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Pressure Wave

Jian-Hua Deng, Ji-Hong Du, Xin-Rui Ma, Pei-Fang Zhang
The present study explored the application of auditory cortical evoked potentials (ACEP) in the auditory assessment of people using an auditory prosthesis. There were 126 patients with prelingual deafness who were selected from January 2012-June 2017 from the First People's Hospital of Kunshan (Kunshan, China). HEARLab™ system was used to induce a P1-N1-P2 waveform under the condition of 60 dB sound pressure level at /m/, /g/ and /t/ acoustic stimulations. Speech production ability and auditory perception ability of patients were evaluated by speech intelligibility rating (SIR) and categories of auditory performance (CAP)...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jiuhong Jia, Zuoyu Liao, Xiaotao Cai, Yun Tu, Shan-Tung Tu
The safety of critical pressure equipment in elevated temperature is increasingly important. Moreover, the on-line monitoring method is potentially useful to improve their safety. A waveguide bar system can enable monitoring of critical equipment working in elevated temperature using reliable ultrasonic technology. Among the waveguide bar system, the matching mechanism of the transducer and the waveguide bar is crucial to propagate the pure fundamental quasi-shear mode (shorten for SH0*) wave. In the present research, the loading line sources that can excite pure SH0* wave are investigated and the anti-plane shear loading source is selected...
February 15, 2019: Sensors
Robert J Kowalsky, John Jakicic, Andrea Hergenroeder, Renee J Rogers, Bethany Barone Gibbs
PURPOSE: Interrupting prolonged sitting with light activity breaks, such as short walks, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, yet less is known about the impact of resistance exercise breaks. This study examined the effects of hourly, guidelines-based simple resistance exercise breaks on acute cardiometabolic health outcomes over a simulated work period. METHODS: Fourteen adults (age: 53.4±9.5 years, BMI: 30.9±4.8 kg/m2) completed two randomized 4-hour conditions: prolonged sitting (SIT) and hourly resistance exercise breaks (REX)...
February 19, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Shweta Shah, Sarah Swartz, Jessica Campbell, Poyyapakkam R Srivaths
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) mortality in adults receiving chronic dialysis. Hypertension strongly associates with elevated left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and PWV, with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and central blood pressure (CBP) superior to office blood pressures (BP) in predicting CV morbidity. Few studies have described associations of office BP, ABPM, and CBP with LVMI and PWV in adolescent and young adult patients receiving hemodialysis (HD)...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Suraj Kukadia, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Therese Tillin, Emma Coady, Nish Chaturvedi, Alun D Hughes
Dietary inorganic nitrate in beetroot can act as a source of nitric oxide and has been reported to lower brachial blood pressure (BP). This study examined the effect of inorganic nitrate in beetroot juice on aortic (central) BP acutely and over the subsequent 24-h period. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed in fifteen healthy, normotensive men and women (age 22-40 years). Participants were randomized to receive beetroot juice containing nitrate (6.5-7.3 mmol) or placebo beetroot juice from which nitrate had been removed (<0...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Mateusz Krzyzosiak, Ryszard Gonczarek, Adam Gonczarek, Lucjan Jacak
A simplified analytical model of the effect of high pressure on the critical temperature and other thermodynamic properties of superconducting systems is developed using the general conformal transformation method and group-theoretical arguments. Relationships between the characteristic ratios [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and the stability of the superconducting state is discussed. Including a single two-parameter fluctuation in the density of states, placed away from the Fermi level, stable solutions determined by [Formula: see text] are found...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Shouling Wu, Cheng Jin, Shanshan Li, Xiaoming Zheng, Xinyuan Zhang, Liufu Cui, Xiang Gao
Arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) both increase with aging synchronously. Whether elevated BP results from thickening of arterial wall or vice versa is controversial in previous studies. This study included 17 862 participants without history of myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation or flutter, or cancer and with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and BP measurements during 2010 to 2016. Age was calculated from the self-reported birthdate to the first date of baPWV examination...
February 19, 2019: Hypertension
Katharina Endes, Sabrina Köchli, Lukas Zahner, Henner Hanssen
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains to be one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypertension and obesity often manifest in childhood. The study examines the associations of blood pressure, body mass index and physical activity with cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and psychosocial health of children in a systems physiology approach. Methods/Design: This cross-sectional study will be performed in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old school children ( n = 1000)...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Hiroya Koshiba, Etsuko Maeshima
[Purpose] Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) are simple, accurate, and reproducible indices of arterial stiffness. However, only a few studies have evaluated the influence of exercise-training baPWV and CAVI on arterial stiffness. Thus, this study aimed to examine the influence of aerobic-training baPWV and CAVI on arterial stiffness. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 20 middle-aged females (age, 60.1 ± 1.6 years) who were sedentary non-smokers...
January 2019: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
G Yu, W R Rossen, S Vincent-Bonnieu
The propagation of foam in an oil reservoir depends on the creation and stability of the foam in the reservoir, specifically the creation and stability of foam films, or lamellae. As the foam propagates far from the injection well, superficial velocity and pressure gradient decrease with distance from the well. Experimental (Friedmann et al. Steam-foam mechanistic field trial in the midway-sunset field. SPERE . 1994 , 9 (4), 297-304) and theoretical (Ashoori, et al. Roles of Transient and Local Equilibrium Foam Behaviour in Porous Media: Traveling Wave...
January 9, 2019: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Olga Perelshtein Brezinov, Michal J Simchen, Sagit Ben Zekry, Rafael Kuperstein
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is a relatively rare diagnosis in the developed countries and its treatment during pregnancy is challenging due to hemodynamic changes. With the demographic changes due to recent waves of immigration an increase in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease is expected. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate maternal and neonatal complications in patients with mitral stenosis. METHODS: During the years 2006-2017, 22 women who underwent 31 pregnancies were followed at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel...
