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Critical Infection

Brandon J Kim, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
Bacterial meningitis is a serious, life-threatening infection of the central nervous system (CNS). To cause meningitis, bacteria must interact with and penetrate the meningeal blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (mB/CSFB), which comprises highly specialized brain endothelial cells. Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis, and examination meningococcus' interaction with the BBB is critical for understanding disease progression. To examine specific interactions, in vitro mB/CSFB models have been developed and employed and are of great importance because in vivo models have been difficult to produce considering Neisseria meningitidis is exclusively a human pathogen...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shengjie Xue, Fuxiang Mao, Dongbing Hu, Huihui Yan, Jihai Lei, Enoch Obeng, Yuefan Zhou, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is not only a model organism for scientific studies, but also a commercial insect for agricultural production. BmAtg8 (a B. mori homolog of yeast Atg8) plays crucial roles in macroautophagy (hereafter referred to autophagy), which is helpful for silkworm metamorphosis. Relevant mechanism about BmAtg8 currently remains ambiguous. Based on our previous acetylome of B. mori after BmNPV infection, we focused on that acetylation of BmAtg8 K13 was changed upon virus challenge. Subsequently, anti-BmAtg8 antibody was generated, and EBSS-induced BmN cellular autophagy model was established...
March 15, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Wenting Yang, Wenwen Chen, Jingling Huang, Li Jin, Yawei Zhou, Jianing Chen, Na Zhang, Donglai Wu, Encheng Sun, Guangliang Liu
The variant strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) severely threaten the pig industry worldwide and cause up to 100% mortality in suckling piglets. It is critically important and urgent to develop tools for detection of PEDV infection. In this study, we developed six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting N protein of PEDV and analyzed their applications on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), western blot assay, and flow cytometry assay. The results demonstrated that all these six mAbs were IgG1 isotype and κ chain...
March 15, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jiangrong Chen, Chunchao Zhu, Chaojie Wang, Chuansheng Hu, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Yan Guo, Bingya Liu, Zhifeng Shao
BACKGROUND: Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is present in more than 90% of resected gastric cancer tissues. However, although widely regarded as a pre-cancerous tissue, its genetic characteristics have not been well studied. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) antibodies was used to identify TFF2-positive SPEM cells within SPEM glands in the stomach of Helicobacter felis (H. felis) -infected mice and human clinical samples...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Genetics
Lifan Wei, Yanyan Wu, Guanhua Yang, Rongjing Xu, Xiaohong Liu, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang
Marine pathogens are transmitted from one host to another through seawater. Therefore, it is important for marine pathogens to maintain survival or growth in seawater. However, little is known about how marine pathogens adapt to living in seawater environments. Here, transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) was performed to explore the genetic determinants of Edwardsiella piscicida survival in seawater at 16°C and 28°C. Seventy-one mutants with mutations mainly in metabolism-, transportation-, and type III secretion system (T3SS)-related genes showed significantly increased or impaired fitness in 16°C water...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Huiwen Wang, Ximin Zeng, Yiming Mo, Bin He, Hening Lin, Jun Lin
Enterobactin (Ent)-mediated high affinity iron acquisition is critical for Gram-negative bacteria to survive in the host. Given the bacteriostatic effect of lipocalin resulting from its potent Ent-binding ability, immune intervention directly targeting Ent is promising for iron-dependent pathogen control. Recently, an Ent conjugate vaccine was reported but it still has several significant weaknesses. In this study, we aimed to develop an innovative Ent conjugate vaccine that can induce high level of antibodies directed against Ent, and to provide solid evidence demonstrating siderophore-binding capacity of Ent-specific antibodies...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
The relative importance of influenza virus transmission via aerosols is not fully understood, but experimental data suggests that aerosol transmission may represent a critical mode of influenza virus spread among humans. Decades ago, prototypical laboratory strains of influenza were shown to persist in aerosols; however, there is a paucity of data available covering currently circulating influenza viruses, which differ significantly from their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated the longevity of influenza viruses in aerosols generated in the laboratory...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Burcin Yavuz, Jessica L Morgan, Carolina Herrera, Kristin Harrington, Bernardo Perez-Ramirez, Patricia J LiWang, David L Kaplan
With almost 2 million new HIV infections worldwide each year, the prevention of HIV infection is critical for stopping the pandemic. The only approved form of pre-exposure prophylaxis is a costly daily pill, and it is recognized that several options will be needed to provide protection to the various affected communities around the world. In particular, many at-risk people would benefit from a prevention method that is simple to use and does not require medical intervention or a strict daily regimen. We show that silk fibroin protein can be formulated into insertable discs that encapsulate either an antibody (IgG) or the potent HIV inhibitor 5P12-RANTES...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Dennis F Bandyk
The pathophysiology of the diabetic foot ulcer and soft-tissue infection is due to neuropathy, trauma, and, in many patients, concomitant peripheral artery occlusive disease. Diabetic neuropathy results in foot deformity, leading to increased skin pressure with walking. Once a foot ulcer develops, the limb is at high risk for invasive infection and, when combined with peripheral artery occlusive disease, the patient should be considered to have critical limb ischemia. A multidisciplinary approach to care for the diabetic foot is recommended, which includes annual (3-month intervals in high-risk patients) assessments by a primary care physician and referral to a podiatrist and vascular surgeon for diabetics with a foot ulcer for evaluation of foot arterial perfusion and off-loading therapy to reduce plantar skin pressure with walking...
