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Functional gastrointestinal disease

Michael Huber, Andrew C B Cato, George K Ainooson, Marc Freichel, Volodymyr Tsvilovskyy, Rolf Jessberger, Eva Riedlinger, Christian P Sommerhoff, Stephan C Bischoff
Mast cells, best known for their detrimental role in allergic diseases, act in a diverse array of physiological and pathological functions, made possible by the plurality of mast cell types. Their various developmental avenues and their distinct sensitivity to (micro-) environmental conditions convey extensive heterogeneity, resulting in diverse functions. We briefly summarize this heterogeneity, elaborate on molecular determinants that allow mast cells to communicate with their environment to fulfill their tasks, discuss their protease repertoire stored in secretory lysosomes, and consider different aspects of mast cell signaling...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ondrej Cerny, David W Holden
Salmonella enterica serovars infect a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans, causing both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Effective immune responses to Salmonella infections depend largely on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs). Bacteria are internalised by intestinal DCs and respond by translocating effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells. In this review, we discuss processes that are hijacked by SPI-2 T3SS effectors and how this affects DC biology and the activation of T cell responses...
February 13, 2019: Immunology Letters
Yusuke Sakuhara, Saori Nishio, Fumihiko Hattanda, Takeshi Soyama, Bunya Takahashi, Daisuke Abo, Hidefumi Mimura
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for patients with symptomatic enlarged polycystic liver disease (PCLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by our hospital's institutional review board and planned for patients with symptoms related to enlarged PCLD, such as distended abdomen, gastrointestinal obstruction and abdominal pain. Hemi-hepatic embolization with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres was performed in the hepatic artery supplying the hepatic lobe that showed the predominant presence of cysts...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Bruno Kotska Rodino-Janeiro, Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Javier Santos, Cristina Martinez
Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the commonest gastrointestinal disorders. Although long-time considered a pure functional disorder, intense research in past years has rendered a very complex and varied array of observations indicating the presence of structural and molecular abnormalities underlying characteristic motor and sensitive changes and clinical manifestations. Analysis of gene and protein expression in the intestinal mucosa has shed light on the molecular mechanisms implicated in IBS physiopathology...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Amey D Sonavane, Deepak N Amarapurkar, Krantikumar R Rathod, Sundeep J Punamiya
Background: There has been significant improvement in understanding the etiology and management of Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS). Patients with chronic or acute-on-chronic BCS need radiological interventions in the form of angioplasty, hepatic vein/inferior vena cava stenting or Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS). Data regarding the long term follow up of patients undergoing TIPS is limited. We thus prospectively followed-up BCS patients who underwent TIPS at our center...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Elisa Chiapparino, Sara Plumitallo, Cesare Danesino, Pinar Bayrak-Toydemir, Fabio Pagella, Guido Manfredi, Carmelo Bernabeu, Luca Jovine, Carla Olivieri
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a vascular rare disease characterized by nose and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectasias, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. HHT shows an autosomal dominant inheritance and a worldwide prevalence of approximately 1:5000 individuals. In >80% of patients, HHT is caused by mutations in either ENG (HHT1) or ACVRL1 (HHT2) genes, which code for the membrane proteins Endoglin and Activin A Receptor Type II-Like Kinase 1 (ALK1), respectively, both belonging to the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway...
