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Ketamine agitation

Jacob A Lebin, Arvin R Akhavan, Daniel S Hippe, Melissa H Gittinger, Jagoda Pasic, Andrew M McCoy, Marie C Vrablik
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is an emerging drug used in the management of undifferentiated, severe agitation in the prehospital setting. However, prior work has indicated that ketamine may exacerbate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to describe psychiatric outcomes in patients who receive prehospital ketamine for severe agitation. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted at two tertiary academic medical centers, utilizing chart review of patients requiring prehospital sedation for severe agitation from 01/01/2014 - 06/30/2016...
March 15, 2019: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Paige M Garber, Christopher A Droege, Kristen E Carter, Nicole J Harger, Eric W Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with emerging evidence assessing its use as a continuous infusion agent to provide concomitant analgesia and sedation. The role of ketamine as adjunctive therapy in mechanically ventilated patients is unclear. This study sought to investigate the impact of adjunctive continuous infusion ketamine on concomitant analgesic and sedative dosing while providing goal comfort in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: This retrospective, two-center, intrapatient comparison study included mechanically ventilated, adult ICU patients who received continuous infusion ketamine with at least one other analgesic or sedative infusion...
February 11, 2019: Pharmacotherapy
Susanne Dyal, Robert MacLaren
Background: Alcohol withdrawal occurs commonly but diagnosis and therapies have not been described. Objective: To characterize practices regarding the assessment and treatment of acute severe alcohol withdrawal and describe perceived barriers to therapies. Methods: A random sample of 500 US-based critical care pharmacists received the pretested, electronically distributed questionnaire. Results: 94 (20%) of 471 eligible recipients responded with diverse representation. Manifestations of alcohol withdrawal that were commonly rated as severe were seizures (91...
February 2019: Hospital Pharmacy
Kayla A Nichols, Christopher A Paciullo
Ketamine is an anesthetic known globally both for its potent dissociative properties and potential for abuse. More recently, ketamine demonstrates utility in a variety of disease states such as treatment-resistant depression, status asthmaticus, and acute agitation. In addition, ketamine has been shown to demonstrate various effects at different doses, which adds to its pharmacological benefit. As these new indications continue to come to light, it is important to stay current with the dosing for these indications as well as the adverse effects associated with ketamine's use...
January 2019: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Narjes Akhlaghi, Pooya Payandemehr, Mehdi Yaseri, Ali A Akhlaghi, Ali Abdolrazaghnejad
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the effect of midazolam and haloperidol premedication for reducing ketamine-induced recovery agitation in adult patients undergoing procedural sedation. We also compare physician satisfaction and recovery time. METHODS: We randomized emergency department patients older than 18 years who needed procedural sedation to receive 1 of the following 3 interventions in double-blind fashion 5 minutes before receiving intravenous ketamine at 1 mg/kg: intravenous distilled water, intravenous midazolam at 0...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Lewis L Tian, William J Newman
Recently, ketamine has seen increased use among emergency medical services in the prehospital setting as a first-line means of chemical restraint for agitated patients. In this case report, we explore an instance in which ketamine administration for nonpsychotic agitation before emergency department (ED) evaluation may have caused unexpected psychotic symptoms leading to a complicated ED course necessitating admission. As ketamine gains widespread use in the prehospital setting, the safety profile deserves reevaluation...
January 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Madeline J Foertsch, Jessica B Winter, Abigail G Rhoades, Lukas T Martin, Christopher A Droege, Neil E Ernst
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a complex neurologic disorder that develops after an acute reduction in or cessation of chronic alcohol consumption that alters neurotransmitter conduction. The incidence of AWS in the intensive care unit varies, but has been associated with poor outcomes. This is primarily driven by downregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) leading to autonomic excitability and psychomotor agitation. No clinical assessment tools have been validated to assess for AWS in the intensive care unit, particularly for patients requiring mechanical ventilation...
January 2019: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
David Barbic, Gary Andolfatto, Brian Grunau, Frank X Scheuermeyer, William MacEwan, William G Honer, Hubert Wong, Skye P Barbic
BACKGROUND: The rapid control of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior is paramount for the safety of patients and ED staff. The use of intramuscular (IM) ketamine in the pre-hospital and ED settings has demonstrated promising preliminary results to provide rapid and safe behavioral control. A prospective, randomized controlled trial is required to measure the potential superiority of IM ketamine compared to current standard care (IM benzodiazepines plus antipsychotics)...
November 26, 2018: Trials
Farhad Etezadi, Yasamin Sajedi, Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Reza Shariat Moharari, Abbas Amirjamshidi
Background: Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is one of the main reasons of agitation after surgery, leading to urgency and frequency during recovery. Ketamine has been used as an effective drug for reducing the signs and severity of this problem. We hypothesized that intraurethral instillation of ketamine-lidocaine gel before urinary catheterization can reduce the incidence of CRBD in the postoperative period. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 male patients, who underwent two-level laminectomy/discectomy were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Farhad Heydari, Alireza Gholamian, Majid Zamani, Saeed Majidinejad
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular ketamine and haloperidol in sedation of severely agitated patients in emergency department (ED). Methods: This randomized, double-blind clinical trial study was performed on agitated patients referring to two university educational hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular (IM) haloperidol (5 mg) or IM ketamine (4 mg/kg). The primary outcome was time to adequate sedation (AMSS ≤ +1)...
