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tuberculosis, HIV, Internal medicine, Infectious diseases

Vicente Soriano, José M Ramos, Pablo Barreiro, Jose V Fernandez-Montero
The first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000 deaths. Current estimates for people living with HIV are of 145,000, of whom 20% are unaware of it. This explains the still high rate of late HIV presenters. Although the HIV epidemic in Spain was originally driven mostly by injection drug users, since the year 2000 men having sex with men (MSM) account for most new incident HIV cases. Currently, MSM represent over 80% of new yearly HIV diagnoses...
May 30, 2018: Viruses
Martina Penazzato, Linda Lewis, Melynda Watkins, Vineet Prabhu, Fernando Pascual, Martin Auton, Wesley Kreft, Sébastien Morin, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, David Jamieson, George K Siberry
INTRODUCTION: Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Karen R Jacobson
This issue provides a clinical overview of tuberculosis, focusing on screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers...
February 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Imen Boukhris, Imene Rachdi, Eya Chérif, Samira Azzabi, Lamia Ben Hassine, Iness Kéchaou, Zouleikha Kaouech, Chékib Kooli, Narjess Khalfallah
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndromes are mostly associated with underlying pathology, they can reveal: immunodeficiency, infections, hemopathies, cancers and auto-immune diseases. AIM: to investigate clinical, biological features, outcome characteristics and underlying pathology of Tunisian patients with hemophagocytic syndromes. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with hemophagocytic syndromes admitted in an internal medicine department in Tunis over the period 2009-2012...
November 2014: La Tunisie Médicale
Dieu-Donné Ouédraogo, Honoré Ntsiba, Joelle Tiendrébéogo Zabsonré, Hervé Tiéno, Laurelle I F Bokossa, Fulgence Kaboré, Joseph Drabo
The aim of this study is to review over a period of 5 years the clinical spectrum of rheumatic diseases seen in a tertiary hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A retrospective study of case records was conducted from March 1, 2006 to March 30, 2011 in the Rheumatology service, Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Of the 4,084 patients seen, 2,381 were women (58.30%) and 1,703 were men (41.70%). The mean age at disease onset was 42.12 years, ranging from 3 to 92 years...
March 2014: Clinical Rheumatology
James Elston, Ian Hinitt, Steve Batson, Cath Noakes, John Wright, John Walley, Clare Humphreys
The global HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have placed enormous burdens upon already overstretched healthcare workers and poorly resourced healthcare facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant TB, and its association with hospital-based outbreaks, have highlighted the role that healthcare facilities inadvertently may play in maintaining TB transmission, and the vital importance of attaining good TB infection control. James Elston, a specialist physician in infectious diseases and general internal medicine, who recently returned from a second stint in Swaziland, says many of the region's healthcare facilities are outdated, poorly ventilated, and were not designed for their current purpose...
November 2013: Health Estate
Lia D'Ambrosio, Masoud Dara, Marina Tadolini, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Sotgiu, Marieke J van der Werf, Mina Gaga, Daniela Cirillo, Antonio Spanevello, Mario Raviglione, Francesco Blasi, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Although Europe identified the pathway to tuberculosis (TB) elimination in 1990, no information on programmes for country preparedness is available. A questionnaire investigating TB elimination activities was submitted to 38 national TB programme representatives of low TB incidence (<20 cases per 100 000 population) European countries/territories of the World Health Organization European region. Out of 31 providing a complete answer, 17 (54.8%) reported to have a dedicated national TB programme, 20 (64.5%) a national plan including TB elimination (13 (41...
May 2014: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
F Bartalesi, A Bartoloni, Z Bisoffi, M Spinicci, F Giménez Sánchez, J Muñoz, P Richi, G Minisola, S Muñoz-Fernandez, M Matucci-Cerinic
The use of biological agents in the treatment of rheumatic diseases has been widely associated with an increased risk of reactivation of several latent infections. National and international guidelines recommend screening for infectious diseases before starting these drugs. In Western countries screening is limited to latent tuberculosis infection, HIV and viral hepatitis. However, the increasing globalisation and the remarkable number of migrating and travelling people worldwide make this approach no longer adequate...
May 2014: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
R A Rakotoarivelo, M-A Vandenhende, C Michaux, P Morlat, F Bonnet
INTRODUCTION: The features of paradoxical reactions (PR) that occurred in non-HIV infected patients treated with antituberculous drugs are diverse. We report four new cases of such PR and review the literature. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Were included all consecutive patients with PR that occurred in non-HIV infected patients who were treated for tuberculosis and followed-up in the department of internal medicine and infectious diseases between January 1st, 2009 and July 31st, 2010...
April 2013: La Revue de Médecine Interne
O Kra, B Ouattara, T Aba, N J Kadjané, K Kadjo, E Bissagnéné, A Kadio
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of infectious diseases and their lethality at the Abidjan Military Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined the medical files of patients hospitalized in the internal medicine unit of the hospital during 2004. RESULTS: The study included 668 patients with 855 diseases, 579 of them infectious (67.7%). The prevalence of HIV in this population was 41.3%. The main diseases observed were pneumonia (150 cases; 17...
