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Ketamine restraint

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30787553/a-comparative-evaluation-of-the-sedative-effects-of-nitrous-oxide-oxygen-inhalation-and-oral-midazolam-ketamine-combination-in-children
#1
Ilasrinivasan, Jyothsna V Setty, Shyamachalam, Priya Mendiretta
Aims: To compare nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation and low dose oral midazolam-ketamine combination for anxiolysis in the management of children aged between 3 to 10 years for dental treatment. Materials and methods: A comparative clinical study with equal number of subjects in both the groups evaluating efficacy of oral ketamine-midazolam combination and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in children with Frankl behavior rating score 2 and ASA1.A total of 30 children were equally divided into 2 groups, oral midazolam-ketamine (MK) group which received 0...
September 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575708/psychiatric-considerations-regarding-prehospital-administration-of-ketamine-for-agitation
#2
Lewis L Tian, William J Newman
Recently, ketamine has seen increased use among emergency medical services in the prehospital setting as a first-line means of chemical restraint for agitated patients. In this case report, we explore an instance in which ketamine administration for nonpsychotic agitation before emergency department (ED) evaluation may have caused unexpected psychotic symptoms leading to a complicated ED course necessitating admission. As ketamine gains widespread use in the prehospital setting, the safety profile deserves reevaluation...
January 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562568/stress-and-ketamine-bimodal-influence-on-cognitive-functions
#3
Emil Trofimiuk, Przemysław Wielgat, Jan J Braszko, Halina Car
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) non-selective antagonist, ketamine, has been recently repurposed as a rapidly acting antidepressant, catalyzing the vigorous investigation of glutamate-signaling modulators as novel therapeutic agents for depressive disorders. Beneficial effects of this drug in the quick-acting treatment of depression are recognized. The long-term effects of ketamine have not been known, including the cognitive sphere. It is well acknowledged that prolonged exposure to stress induces depression and cognitive impairment...
March 15, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30531859/ketamine-and-selective-activation-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-inhibit-stress-induced-dendritic-spine-elimination
#4
Lhotse Hei Lui Ng, Yuhua Huang, Lei Han, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ying Shing Chan, Cora Sau Wan Lai
Stress is a major risk factor for the onset of many psychiatric diseases. In rodent models, chronic stress induces depression and impairs excitatory neurotransmission. However, little is known about the effect of stress on synaptic circuitry during the development of behavioral symptoms. Using two-photon transcranial imaging, we studied the effect of repeated restraint stress on dendritic spine plasticity in the frontal cortex in vivo. We found that restraint stress induced dendritic spine loss by decreasing the rate of spine formation and increasing the rate of spine elimination...
December 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30504797/vgf-and-its-c-terminal-peptide-tlqp-62-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-regulate-depression-related-behaviors-and-the-response-to-ketamine
#5
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Benoit Labonté, Carol A Tamminga, Gustavo Turecki, Eric J Nestler, Scott J Russo, Stephen R Salton
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) often have structural and functional deficits in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but the underlying molecular pathways are incompletely understood. The neuropeptide precursor VGF (non-acronymic) plays a critical role in depression and antidepressant efficacy in hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, however its function in vmPFC has not been investigated. Here, we show that VGF levels were reduced in Brodmann area 25 (a portion of human vmPFC) of MDD patients and in mouse vmPFC following chronic restraint stress (CRS), and were increased by ketamine in mouse vmPFC...
November 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30118360/outcomes-of-prehospital-chemical-sedation-with-ketamine-versus-haloperidol-and-benzodiazepine-or-physical-restraint-only
#6
Laurel O'Connor, Matthew Rebesco, Conor Robinson, Karen Gross, Andrew Castellana, Mark J O'Connor, Marc Restuccia
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to describe complications and outcomes of prehospital ketamine use for agitation as compared to other methods of physical or chemical restraint such as haloperidol plus benzodiazepine or physical restraint only. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patient encounters in which restraint was administered in the prehospital setting. At the beginning of our study window, only physical restraint was available to paramedics managing agitated patients but subsequently, haloperidol and benzodiazepines were introduced, followed by ketamine 2 years later...
