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Irritable intestine syndrome

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741841/thirty-years-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-a-review
#1
Lucio Capurso
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was the first strain belonging to the genus Lactobacillus to be patented in 1989 thanks to its ability to survive and to proliferate at gastric acid pH and in medium containing bile, and to adhere to enterocytes. Furthermore LGG is able to produces both a biofilm that can mechanically protect the mucosa, and different soluble factors beneficial to the gut by enhancing intestinal crypt survival, diminishing apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium, and preserving cytoskeletal integrity...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740845/metformin-prevents-colonic-barrier-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-mast-cell-activation-in-maternal-separation-induced-ibs-like-rats
#2
Yong Li, Tingting Yang, Qing Yao, Songsong Li, En Fang, Yankun Li, Chao Liu, Weimin Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key etiologic factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Metformin improves intestinal barrier function, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be fully explained. This study evaluates the protective effect of metformin on colonic barrier integrity and explores the underlying cellular mechanisms. METHODS: IBS-like rats were induced by maternal separation. Metformin was administered daily by gavage at 08:30, and rat pups were then separated from their mother...
February 10, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720188/intestinal-permeability-in-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-major-determinants-and-assessment-modalities
#3
C Graziani, C Talocco, R De Sire, V Petito, L R Lopetuso, J Gervasoni, S Persichilli, F Franceschi, V Ojetti, A Gasbarrini, F Scaldaferri
Intestinal permeability is the property that allows solute and fluid exchange between intestinal lumen and intestinal mucosa. Many factors could have major impact on its regulation, including gut microbiota, mucus layer, epithelial cell integrity, epithelial junction, immune responses, intestinal vasculature, and intestinal motility. Any change among these factors could have an impact on intestinal homeostasis and gut permeability. Healthy condition is associated to normal intestinal permeability whereas several intestinal and extra intestinal disease, like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among others, are associated to increased intestinal permeability...
January 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704133/plasma-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptors-and-b7-2%C3%A2-%C2%BA-extracellular-vesicles-in-blood-correlate-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-disease-severity
#4
Shin-Ichiro Hagiwara, Burcu Hasdemir, Melvin B Heyman, Lin Chang, Aditi Bhargava
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are composed of bilayer membranes that are released by different cell types and are present in bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and bile. EVs are thought to play a key role in intracellular communication. Based on their size and density, EVs are classified into small, medium, or large EVs. Cargo composition in EVs reflects physiological changes in health and disease. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) exhibit visceral hypersensitivity and mood disorders. Stressful episodes often precede disease symptoms in IBS patients...
January 30, 2019: Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697884/risk-factors-for-upper-and-lower-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-persian-gulf-war-veterans-during-and-post-deployment
#5
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, Matthew H Samore, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in Gulf War (GW) Veterans before, during, and after deployment and to determine whether gastroenteritis was a risk factor for upper and lower FGIDs. METHODS: The Veterans who served during the Persian GW were mailed validated questionnaires inquiring about their bowel habits, psychological and extra-intestinal symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
January 29, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670915/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-is-correlated-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Yu Zhang, Geng Qin, De-Rong Liu, Yan Wang, Shu-Kun Yao
BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity is considered to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Neurotrophins have drawn much attention in IBS recently. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found to mediate visceral hypersensitivity via facilitating sensory nerve growth in pre-clinical studies. We hypothesized that BDNF might play a role in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). AIM: To investigate BDNF levels in IBS-D patients and its role in IBS-D pathophysiology...
