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Health protection

Hongliang Ying, Yongkun Wang, Zhongwen Gao, Qiao Zhang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a conversant joint disease, which seriously threatens the health of the elderly, and even leads to disability. Long non-coding RNA-activated by transforming growth factor beta (lncRNA-ATB) has been reported in diverse cancers. However, the functions of lncRNA-ATB in OA remain uninvestigated. The current study aimed to explore the impacts of lncRNA-ATB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in ATDC5 cells and to uncover the underlying mechanism. LPS-induced ATDC5 cell injury model was constructed, and the effects of lncRNA-ATB on LPS-injured cells were explored via analyzing cell viability, apoptosis, iNOS, COX-2, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α)...
February 13, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Clifford Akateh, Eliza W Beal, Jung-Lye Kim, Brenda F Reader, Katelyn Maynard, Jay L Zweier, Bryan A Whitson, Sylvester M Black
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) can occur during liver surgery. Endogenous catalase is important to cellular antioxidant defenses and is critical to IRI prevention. Pegylation of catalase (PEG-CAT) improves its therapeutic potential by extending plasma half-life, but systemic administration of exogenous PEG-CAT has been only mildly therapeutic for hepatic IRI. Here, we investigated the protective effects of direct intrahepatic delivery of PEG-CAT during IRI using a rat hilar clamp model...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Hsiu-Ching Shih, Li-Heng Chen, Xiang-Hong Shih, Hwong-Wen Ma
Protection of human health from air pollution has been typically pursued primarily via regulations of air quality standards and emission standards. Although reducing air pollution from the largest sources and placing more stringent emission limits on the industries of focus is a criterion used by decision makers to control air pollution, it is not clear whether this criterion is the most effective and efficient in improving health protection. Pollutants released from sources into the environment are spatially fluctuating rather than uniformly distributed, and hence, health risk is an issue of geographic variability...
February 13, 2019: Environment International
F Perera, A Ashrafi, P Kinney, D Mills
BACKGROUND: Fossil fuel combustion by-products, including particulate matter (PM2.5 ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ), are a significant threat to children's health and equality. Various policies to reduce emissions have been implemented to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change, with sizeable estimated health and economic benefits. However, only a few adverse outcomes in children have been considered, resulting in an undercounting of the benefits to this vulnerable population...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Amanda L Stone, Lynn S Walker, Lauren C Heathcote, J Maya Hernandez, Molly C Basch, Anna C Wilson, Laura E Simons
Among youth with chroic pain, elevated somatic symptoms across multiple body systems have been associated with greater emotional distress and functional disability and could represent poor adaptation to pain. The Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory (formerly the Children's Somatization Inventory) is commonly used to assess somatic symptoms in children. However, no studies have evaluated the clinical utility of the measure in the assessment of pediatric patients with chronic pain. This study evaluated the factor structure and clinical relevance of the 24-item Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory (CSSI-24) in youth (n = 1150) with mixed chronic pain complaints presenting to a tertiary pain clinic...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Ruiz-Hernández Ixchel Mariel, Hernández-Bolio Gloria Ivonne, Hernández-Núñez Emanuel, Díaz-Gamboa Raúl, Colli-Dula Reyna Cristina
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a carnivorous cetacean thriving in marine environment that is one of the apex predators of the marine food web. They are found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are known to be sensitive to environmental impacts. Dolphins are considered sentinel organisms for monitoring the health of coastal marine ecosystems in their role as predators that can bioaccumulate contaminants. Although recent studies have focused on capturing the circulating metabolomes of these mammals, as well as in the context of pollutants and exposures in the marine environment, the skin and blubber are important surface and protective organs that have not been probed for metabolism...
February 10, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
S Runge-Ranzinger, A C Morrison, P Manrique-Saide, O Horstick
OBJECTIVE: To assesses what is known and identify knowledge gaps for Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission patterns. METHODS: Meta-review searching the databases BioSys; Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; EMBASE; Google Scholar; LILACS; MEDLINE (PubMed); Web of Science; and WHOLIS with the term "ZIKA". Systematic reviews and reviews specifying the search methods and describing potential modes of transmission were eligible for analysis...
February 16, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ariel Esteban Bardach, Herney Andrés García-Perdomo, Andrea Alcaraz, Elena Tapia López, Ruth Amanda Ruano Gándara, Silvina Ruvinsky, Agustín Ciapponi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and degree of implementation of interventions for the control of Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as reported in scientific literature. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, SOCINDEX and LILACS, for experimental and observational studies, economic assessments and qualitative experiences carried out in LAC from 2000 to 2016. We assessed incidence and morbimortality of Aedes aegypti-related diseases and entomological indices: Breteau (containers), House, and Pupae per Person...
February 16, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
S Lloyd-Fox, A Blasi, S McCann, M Rozhko, L Katus, L Mason, T Austin, S E Moore, C E Elwell
The first 1000 days of life are a critical window of vulnerability to exposure to socio-economic and health challenges (i.e. poverty/undernutrition). The Brain Imaging for Global Health (BRIGHT) project has been established to deliver longitudinal measures of brain development from 0-24 months in UK and Gambian infants and to assess the impact of early adversity. Here results from the Habituation-Novelty Detection functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) task at 5 and 8 months are presented (N = 62 UK; N = 115 Gambia)...
February 16, 2019: Developmental Science
Margherita Condorelli, Isabelle Demeestere
Clinicians should provide fertility counseling to all patients receiving gonadotoxic treatment. International scientific societies have mainly focused on oncological patients, and fewer efforts have been made to apply these recommendations to women diagnosed with benign disease (eg benign hematological diseases, auto-immune diseases, and gynecological or genetic disorders). However, these indications account for 8% to 19% of the demand for fertility preservation. The risk of premature ovarian failure due to treatment, or to the disease itself, can be considered fairly high for many young women...