January 2012: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Elhadi Sharafeldin, Darius Soonawala, Jan P Vandenbroucke, Evelien Hack, Leo G Visser
BACKGROUND: Clinical and research electives abroad offer medical students many unique experiences. However, participating in an unfamiliar health-care setting combined with limited medical experience may place students at risk of illness. To improve pre-and post-travel care, we assessed the health risks and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care in a cohort of Dutch medical students returning form an elective abroad. METHODS: All medical students who had performed an elective in the tropics between July 2006 and December 2008 were sent an informative email asking them to complete a web-based questionnaire...
December 2, 2010: BMC Medical Education
Vanessa Field, Philippe Gautret, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Eric Caumes, Mogens Jensenius, Francesco Castelli, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Leisa Weld, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, Peter de Vries, Frank von Sonnenburg, Louis Loutan, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. METHODS: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition...
November 17, 2010: BMC Infectious Diseases
Laurence Fardet, Olivier Lambotte, Jean-Luc Meynard, Wassim Kamouh, Lionel Galicier, Christophe Marzac, Adrienne de Labarthe, Jean Cabane, Céleste Lebbe, Paul Coppo, Jean-Michel Molina, Valérie Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To describe features of reactive haemophagocytic syndrome (RHS) in HIV-1-infected adult patients. To compare characteristics of patients with malignancy-associated RHS and infection-associated RHS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in three departments of Infectious Diseases/Internal Medicine at three French tertiary centres. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical charts of HIV-1-infected adult patients and RHS seen between January 2006 and December 2007 were reviewed...
June 1, 2010: AIDS
Nick Feasey, Mark Wansbrough-Jones, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon
INTRODUCTION: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infectious diseases that principally impact the world's poorest people. They have been neglected for decades, initially as part of a general disregard for the developing world, and more recently due to the intensity of focus on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. SOURCES OF DATA: Primary research and review articles were selected for inclusion using searches of PubMed and our existing collections. RESULTS: There have been recent notable successes in NTD control...
2010: British Medical Bulletin
Timothy P Flanigan, Nickolas Zaller, Lynn Taylor, Curt Beckwith, Landon Kuester, Josiah Rich, Charles C J Carpenter
Health care within correctional facilities has traditionally been marginalized from excellence in academic medicine. The armamentarium of a medical school, which includes excellence in research, teaching and clinical care, can be successfully applied to the correctional setting both in the United States and internationally. At any one time, there are over 2 million people incarcerated in the US who are disproportionately poor and from communities of color. Rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in prisons are 5 and 17-28-times higher than in the general population, respectively...
2009: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Jonathan E Kaplan, Constance Benson, King K Holmes, John T Brooks, Alice Pau, Henry Masur
This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected adults (i.e., persons aged >/=18 years) and adolescents (i.e., persons aged 13--17 years), last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. It has been prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care providers, HIV-infected patients, and policy makers in the United States...
April 10, 2009: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
B Martínez-López, A M Perez, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory have been used widely in sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology and medicine. Social network analysis and graph theory provide a conceptual framework to study contact patterns and to identify units of analysis that are frequently or intensely connected within the network. Social network analysis has been used in human epidemiology as a tool to explore the potential transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and syphilis. In preventive veterinary medicine, SNA is an approach that offers benefits for exploring the nature and extent of the contacts between animals or farms, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of the potential risk for disease spread in a susceptible population...
May 2009: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Eric Bateman, Charles Feldman, Robert Mash, Lara Fairall, Rene English, Anamika Jithoo
INTRODUCTION: Progress to democracy in South Africa in 1994 was followed by the adoption of a primary health care approach with free access for all. State health facilities serve 80% of the population, and a private sector comprising general practitioners, specialists and private hospitals, serves the remainder. NATIONAL POLICIES AND MODELS: There are national prescribing guidelines for common diseases, and these specify the medicines on the Essential Drugs List that are available at primary care facilities for respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD, pneumonia and tuberculosis...
June 2009: Primary Care Respiratory Journal: Journal of the General Practice Airways Group
Melanie J Newport, Bjorn Myrvang
This paper presents the proceedings of a scientific meeting that was held between the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the Norwegian Infectious Diseases Society at Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo on 20 June 2008. Seven speakers updated the audience on recent advances in relevant issues, including international maternal and child health, podoconiosis, schistosomiasis and HIV, leprosy in the UK, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis and the Global Filariasis Programme...
April 2009: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cynthia B Schofield
The cases presented here illustrate potential epidemic or pandemic events that once-silent pathogens portend. Developing countries, where defenses are limited, are primary targets. Of future concern are the developed countries that fail to use rigorous control measures established by the CDC, the WHO, and others to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. International travel has brought changes in demographics and a greater need for surveillance programs to control selective antibiotic resistance. In our first case, the patient's death would likely have been avoided if he had adhered to the CDC-recommended vaccine program...
June 2008: MLO: Medical Laboratory Observer
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