January 14, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663229/corticotropin-releasing-factor-induces-inflammatory-cytokines-via-the-nlrp6-inflammatory-cytokine-axis-in-a-murine-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Lei-Min Yu, Ke-Jia Zhao, Shuang-Shuang Wang, Xi Wang, Bin Lu
AIM: As a stress-related disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has aberrant brain-gut communication and low-grade inflammation in the intestine. This study determined the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on regulating the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6)- inflammatory cytokine axis in a murine model of IBS. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to water avoidance stress (WAS) for 1 h/day over the course of 10 days. We assessed the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and colon inflammation histology in IBS mice...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655633/multidisciplinary-approach-to-prostatitis
#8
Vittorio Magri, Matteo Boltri, Tommaso Cai, Roberto Colombo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Pieter De Visschere, Rosanna Giuberti, Clara Maria Granatieri, Maria Agnese Latino, Gaetano Larganà, Christian Leli, Giorgio Maierna, Valentina Marchese, Elisabetta Massa, Alberto Matteelli, Emanuele Montanari, Giuseppe Morgia, Kurt G Naber, Vaia Papadouli, Gianpaolo Perletti, Nektaria Rekleiti, Giorgio I Russo, Alessandra Sensini, Konstantinos Stamatiou, Alberto Trinchieri, Florian M E Wagenlehner
The modern clinical research on prostatitis started with the work of Stamey and coworkers who developed the basic principles we are still using. They established the segmented culture technique for localizing the infections in the males to the urethra, the bladder, or the prostate and to differentiate the main categories of prostatitis. Such categories with slight modifications are still used according to the NIH classification: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) and asymptomatic prostatitis...
January 18, 2019: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649746/benefit-risk-assessment-of-plecanatide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#9
REVIEW
Philip B Miner
Plecanatide, a uroguanylin analog, activates the guanylate cyclase C receptors in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract in a pH-dependent fashion initiating (1) the conversion of intracellular guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which increases the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretion into the intestinal lumen and (2) a decrease in activity of the sodium-hydrogen ion exchanger. The resulting ionic shifts cause an increase in lumenal fluid to facilitate digestion...
January 16, 2019: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30646926/effect-of-a-short-term-low-fermentable-oligiosaccharide-disaccharide-monosaccharide-and-polyol-fodmap-diet-on-exercise-related-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Melanie Wiffin, Lee Smith, Jose Antonio, James Johnstone, Liam Beasley, Justin Roberts
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that low fermentable oligiosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diets improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome sufferers. Exercise-related GI issues are a common cause of underperformance, with current evidence focusing on the use of FODMAP approaches with recreationally competitive or highly trained athletes. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the potential benefit of FODMAP strategies to support healthy, recreational athletes who experience GI  issues during training...
January 15, 2019: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642394/the-role-of-a-sequencing-based-clinical-intestinal-screening-test-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-clostridium-difficile-and-other-pathogens-a-case-report
#11
Maureen Hitschfeld, Elena Tovar, Sarah Gupta, Elisabeth M Bik, Christina Palmer, Michael C Hoaglin, Daniel E Almonacid, Jessica Richman, Zachary S Apte
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization and antibiotic treatment can put patients at high risk for Clostridium difficile infection, where a disturbance of the gut microbiome allows for Clostridium difficile proliferation and associated symptoms, including mild, moderate, or severe diarrhea. Clostridium difficile infection is challenging to treat, often recurrent, and leads to almost 30,000 annual deaths in the USA alone. Here we present a case where SmartGut™, an at-home, self-administered sequencing-based clinical intestinal screening test, was used to identify the presence of Clostridium difficile in a patient with worsening diarrhea...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635796/cannabis-and-turmeric-as-complementary-treatments-for-ibd-and-other-digestive-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Sandra M Quezada, Raymond K Cross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Complementary therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have earned growing interest from patients and investigators alike, with a dynamic landscape of research in this area. In this article, we review results of the most recent studies evaluating the role of cannabis and turmeric for the treatment of IBD and other intestinal illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS: Cannabinoids are well-established modulators of gut motility and visceral pain and have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties...
January 11, 2019: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30634696/calcium-pyruvate-exerts-beneficial-effects-in-an-experimental-model-of-irritable-bowel-disease-induced-by-dca-in-rats
#13
Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, Teresa Vezza, José Garrido-Mesa, José Alberto Molina-Tijeras, María Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, María Pilar Utrilla, Ivo Pischel, Julio Gálvez
Pyruvate is a normal constituent of the body that participates in carbohydrate metabolism and functions as a scavenger of free radicals. Calcium pyruvate monohydrate (CPM) is a more stable derivative that has proved its anti-inflammatory effect in experimental colitis, among other disorders, and that could also be considered a source of calcium. Thus, it would be useful for the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory component and a high prevalence of osteoporosis like the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
January 10, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614852/close-association-between-abnormal-expressed-enzymes-of-energy-metabolism-and-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Chun-Yan Zhang, Xin Yao, Gang Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional intestinal diseases, but its pathogenesis is still unknown. The present study aimed to screen the differentially expressed proteins in the mucosa of colon between IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients and the healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-two IBS-D patients meeting the Rome III diagnostic criteria and 40 control subjects from July 2007 to June 2009 in Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled in the present study...