February 2019: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Zhiling Bai, Zhuoping Duan, Lijing Wen, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhuocheng Ou, Fenglei Huang
To facilitate the pre-estimation and optimization of the prescription design of a multi-component polymer bonded explosive (PBX), a multicomponent mesoscopic reaction rate model (MC-DZK model) is developed to predicate preferably the influence of both the explosive components and the particle size of on the shock initiation. All the parameters in the model are determined directly by the parameters in the DZK model for each explosive component. Furthermore, for the multicomponent insensitive explosive PBXC10 (70% TATB, 25% HMX, and 5% Kel-F800 by weight) with different explosive particle sizes, both shock initiation experiments and corresponding numerical simulations are performed, and there is satisfactory agreement between the numerical results and the available experimental data...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Eelco F M Wijdicks
The origin of secondary brainstem hemorrhages following an acute expansive hemispheric lesion has been attributed to Henri Duret, who proposed that hemorrhaging was caused by a shock wave through the cerebral spinal fluid. However, other experiments have shown important findings correlating brainstem hemorrhages to arterial hemorrhages. Animal studies found that the rapidity of expansion of a lesion would be crucial in producing these lesions, but there was no consistent correlation with paratentorial grooving so commonly seen with increased intracranial pressure...
February 15, 2019: Neurocritical Care
E M Zilonova, M Solovchuk, T W H Sheu
The present study aims to investigate temperature distribution caused by bubble oscillations in a soft tissue during focused ultrasound therapy by introducing a coupled temperature-cavitation model. The proposed model is capable of describing bubble dynamics, viscoelastic properties of surrounding tissue-like medium, temperature distribution inside and outside the bubble, vapor diffusion within the bubble and vapor flux through the bubble wall to the exterior. The continuous temperature distribution inside and outside the oscillating bubble in soft tissue subject to ultrasound wave with high acoustic pressure is presented...
December 5, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Owen Thomas, John Cain, Mehran Nasralla, Alan Jackson
INTRODUCTION: To test the hypotheses that changes in the aortic pulse-wave produced by arterial stiffening are (1) propagated into cerebral small vessels, (2) associated with reduced compliance of small cerebral arterial vessels, and (3) associated with the presence of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS). METHODS: Fifteen volunteers and 19 patients with late-onset depression (LOD) were prospectively recruited, of which 6 fulfilled the criteria for treatment-resistant depression (TRD)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Junwei Yan, Xuejiao Yang, Jiang Wu, Bing Liu, Xuefei Jiao, Wei Li, Mingjin Guo
PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is deemed to restore the blood flow of the carotid and ophthalmic arteries in patients with carotid artery stenosis. However, specific changes in visual function before and after CEA are not well understood; hence, this observational study aimed to investigate the functional and structural changes in vision after CEA in those patients. METHODS: Patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (>70% with standard carotid duplex scanning or arteriography) scheduled to undergo CEA were consecutively recruited for the study between September 2015 and July 2016...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Morten Andresen, Jesper Kelsen, Trine Hjorslev Andreasen, Kåre Fugleholm, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used in cases of severe intracranial hypertension or impending intracranial herniation. DC effectively lowers intracranial pressure (ICP) but carries a risk of severe complications related to abnormal ICP and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, eg, hygroma formation, hydrocephalus, and "syndrome of the trephined." OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term effect of DC on ICP, postural ICP regulation, and intracranial pulse wave amplitude (PWA)...
February 15, 2019: Neurosurgery
Christian Brahms, Dane R Austin, Francesco Tani, Allan S Johnson, Douglas Garratt, John C Travers, John W G Tisch, Philip St J Russell, Jon P Marangos
Dispersive wave emission (DWE) in gas-filled hollow-core dielectric waveguides is a promising source of tuneable coherent and broadband radiation, but so far the generation of few-femtosecond pulses using this technique has not been demonstrated. Using in-vacuum frequency-resolved optical gating, we directly characterize tuneable 3 fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet generated via DWE. Through numerical simulations, we identify that the use of a pressure gradient in the waveguide is critical for the generation of short pulses...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Frédéric Vanden Eynden, Bachar El Oumeiri, Thierry Bové, Guido Van Nooten, Patrick Segers
Locating the site of increased resistance within the vascular tree in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), could assist in both patient diagnosis and tailoring treatment. Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is a wave analysis method that may be capable of localizing the major site of reflection within a vascular system. We investigated the contribution of WIA to the analysis of the pulmonary circulation in a rabbit model with animals subjected to variable occlusive pulmonary disease. Animals were embolized with different sized microspheres for 6 weeks (N = 10) or underwent pulmonary artery (PA) ligation for 6 weeks (N = 3)...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Akira Iyo, Shigeyuki Ishida, Hiroshi Fujihisa, Yoshito Gotoh, Izumi Hase, Yoshiyuki Yoshida, Hiroshi Eisaki, Kenji Kawashima
We report synthesis, crystal structure and superconductivity in ThCr2 Si2 -type LaFe2 As2 (La122). La122 was synthesized at 960°C for 1.5 h under a pressure of 3.4 GPa. An as-synthesized La122 (non-superconductor) had a collapsed tetragonal structure with a short c-axis length of 11.0144(4) Å as observed in CaFe2 As2 under pressure. The collapsed tetragonal transformed into an uncollapsed tetragonal by annealing the as-synthesized La122 at 500°C. The c-axis length remarkably extended to 11.7317(4) Å and superconductivity emerged at 12...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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