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Polyuria in critical care patient

Paulina Del Pozo, Diego Aránguiz, Guiliana Córdova, Christian Scheu, Patricio Valle, Jaime Cerda, Hernán García, María Isabel Hodgson, Andrés Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) due to clinical and biochemical alterations associated, cerebral edema as one of the most critical because of the high mortality rates and long-term neurological se quelae. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and complications of patients with DKA ad mitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of DKA patients treated at the Hospital Clínico, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UPCPUC) between 2000 and 2015...
August 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Cecile Salathe, Anne-Laure Blanc, Damien Tagan
Recreational drug use is a significant societal issue and remains a clinical challenge in emergency and critical care departments. We report on a 19-year-old woman admitted to hospital semiconscious and with severe hyponatraemia. Urinalysis was positive for methamphetamine and supported a diagnosis of hyponatraemia related to ecstasy use together with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). The woman was transferred to an intensive care unit, where a hypertonic saline infusion was started...
August 29, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, Marta Wysocka-Mincewicz, Anna Świercz, Jolanta Świderska, Magdalena Marszał, Mieczysław Szalecki
Neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis are considered to be a serious clinical problem. The most common complication is cerebral edema. However, these neurological complications also include less common entities such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or peripheral neuropathy. We present a case of a 9-year old girl admitted to our intensive care unit with new onset type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, cerebral edema, multifocal vasogenic brain lesions and bilateral lower limb peripheral paresis...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Beth Choby
The incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are increasing among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian individuals in the United States. Children often present with acute symptoms, including severe polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and ketonemia; adults may develop more gradual symptoms that initially appear similar to those of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults and maturity-onset diabetes of the young are conditions that may be confused with T1D, although they are actually more closely related to T2D...
May 2017: FP Essentials
Marie Muyldermans, Serge Jennes, Stuart Morrison, Olivier Soete, Pierre-Michel François, Elkana Keersebilck, Thomas Rose, Olivier Pantet
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a burned patient after prolonged delivery of low inspired concentrations of sevoflurane via an Anesthetic Conserving Device. DATA SOURCES: Clinical observation. STUDY SELECTION: Case report. DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant clinical information. DATA SYNTHESIS: A 34-year-old man was admitted with burns covering 52% of his total body surface area...
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Celik, Umit Celik, Mustafa Kömür, Begul Yagci-Kupeli
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis, of which the exact pathogenesis is unknown. Although CSWS has been more commonly described to be associated with neurosurgical disorders, increasing numbers of patients are diagnosed and new etiological factors are being identified as the awareness of it increases. METHODS: The files of the patients who had been hospitalized and treated with the diagnosis of CSWS at the pediatric critical care unit during the last three years were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Patricia de Lacy, Pavel Skrabalek
INTRODUCTION: Polyuria has the potential to cause severe water and sodium imbalance. We studied the epidemiology of polyuria in association with dysnatraemias and whether polyuria is an independent risk factor for higher mortality and poorer outcome in neurocritical care. METHODS: We performed an analysis of a 3-year prospective database containing 902 neurocritical care patients. Polyuria was defined as diuresis above 4000 ml/day, hyponatraemia as a serum sodium (SeNa) < 135 mmol/l and hypernatraemia as SeNa > 150 mmol/l...
2015: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Daniel G Bichet, Abdulah El Tarazi, Jessica Matar, Yoann Lussier, Marie-Françoise Arthus, Michèle Lonergan, Detlef Bockenhauer, Pierre Bissonnette
It is clinically useful to distinguish between two types of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): a 'pure' type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients with congenital NDI bearing mutations in the vasopressin 2 receptor gene, AVPR2, or in the aquaporin-2 gene, AQP2, have a pure NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. Patients with hereditary hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies have a complex phenotype with loss of water and ions...
June 2012: Clinical Kidney Journal
Brian P Baur, Calvin J Meaney
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by bilateral renal cysts, kidney pain, hypertension, and progressive loss of renal function. It is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease and the most common inherited kidney disease in the United States. Despite its prevalence, disease-modifying treatment options do not currently exist. Tolvaptan is an orally active, selective arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist already in use for hyponatremia. Tolvaptan exhibits dose-proportional pharmacokinetics with a half-life of ~12 hours...