February 11, 2019: Gene
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
GOAL: The goal of this study was to determine the relationship of reflux with gastroparesis (Gp), looking both at symptoms and objective testing. BACKGROUND: Gp patients often experience gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. How the severity of reflux correlates with the severity of Gp is not known. STUDY: Patients referred to our academic center with symptoms of Gp completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-15...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Xuan Zeng, Weiwei Su, Yuying Zheng, Yudong He, Yan He, Hongyu Rao, Wei Peng, Hongliang Yao
Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by the loss of functional capacity and associated with changes in all phases of pharmacokinetic processes. Naringin, a dietary flavanone glycoside, has been proved to be beneficial for the treatment of multiple age-associated chronic diseases. To date, the pharmacokinetic processes of naringin in aged individuals are still unknown. Thus, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (RRLC-QQQ-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of naringin and its metabolite naringenin in rat plasma, urine, feces, and tissue homogenate...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Francesco Esposito, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Dolores Ferrara, Norberto Vezzali, Giovanni Di Nardo, Luigi Martemucci, Gianfranco Vallone, Massimo Zeccolini
The study of the gastrointestinal tract by imaging, particularly using ultrasound, is a required instrument for diagnosis of acute and chronic gastrointestinal pathologies in pediatric age. Actually, ultrasound plays an increasing role in the evaluation of gastrointestinal tract in neonatal and pediatric patients because of their small body habitus and the presence of less fat tissue in the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity. Ultrasound has certain advantages, thanks to the new wide-spectrum frequency probes able to assess a detailed study of the morphological aspects and functional characteristics of bowel loops, adding a new dimension to the imaging of this body system...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ultrasound
Zhao Chen, Yanfeng Cao, Yanling Zhang, Yanjiang Qiao
Pungent traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) play a vital role in the clinical treatment of hepatobiliary disease, gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, skin diseases and so on. Pungent TCMs have a vastness of pungent flavored (with pungent taste or smell) compounds. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of pungent flavored compounds in treating cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and liver diseases, five pungent TCMs with the action of blood-activating and stasis-resolving (BASR) were selected...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silje Thorsvik, Atle van Beelen Granlund, Tarjei Dahl Svendsen, Ingunn Bakke, Elin Synnøve Røyset, Trude Helen Flo, Jan Kristian Damås, Ann Elisabet Østvik, Torunn Bruland, Arne Kristian Sandvik
Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), also known as Lipocalin 2, is an antimicrobial protein, encoded by the gene LCN2, strongly upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a promising biomarker for IBD. Here we demonstrate that NGAL is highly expressed in all parts of pyloric metaplasia, also known as the ulcer-associated cell lineage (UACL), a metaplastic cell lineage suggested to play a role in wound healing in Crohn's disease (CD). We further show NGAL expression in regenerative intestinal crypts and in undifferentiated patient-derived colonoids...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pathology
Yabin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lidong Yang, Chi Ian Vong, Kai Fung Chan, William K K Wu, Thomas N Y Kwong, Norman W S Lo, Margaret Ip, Sunny H Wong, Joseph J Y Sung, Philip W Y Chiu, Li Zhang
A rapid, direct, and low-cost method for detecting bacterial toxins associated with common gastrointestinal diseases remains a great challenge despite numerous studies and clinical assays. Motion-based detection through tracking the emerging micro- and nanorobots has shown great potential in chemo- and biosensing due to accelerated "chemistry on the move". Here, we described the use of fluorescent magnetic spore-based microrobots (FMSMs) as a highly efficient mobile sensing platform for the detection of toxins secreted by Clostridium difficile ( C...
January 2019: Science Advances
Hai-Di Wu, Hong-Yan Cao, Zi-Kai Song, Shuo Yang, Ming-Long Tang, Yang Liu, Ling Qin
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant that does not require coagulation monitoring based on current recommendations. Our goal is to explore whether routine coagulation monitoring should not be required for all patients receiving oral rivaroxaban, what relationship between routine coagulation abnormalities and bleeding, and how to deal with the above clinical situations through our case and review of the literature. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 67-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation who presented to the hospital with worsening dyspnea and cough...
February 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Cátia Reis, Sara Dias, Ana Maria Rodrigues, Rute Dinis Sousa, Maria João Gregório, Jaime Branco, Helena Canhão, Teresa Paiva
Background: Adequate sleep is essential for health. Both, short and long sleep durations are associated to worse quality of life and poor health outcomes. Portugal represents a specific population model, since according to European statistics it has high rates of chronic diseases like depression, hypertension, diabetes and stroke; and low quality of life as well as low index of physical activity, while in parallel it has some other good health indicators such as: low age-standardized mortality for both genders, nutrition in terms of energy and fruit consumption, smoking and alcohol, obesity and overweight prevalence...