October 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Scott L Mankowitz, Pat Regenberg, Janina Kaldan, Jon B Cole
BACKGROUND: Rapid tranquilization of agitated patients can prevent injuries and expedite care. Whereas antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are commonly used for this purpose, ketamine has been suggested as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine to sedate prehospital and emergency department (ED) patients with undifferentiated agitation. METHODS: Studies and case series of patients receiving ketamine for agitation were included...
November 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Laurel O'Connor, Matthew Rebesco, Conor Robinson, Karen Gross, Andrew Castellana, Mark J O'Connor, Marc Restuccia
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to describe complications and outcomes of prehospital ketamine use for agitation as compared to other methods of physical or chemical restraint such as haloperidol plus benzodiazepine or physical restraint only. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patient encounters in which restraint was administered in the prehospital setting. At the beginning of our study window, only physical restraint was available to paramedics managing agitated patients but subsequently, haloperidol and benzodiazepines were introduced, followed by ketamine 2 years later...
March 2019: Prehospital Emergency Care
H S Abdel-Ghaffar, S M Kamal, F A El Sherif, S A Mohamed
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and midazolam for sedative premedication administered by nebuliser 30 min before general anaesthesia in preschool children undergoing bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. METHODS: Ninety children aged 3-7 yr were randomly allocated into three equal groups to be premedicated with either nebulised ketamine 2 mg kg-1 (Group K), dexmedetomidine 2 μg kg-1 (Group D), or midazolam 0...
August 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
James R Miner, Lauren R Klein, Jon B Cole, Brian E Driver, Johanna C Moore, Jeffrey D Ho
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the characteristics and prevalence of agitation among patients in an urban county emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of ED patients at an urban Level I trauma center. All ED patients were screened during daily randomized 8-hour enrollment periods. Adult agitated patients, defined as having an altered mental status score greater than 1, were included. Trained research volunteers collected demographics and baseline data, including the presenting altered mental status score, use and type of restraints, and whether any initial sedative was given...
October 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Cierra N Treu, Christine M Groth, Jignesh H Patel
Managing pain and agitation in patients with opioid abuse is becoming more common in intensive care units. Tolerance to commonly used agents is often observed, leading to inadequate pain control and increased agitation. Ketamine's unique mechanism of action and opioid-sparing effects make it an ideal agent for patients with suboptimal response to opioid therapy. This report describes our experience using continuous ketamine infusions for analgesia and sedation in four mechanically ventilated patients with histories of opioid abuse that had suboptimal response to standard therapy...
October 2017: The journal of critical care medicine
Charles William Carspecken, Anna Borisovskaya, Shu-Tsui Lan, Katherine Heller, Jonathan Buchholz, David Ruskin, Irene Rozet
BACKGROUND: Although interest in ketamine use during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has increased, studies have been equivocal with regard to its efficacy. The aims of this clinical trial were to evaluate ketamine's antidepressive effects in ECT as a primary anesthetic, determine ketamine's tolerability when compared with standard anesthesia, and determine if plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is necessary for treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults meeting criteria for treatment-resistant depression undergoing index course ECT received either methohexital (1 to 2 mg/kg) or ketamine (1 to 2 mg/kg) anesthesia in this dual-arm double-blinded randomized clinical trial (NCT02752724)...
October 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Jason M Reese, Victoria Fernandes Sullivan, Nathan L Boyer, Cristin A Mount
Introduction: Sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit (ICU) for patients with sepsis can be challenging. Opioids and benzodiazepines can lower blood pressure and decrease respiratory drive. Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides both amnesia and analgesia without depressing respiratory drive or blood pressure. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of ketamine on the vasopressor requirement in adult patients with septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation...
November 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Nicole Palm, Catherine Floroff, Tanna B Hassig, Alice Boylan, Julie Kanter
The optimal management of recurrent painful episodes in individuals living with sickle cell disease (SCD) remains unclear. Currently, the primary treatment for these episodes remains supportive, using fluids and intravenous opioid and anti-inflammatory medications. Few reports have described the use of adjunct subanesthetic doses of ketamine to opioids for treatment of refractory pain in SCD. This article reports a retrospective case series of five patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with prolonged vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs)...
March 2018: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Anthony F Pizon, Michael J Lynch, Neal J Benedict, Joseph H Yanta, Adam Frisch, Nathan B Menke, Greg S Swartzentruber, Andrew M King, Michael G Abesamis, Sandra L Kane-Gill
OBJECTIVES: Ketamine offers a plausible mechanism with favorable kinetics in treatment of severe ethanol withdrawal. The purpose of this study is to determine if a treatment guideline using an adjunctive ketamine infusion improves outcomes in patients suffering from severe ethanol withdrawal. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted to the ICU and diagnosed with delirium tremens by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V criteria...
August 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Jiaxiao Shi, Ang Li, Zhijian Wei, Yang Liu, Cong Xing, Hongyu Shi, Han Ding, Dayu Pan, Guangzhi Ning, Shiqing Feng
OBJECTIVES: The application of atropine for pediatric sedation in the emergency department remains controversial. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature and assess the clinical indexes in groups with and without atropine use. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized and non-randomized studies that compared ketamine and ketamine plus atropine for pediatric sedation. The risk ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated using either a fixed- or random-effects model according to the value of I2 ...
July 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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