February 16, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Alexandra Legge, Susan Kirkland, Kenneth Rockwood, Pantelis Andreou, Sang-Cheol Bae, Caroline Gordon, Juanita Romero-Diaz, Jorge Sanchez-Guerrero, Daniel J Wallace, Sasha Bernatsky, Ann E Clarke, Joan T Merrill, Ellen M Ginzler, Paul Fortin, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz, Ian N Bruce, David A Isenberg, Anisur Rahman, Graciela S Alarcón, Michelle Petri, Munther A Khamashta, M A Dooley, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Susan Manzi, Kristjan Steinsson, Asad A Zoma, Cynthia Aranow, Meggan Mackay, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, S Sam Lim, Murat Inanc, Ronald F van Vollenhoven, Andreas Jonsen, Ola Nived, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Diane L Kamen, Kenneth C Kalunian, Soren Jacobsen, Christine A Peschken, Anca Askanase, John G Hanly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in SLE. METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data...
February 16, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Radmila Terentyeva, Peter Bronk, Tae Yun Kim, Karim Roder, Richard T Clements, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Small-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca2+ ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca2+ ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca2+ ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Using a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic banding, we found that functional upregulation of SK2 channels in hypertrophic rat ventricular cardiomyocytes is driven by PKA phosphorylation...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Greg Stapleton, Wybo Dondorp, Peter Schröder-Bäck, Guido de Wert
Developments in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and cell-free fetal DNA analysis raise the possibility that antenatal services may soon be able to support couples in non-invasively testing for, and diagnosing, an unprecedented range of genetic disorders and traits coded within their unborn child's genome. Inevitably, this has prompted debate within the bioethics literature about what screening options should be offered to couples for the purpose of reproductive choice. In relation to this problem, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) tentatively recommend that any expansion of this type of screening, as facilitated by NIPT, should be limited to serious congenital and childhood disorders...
February 15, 2019: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Nooria Atta, Saadettin Kilickap, Deniz Yuce, Mutlu Hayran
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of some gynecological cancer risk factors in a population of female relatives of cancer patients in Hacettepe University Oncology Hospital. Additionally, what are the levels of the women's awareness /behavior toward available screening tools? METHODS: An individual cancer risk assessment questionnaire has been developed in the Department of Preventive Oncology, which questions the medical history, health behaviors and cancer awareness, as well as their behavior toward available cancer screening tools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Cancer
Ranjit Manchanda, Faiza Gaba
BRCA1/BRCA2 genes were discovered in early 1990s and clinical testing for these has been available since the mid-1990s. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and other international guidelines recommend genetic-testing at a ~10% probability threshold of carrying a BRCA-mutation. A detailed three generation family-history (FH) of cancer is used within complex mathematical models (e.g. BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, Manchester-Scoring-System) or through standardized clinical-criteria to identify individuals who fulfil this probability threshold and can be offered genetic-testing...
February 16, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Keeron Stone, Simon Fryer, Elizabeth Kelsch, Kathryn Burnet, Gabriel Zieff, James Faulkner, Daniel Credeur, Danielle Lambrick, Erik D Hanson, Lee Stoner
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? There is growing interest on the effects of sedentarism on central and peripheral cardiovascular health. To permit further investigation, including in larger epidemiological studies, there is a need to identify arterial health assessment tools that are valid (accurate) and reliable (precise), yet practical. What is the main finding and its importance? Lower-limb vascular health (femoral-ankle pulse-wave velocity) can be determined in a supine position with accuracy and precision using an oscillometric-based device...
February 16, 2019: Experimental Physiology
William Schmidt, Anthony Cammarato
Striated muscle contraction is regulated by Ca2+ -dependent modulation of myosin cross-bridge binding to F-actin by the thin filament troponin (Tn)-tropomyosin (Tm) complex. In the absence of Ca2+ , Tn binds to actin and constrains Tm to an azimuthal location where it sterically occludes myosin binding sites along the thin filament surface. This limits force production and promotes muscle relaxation. In addition to Tn-actin interactions, inhibitory Tm positioning requires associations between other thin filament constituents...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Christopher J Nolan, Marc Prentki
While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Yung Hung, Sophie Hieke, Klaus G Grunert, Wim Verbeke
Despite the fact that front-of-pack nutrition labels such as health claims and symbols have received growing attention in consumer behavior research, comprehensive conclusions could not yet be drawn to develop concrete policy actions, owing to the complexity of the subject and a constantly changing market environment. In this study, evidence-based policy recommendations and communication guidelines have been derived from the findings of the EU FP7 project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behavior", Grant Agreement 311963), and have been evaluated and prioritized by European stakeholders using a three-round Delphi method...
February 14, 2019: Nutrients
Xiao Xu, Wenxiu Hu, Siduo Zhou, Chuanhai Tu, Xiudong Xia, Juanmei Zhang, Mingsheng Dong
Glutinous rice-based foods have a long history are consumed worldwide. They are also in great demand for the pursuit of novel sensory and natural health benefits. In this study, we developed a novel fermented glutinous rice product with the supplementation of Fu brick tea. Using in vitro antioxidant evaluation and phenolic compounds analysis, fermentation with Fu brick tea increased the total phenolic content and enhanced the antioxidant activity of glutinous rice, including scavenging of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical, and hydroxyl radical, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and ferric ion reducing power and iron chelating capability...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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