March 2019: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30031556/the-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-agitation-in-an-urban-county-emergency-department
#7
James R Miner, Lauren R Klein, Jon B Cole, Brian E Driver, Johanna C Moore, Jeffrey D Ho
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the characteristics and prevalence of agitation among patients in an urban county emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of ED patients at an urban Level I trauma center. All ED patients were screened during daily randomized 8-hour enrollment periods. Adult agitated patients, defined as having an altered mental status score greater than 1, were included. Trained research volunteers collected demographics and baseline data, including the presenting altered mental status score, use and type of restraints, and whether any initial sedative was given...
October 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30024456/intramuscular-ketamine-protocol-as-an-alternative-to-physical-restraints-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-administration-in-a-psychotic-patient-a-case-report
#8
Lucia Angela Smith-Martinez, Lauren Nicole Chatham, Purushothaman Muthukanagaraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30018022/effect-of-acute-restraint-stress-in-a-polytrauma-rat-model
#9
Françoise Arnaud, Georgina Pappas, Ye Chen, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard McCarron
INTRODUCTION: A stressful environment may contribute to poor outcomes after TBI. The current study evaluates the impact of acute stress in a polytrauma rat model. METHODS: Rats were stressed by a 45-minute immobilization period before instrumentation under ketamine (t1). Polytrauma was produced by blast overpressure and controlled hemorrhage (t2). Rats were euthanized immediately after a 3 h simulated Medevac-transport time (t3) or after 72 h post-trauma (t4)...
September 25, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29986699/evaluation-of-anaesthesia-and-analgesia-quality-during-disbudding-of-goat-kids-by-certified-swiss-farmers
#10
N Wagmann, C Spadavecchia, U Morath-Huss, G Schüpbach-Regula, P Zanolari
BACKGROUND: Certified Swiss farmers are allowed to disbud their goat kids using a standard intramuscularly administered anaesthetic mixture. This mixture, containing xylazine and ketamine, is officially distributed with the goal to provide a painless disbudding. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of analgesia and anaesthesia achieved during disbudding, when performed by Swiss farmers. To assess this, 174 goat kids at 31 different farms were observed and filmed during cautery disbudding...
July 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29395692/approach-to-the-agitated-emergency-department-patient
#11
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Acute agitation is a common occurrence in the emergency department (ED) that requires rapid assessment and management. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current ED evaluation and management of acute agitation. DISCUSSION: Acute agitation is an increasingly common presentation to the ED and has a broad differential diagnosis including metabolic, neurologic, infectious, toxicologic, and psychiatric etiologies...
April 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29174627/role-of-nmda-receptor-glun2d-subunit-in-the-antidepressant-effects-of-enantiomers-of-ketamine
#12
Soichiro Ide, Yuiko Ikekubo, Masayoshi Mishina, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazutaka Ikeda
We investigated the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects of enantiomers of ketamine in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2D subunit knockout (GluN2D-KO) mice. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine or its enantiomers 10 min before the tail-suspension test exerted significant antidepressant effects on restraint stress-induced depression in both wildtype and GluN2D-KO mice. The antidepressant effects of (RS)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine were sustained 96 h after the injection in both wildtype and GluN2D-KO mice, but such sustained antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine were only observed in wildtype mice...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29129149/anaesthetic-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-ketamine-plus-dexmedetomidine-for-chemical-restraint-in-black-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-nigritus
#13
Jab Chagas, Lcp Santos, J R Silva Filho, C Bondan
AIMS: To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia and cardiorespiratory effects of ketamine and two doses of dexmedetomidine in captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) undergoing routine clinical examination. METHODS: Twenty-four animals undergoing routine clinical examination were enrolled in the study. Animals were briefly physically restrained and examined to ensure no obvious illness was present and that they were healthy. Monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12 per group) and then treated with a combination of I/M 7...