June 2018: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
John K Midturi, Sangeetha Ranganath
Chronic kidney disease patients are at high risk for infections because of multidrug-resistant organisms. Infections are the second most common cause of death in patients with ESRD. Patients with ESRD are prone to infections given alterations in immunity, increased rates of colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms, increased hospitalizations, and interactions with health care systems. Infections range from urinary tract infections, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, central line-associated bloodstream infections to sepsis...
January 2019: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Lei Zhang, Leilei Guo, Xue Shan, Xiaohong Lin, Tingting Gu, Jikang Zhang, Junliang Ge, Wendi Li, Haixiong Ge, Qing Jiang, Xinghai Ning
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, and a sensitive method for specific detection of Listeria is considered of clinically significant. However, current approaches for identifying Listeria are time consuming or tentative, and especially, cannot identify bacterial viability and antibiotic efficacy, which are critical in establishing a treatment recipe. Herein, we have developed a nitroreductase (NTR) responsive fluorescent probe (NRFP) with a fluorescence off-on feature, which could rapidly detect Listeria in vitro and in vivo with high specificity and sensitivity...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Wenjing Song, Shaohua Ge
Oral cavity incessantly encounters a plethora of microorganisms. Plaque biofilm-a major cause of caries, periodontitis and other dental diseases-is a complex community of bacteria or fungi that causes infection by protecting pathogenic microorganisms from external drug agents and escaping the host defense mechanisms. Antimicrobial nanoparticles are promising because of several advantages such as ultra-small sizes, large surface-area-to-mass ratio and special physical and chemical properties. To better summarize explorations of antimicrobial nanoparticles and provide directions for future studies, we present the following critical review...
March 15, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tomohiko Taguchi, Kojiro Mukai
The mammalian innate immune system serves as the front line of the host to eliminate invading pathogens. The receptors that sense invading pathogens or the pathogen-associated molecules localized at various membrane compartments that include the plasma membrane, endosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Intriguingly, growing evidence indicates that the sites of pathogen detection do not always represent the site where innate immune signal is triggered. Rather, pathogen detection often induces translocation of the receptors by membrane trafficking...
March 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
C A Reichel
Immunological processes play a key role in the pathogenesis of head and neck pathologies. Besides allergies or infections of the tonsils, the paranasal sinuses, and the ear, initiation, progression, and metastasis of malignant tumors are particularly dependent on the immune system. The recruitment of white blood cells to the site of injury or infection is a critical event in the pathogenesis of these diseases. This article will provide a compact overview about recent developments in this rapidly growing field in otorhinolaryngology which might establish the basis for promising therapeutic strategies for previously insufficiently treatable disorders of the head and neck...
March 15, 2019: HNO
William J Branchett, Clare M Lloyd
The respiratory tract is an important site of immune regulation; required to allow protective immunity against pathogens, while minimizing tissue damage and avoiding aberrant inflammatory responses to inhaled allergens. Several cell types work in concert to control pulmonary immune responses and maintain tolerance in the respiratory tract, including regulatory and effector T cells, airway and interstitial macrophages, dendritic cells and the airway epithelium. The cytokines transforming growth factor β, interleukin (IL-) 10, IL-27, and IL-35 are key coordinators of immune regulation in tissues such as the lung...
March 15, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Yan Zhang, Kim L Good-Jacobson
The humoral immune response requires coordination of molecular programs to mediate differentiation into unique B cell subsets that help clear the infection and form immune memory. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for ensuring that the appropriate genes are transcribed or repressed during B cell differentiation. Recent studies have illuminated the changes in DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications that accompany the formation of germinal center and antibody-secreting cells during an immune response...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Kayan Tam, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a formidable pathogen capable of causing infections in different sites of the body in a variety of vertebrate animals, including humans and livestock. A major contribution to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen is the plethora of virulence factors that manipulate the host's innate and adaptive immune responses. Many of these immune modulating virulence factors are secreted toxins, cofactors for activating host zymogens, and exoenzymes. Secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins and superantigens are highly inflammatory and can cause leukocyte cell death by cytolysis and clonal deletion, respectively...
March 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
John J Psonis, David G Thanassi
The chaperone-usher (CU) pathway is a conserved secretion system dedicated to the assembly of a superfamily of virulence-associated surface structures by a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires two specialized assembly components: a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and an integral outer membrane assembly and secretion platform termed the usher. The CU pathway assembles a variety of surface fibers, ranging from thin, flexible filaments to rigid, rod-like organelles...
March 2019: EcoSal Plus
Victor Hugo Peña-García, Irma Sánchez-Vargas, Rebecca Christofferson, William C Black Iv, Sair Arboleda, Omar Triana-Chavez
BACKGROUND: Measuring dengue virus transmission in endemic areas is a difficult task as many variables drive transmission, and often are not independent of one another. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the utility of vectorial capacity to explain the observed dengue infection rates in three hyperendemic cities in Colombia, and tested hypotheses related to three variables: mosquito density, effective vector competence, and biting rate. METHODS: We estimated two of the most influential entomological variables related to cumulative vectorial capacity, which is a modification of the traditional vectorial capacity equation, of three Colombian mosquito populations...
March 13, 2019: Annals of Global Health
Solomon Antwi Boison, Bjarne Gjerde, Borghild Hillestad, Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Hooman K Moghadam
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is one of the most important parasitic diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon. It is a source of major economic loss to the industry and poses significant threats to animal welfare. Previous studies have shown that resistance against this disease has a moderate, heritable genetic component, although the genes and the genetic pathways that contribute to this process have yet to be elucidated. In this study, to identify the genetic mechanisms of AGD resistance, we first investigated the molecular signatures of AGD infection in Atlantic salmon through a challenge model, where we compared the transcriptome profiles of the naïve and infected animals...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
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