patients with potential risk of developing ALF...
February 14, 2019: Current Drug Safety
Bruce A Cohen
Early diagnosis and comprehensive management of exertional rhabdomyolysis are crucial to ensure full recovery and avoidance of complications.
April 2018: Federal Practitioner: for the Health Care Professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS
Amit Ghosh, Shouvik Das, Tuhin Ghosh, Sugata Hazra
Anthropogenic climate change is considered as one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats to the future world. Low lying deltas all over the world are increasingly subjected to multidimensional risk of sea level rise, cyclone, surges and salinisation. The life and livelihood of the communities of such deltas are endangered due to climate change acting as risk multiplier. The Mahanadi delta in the state of Odisha, India is one of the such populous deltas with estimated 8 million population in 2011 with a density of 613 persons/km2 ...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Alessandro Tomassini, Thomas A Pollak, Mark J Edwards, Sven Bestmann
The prolonged reaction times seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to a dopaminergic-dependent deficit in using prior information to prepare responses, but also have been explained by an altered temporal processing. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine, temporal processing and response preparation remains elusive. To address this, we studied PD patients, with or without medication, and age-matched healthy individuals using a variable foreperiod task requiring speeded responses to a visual stimulus occurring at variable onset-times, with block-wise changes in the temporal predictability of visual stimuli...
February 11, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Harriet Cullen, Michelle L Krishnan, Saskia Selzam, Gareth Ball, Alessia Visconti, Alka Saxena, Serena J Counsell, Jo Hajnal, Gerome Breen, Robert Plomin, A David Edwards
Neuropsychiatric disease has polygenic determinants but is often precipitated by environmental pressures, including adverse perinatal events. However, the way in which genetic vulnerability and early-life adversity interact remains obscure. We hypothesised that the extreme environmental stress of prematurity would promote neuroanatomic abnormality in individuals genetically vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. In 194 unrelated infants (104 males, 90 females), born before 33 weeks of gestation (mean gestational age 29...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
H O Ghaffari, W A Griffith, M Pec
Onset of permanent deformation in crystalline materials under a sharp indenter tip is accompanied by nucleation and propagation of defects. By measuring the spatio-temporal strain field near the indenter tip during indentation tests, we demonstrate that the dynamic strain history at the moment of a displacement burst carries characteristics of the formation and interaction of local excitations, or solitons. We show that dynamic propagation of multiple solitons is followed by a short time interval where the propagating fronts can accelerate suddenly...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Majda, M N J Moore, Di Qi
Understanding and predicting extreme events and their anomalous statistics in complex nonlinear systems are a grand challenge in climate, material, and neuroscience as well as for engineering design. Recent laboratory experiments in weakly turbulent shallow water reveal a remarkable transition from Gaussian to anomalous behavior as surface waves cross an abrupt depth change (ADC). Downstream of the ADC, probability density functions of surface displacement exhibit strong positive skewness accompanied by an elevated level of extreme events...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Sara Simões, Felix Bärlocher, Cristina Canhoto
Human-induced salinization of freshwaters constitutes a growing global problem, whose consequences on streams functioning are largely unknown. Climate change projections predict enhanced evaporation, as well as an increase in extreme events and in variability of precipitation. This will result in more frequent, extended and severe drought periods that may aggravate water salinization of streams and rivers. In this study we conducted a microcosm experiment to assess the combined effects of three drought regimes - abrupt (AD), slow (SD) and very slow transition to dryness (VSD) - and three levels of salinization (0, 4, 6 g L-1 NaCl) on microbial-mediated oak leaf decomposition over ten weeks...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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