July 2018: Sleep Science
Mercé Albert-Bayo, Irene Paracuellos, Ana M González-Castro, Amanda Rodríguez-Urrutia, María J Rodríguez-Lagunas, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Javier Santos, María Vicario
The gastrointestinal tract harbours the largest population of mast cells in the body; this highly specialised leukocyte cell type is able to adapt its phenotype and function to the microenvironment in which it resides. Mast cells react to external and internal stimuli thanks to the variety of receptors they express, and carry out effector and regulatory tasks by means of the mediators of different natures they produce. Mast cells are fundamental elements of the intestinal barrier as they regulate epithelial function and integrity, modulate both innate and adaptive mucosal immunity, and maintain neuro-immune interactions, which are key to functioning of the gut...
February 8, 2019: Cells
Hirokazu Doi, Ryuji Sakakibara, Masayuki Masuda, Fuyuki Tateno, Yosuke Aiba, Masahiko Kishi, Tomonori Yamanishi, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka
PURPOSE: To investigate gastrointestinal function in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease. METHODS: We examined gastric emptying and colonic transit time in 19 dementia with Lewy bodies and 46 Parkinson disease patients. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was longer in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Parkinson disease (p = 0.014). Colonic transit time tended to be longer in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Parkinson disease. There was no relationship between gastric emptying and colonic transit time, nor between gastric emptying, colonic transit time and age...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Ellen F Macnamara, Alanna E Koehler, Precilla D'Souza, Tyra Estwick, Paul Lee, Gilbert Vezina, Harper Fauni, Stephen R Braddock, Erin Torti, James Matthew Holt, Prashant Sharma, May Christine V Malicdan, Cynthia J Tifft
Syndromic sensorineural hearing loss is multigenic and associated with malformations of the ear and other organ systems. Herein we describe a child admitted to the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program with global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, gastrointestinal abnormalities, and absent salivation. Next generation sequencing revealed a uniparental isodisomy in chromosome 5, and a 22kb homozygous deletion in SLC12A2, which encodes for a sodium, potassium, and chloride transporter in the basolateral membrane of secretory epithelia...
February 10, 2019: Human Mutation
Wilmarie Morales-Soto, Brian D Gulbransen
Chronic abdominal pain is the most common gastrointestinal issue and contributes to the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. Current theories suggest that neuronal plasticity and broad alterations along the brain-gut axis contribute to the development of chronic abdominal pain, but the specific mechanisms involved in chronic abdominal pain remain incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence implicates glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glia in dorsal root ganglia contribute to chronic pain states through reactive gliosis, the modification of glial networks, and the synthesis and release of neuromodulators...
November 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yuebang Yin, Songge Guo, Dan Wan, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
The lack of sophisticated in vitro models limits our current understanding of gastrointestinal functions in farm animals. Conventional 2D cell lines or primary cells fail to recapitulate the physiology of in vivo intestinal epithelium. In contrast stem cell-derived, non-transformed 3D enteroids partially recreate the villus-crypt anatomy of the native intestine and comprise most if not all intestinal cell types including enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells and stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques used for generating and culturing enteroids of various farm animal species, focuses on important factors influencing the longevity of enteroids, and provides an overview of their current applications in modeling veterinary pathogens and in developing chemicals and bioactives for treating animal disease and improving production performance...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ana Rita Silva, Alexandra Bernardo, João Costa, Alexandra Cardoso, Paula Santos, Maria Fernanda de Mesquita, José Vaz Patto, Pedro Moreira, Maria Leonor Silva, Patrícia Padrão
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic non-degenerative disease, whose nutritional therapy seems controversial. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the knowledge about the effect of dietary interventions on patient reported outcomes (PRO) and inflammation in patients with FM. Six electronic databases - PubMed, BioMed Central, Cochrane library, EMBASE, LILACS and ISI - were searched for clinical trials, in which a dietary intervention in patients with FM diagnosed was conducted. Quality of evidence assessment was measured in accordance to GRADE methodology...
February 8, 2019: Annals of Medicine
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