March 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28769008/ketamine-alleviates-depressive-like-behaviors-via-down-regulating-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-chronic-restraint-stress-in-mice
#14
Sijie Tan, Yan Wang, Ke Chen, Zhifeng Long, Ju Zou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects were associated with its anti-inflammatory actions and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Depressive-like behaviors was induced in mice using chronic restraint stress (CRS) method. Anti-depressive effects of ketamine were evaluated by forced swimming tests (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). Subsequently, brain tissue was harvested to investigate inflammatory response in the hippocampus via investigating reactive microglia numbers, serum cytokines levels and the toll-like receptor type 4 (TLR4)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28315642/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#15
Christopher F Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara B Kracinovsky, Joseph T Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28263534/cytotoxicity-of-ketamine-xylazine-and-hellabrunn-mixture-in-liver-heart-and-kidney-derived-cells-from-fallow-deer
#16
Veronika Kovacova, Ehdaa Eltayeb Eltigani Abdelsalam, Hana Bandouchova, Jiri Brichta, Barbora Havelkova, Vladimir Piacek, Frantisek Vitula, Jiri Pikula
OBJECTIVES: Chemical restraint of wild animals is practiced to accomplish intended procedures such as capture, clinical examination, collection of diagnostic samples, treatment and/or transport. Extra-label use of animal medicinal drugs is often necessary in wildlife because most approved therapeutics do not list wild species on the labelling. Here, we used cellular in vitro models, a cutting-edge tool of biomedical research, to examine cytotoxicity of anaesthetic agents in fallow deer and extrapolate these data for anaesthetic risks in wildlife...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28188706/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#17
Christopher Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara Kracinovsky, Joseph Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27891593/remote-chemical-immobilisation-method-for-free-ranging-australian-cattle
#18
J O Hampton, A Skroblin, A L Perry, T R De Ridder
BACKGROUND: Many situations are encountered in Australia where the capture and restraint of free-ranging cattle (Bos taurus/Bos indicus) is required. Chemical immobilisation via darting is a potentially useful tool for managing and researching large wild herbivores; however, there is no reliable method for its application to Australian cattle. The aim of this study was to develop an efficacious, humane, cost-effective ground darting method for free-ranging cattle. METHODS: The 30 female cattle were darted and captured on a pastoral station in north-west Australia from a vehicle...
December 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27756905/chronic-stress-prior-to-pregnancy-potentiated-long-lasting-postpartum-depressive-like-behavior-regulated-by-akt-mtor-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Baomei Xia, Chang Chen, Hailou Zhang, Wenda Xue, Juanjuan Tang, Weiwei Tao, Ruyan Wu, Li Ren, Wei Wang, Gang Chen
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects over 10% of new mothers and adversely impacts the health of offspring. One of the greatest risk factors for PPD is prepregnancy stress but the underlying biological mechanism is unknown. Here we constructed an animal model which recapitulated prepregnancy stress induced PPD and tested the role of Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus. Female virgin Balb/c mice received chronic restraint stress, followed by co-housing with a normal male mouse. We found that the chronic stress led to a transient depressive-like condition that disappeared within two weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27368710/echocardiographic-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#20
Grayson A Doss, Christoph Mans, Rebecca L Stepien
Alpha2-agonist anesthetic combinations are often used in rodent anesthesia but no information about their effects on cardiac function in chinchillas exists. The purpose of this study was to utilize echocardiography to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in chinchillas. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in eight adult chinchillas under manual restraint and following dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg) and ketamine (4 mg/kg) administration. Dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia resulted in a significantly decreased heart rate, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and flow velocity across the aortic and pulmonic valves, and significantly increased left ventricular internal diameter in systole...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
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