January 3, 2019: Chinese Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611316/changes-in-fecal-calprotectin-after-rifaximin-treatment-in-patients-with-nonconstipated-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Seok-Hoon Lee, Cho-Rong Kim, Kyu-Nam Kim
BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin, an indicator of colonic inflammation, is associated with nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome. Rifaximin is an antibiotic used to treat nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome. We performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the changes in fecal calprotectin levels and intestinal symptoms following treatment with rifaximin in patients with nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome with elevated fecal calprotectin. METHODS: This study included 198 patients presenting with gastrointestinal complaints consistent with Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome...
January 2019: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590198/exploring-the-multicomponent-synergy-mechanism-of-banxia-xiexin-decoction-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome-by-a-systems-pharmacology-strategy
#16
Bangjie Li, Junqian Rui, Xuejian Ding, Xinghao Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Banxia Xiexin Decoction (BXD) is a representative prescription to regulate spleen and stomach in "Treatise on Febrile Diseases", which has been proven effective for the clinical treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the past decades. However, the active principles and molecular mechanisms involved in BXD against IBS are unknown yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To reveal multicomponent synergy mechanism of BXD on irritable bowel syndrome, we analysed important components, drug targets and crucial pathways using a systems pharmacology strategy...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579332/ketamine-interactions-with-gut-microbiota-in-rats-relevance-to-its-antidepressant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#17
Bruk Getachew, Joseph I Aubee, Richard S Schottenfeld, Antonei B Csoka, Karl M Thompson, Yousef Tizabi
BACKGROUND: Appreciable evidence suggest that dysbiosis in microbiota, reflected in gut microbial imbalance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and inflammatory diseases. Recently, the antidepressant properties of ketamine have gained prominence due to its fast and long lasting effects. Additional uses for ketamine in inflammatory disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome have been suggested. However, ketamine's exact mechanism of action and potential effects on microbiome is not known...
December 22, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578460/probiotics-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#18
Iva Hojsak
Infantile colic, constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This chapter will review current evidence on the role of probiotics in the treatment of these FGID. The etiology of FGID is considered multifactorial, but the importance of intestinal microbiota in their development has been repeatedly emphasized. As a consequence, the potential role of probiotics in their treatment is being increasingly scrutinized...
December 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574173/gut-microbiota-was-modulated-by-moxibustion-stimulation-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
Xiaomei Wang, Qin Qi, Yuanyuan Wang, Huangan Wu, Xiaoming Jin, Huan Yao, Duiyin Jin, Yanan Liu, Cun Wang
Background: The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is closely related to intestinal dysbacteriosis and can be controlled by moxibustion treatment. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic value of moxibustion in IBS treatment remains unknown. Methods: An IBS rat model was established by colorectal distention (CRD) stimulus and mustard oil clyster. Sixty-five male rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal, IBS model, moxibustion, electroacupuncture (EA), Bifid-triple Viable Capsule (BTVC) and Pinaverium Bromide (PB) groups...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30569115/activating-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor%C3%A2-7-attenuates-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-neonatal-maternally-separated-rats
#20
Limei Shao, Yanbing Liu, Junhua Xiao, Qunying Wang, Fei Liu, Jin Ding
Increasing evidence has indicated that metabotropic glutamate receptor‑7 (mGluR7) is an important target for reducing anxiety and stress‑associated behaviours. Notably, mood disorders exhibit high levels of comorbidity with gastrointestinal dysfunction; however, the role of mGluR7 outside of the central nervous system is currently unknown. Activating mGluR7 likely increases colonic secretory function. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of mGluR7 on the visceral hypersensitivity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in rats...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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