June 2014: Pharmacotherapy
Alex Psirides, Jennifer Hill, Sally Hurford
OBJECTIVE: To review current systems for recognising and responding to clinically deteriorating patients in all New Zealand public hospitals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of recognition and response systems in all New Zealand public hospitals was conducted in October 2011. Copies of all current vital sign charts and/or relevant policies were requested. These were examined for vital sign based recognition and response systems. The charts or policies were also used to determine the type of system in use and the vital sign parameters and trigger thresholds that provoke a call to the rapid response team...
August 2013: Resuscitation
Gregor Lindner, Christoph Schwarz, Georg-Christian Funk
BACKGROUND: Hypernatraemia is common in critically ill patients and has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality. Osmotic urea diuresis can cause hypernatraemia due to significant water losses but is often not diagnosed. Free water clearance (FWC) and electrolyte free water clearance (EFWC) were proposed to quantify renal water handling. We aimed to (i) identify patients with hypernatraemia due to osmotic urea diuresis and (ii) investigate whether FWC and EFWC are helpful in identifying renal loss of free water...
March 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Mirjam Dirlewanger, Michael Hauschild, Franziska Phan-Hug, Valérie M Schwitzgebel
Diabetes type I (DTI) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas that requires insulin substitution therapy. Recent epidemiological data show an annual increase of the incidence of DTI of 3.9%. Children with new onset diabetes typically present with polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss. As of today no cure for DTI exists. However new therapeutic immunomodulary approaches are under investigation. In the meantime adherence to insulin therapy is mandatory to achieve near physiological glucose levels...
February 23, 2011: Revue Médicale Suisse
Takashi Matsusaki, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Junya Matsumi, Hiroaki Matsuda, Tetsufumi Sato, Kenji Sato, Satoshi Mizobuchi, Takahito Yagi, Kiyoshi Morita
Pituitary apoplexy occurring after surgery is a rare but life-threatening acute clinical condition that follows extensive hemorrhagenous necrosis within a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary apoplexy has been reported to occur spontaneously in the majority of cases or in association with various inducing factors. Reported is a case of pituitary apoplexy complicated by diabetes insipidus following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. A 56-year-old woman with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis underwent LDLT from her daughter...
February 2011: Journal of Anesthesia
Gregor Lindner, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Ulrike Holzinger, Wilfred Druml, Christoph Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a serious electrolyte disturbance and an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. In many cases, hypernatremia is an iatrogenic problem that develops in the intensive care unit (ICU). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 45 patients were studied in a medical ICU. For inclusion in the study, patients needed to show an increase in serum sodium concentration to greater than 149 mEq/L from an initial concentration of less than 146 mEq/L...
October 2009: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
J Davis, T Surendran, S Thompson, C Corkey
Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is continuing to rise in children. The presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children with newly diagnosed diabetes is significantly higher in those less than 5 years old. Critically ill patients admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU), would have a central venous line (CVL) inserted as part of their ongoing management. There are associations linking with the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in DKA/CVL patients. An 18-month-old boy presented with a short history of polydypsia, polyuria and weight loss...
January 2007: Irish Medical Journal
P Kaufmann, K H Smolle, S Fleck, A Lueger
When glucose utilisation is impaired due to decreased insulin effect, ketones are produced by the liver from free fatty acids to supply an alternate source of energy. This adaptation may be associated with severe metabolic acidosis and tends to occur in patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. In addition, hypovolemia is an almost invariable finding with marked hypoglycemia and is primarily induced by the associated glucosuria. Ketoacidosis stimulates both the central and peripheral chemoreceptors controlling respiration, resulting in alveolar hyperventilation (Kussmaul's respiration)...
1994: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
N J Siegel, K M Gaudio
This article will provide a pathophysiologic basis for the assessment of critically ill children who have developed disorders of urine volume. The anatomical and pathophysiologic causes of oliguria and polyuria are considered. The physiologic basis for the use of urinary sodium and osmolarity as a guide to the assessment of patients with disorders of urine volume are discussed in detail. In addition, guidelines for the management of children with acute renal failure, with particular emphasis on the consideration for nutritional support of these patients, is discussed as a part of the comprehensive approach to this problem...
January 1984: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
L S Blevins, G S Wand
OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the syndromes of diabetes insipidus with an emphasis on those situations likely to be encountered in the critical care setting. DATA SOURCES: Extensive clinical experience and relevant publications from the English literature identified via MEDLINE search, citation in reviews, publications of original data, and endocrine texts. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Landmark papers pertaining to all aspects of diabetes insipidus were selected...
January 1992: Critical Care Medicine
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