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high AND fat

Zhe Wu, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Yang Song, Ling Liu, Feng Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Xia Li, Yujing Chi, Yulan Liu
Mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and immune cells play pivotal roles in the inflammation of adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of MAT B lymphocytes in NAFLD. Mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet (ND) were killed in time gradients (4, 8 and 12 weeks). Compared with ND-fed mice, intra-hepatic CD45+ CD19+ B lymphocytes increased after 4 weeks (P < 0.01) of HFD feeding, and lasted until the 12th week, infiltrated earlier than CD45+ CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD45+ F4/80+ macrophages...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Steen Stender
OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, several countries have implemented a legislative restriction on I-TF in foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union that all have a high coronary mortality rate compared with countries in Western Europe. METHODS: Three large supermarkets in 15 capitals were visited in 2015 or 2016...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Vajiheh Khorasani, Sajad Jeddi, Parichehr Yaghmaei, Maryam Tohidi, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Anemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. This aims at determining long-term effects of nitrate administration on diabetes-induced anemia in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced using high-fat diet followed by injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Sodium nitrate (100 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for six months...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jacqueline L Beaudry, Kiran Deep Kaur, Elodie M Varin, Laurie L Baggio, Xiemin Cao, Erin E Mulvihill, Jennifer H Stern, Jonathan E Campbell, Phillip E Scherer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Administration of glucagon (GCG) or GCG-containing co-agonists reduces body weight and increases energy expenditure. These actions appear to be transduced by multiple direct and indirect GCG receptor (GCGR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the canonical GCGR is expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) the importance of BAT GCGR activity for the physiological control of body weight, or the response to GCG agonism, has not been defined. METHODS: We studied the mechanisms linking GCG action to acute increases in oxygen consumption using wildtype (WT), Ucp1-/- and Fgf21-/- mice...
February 5, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Min Ding, Qian-Hua Fang, Yuan-Tao Cui, Qi-Ling Shen, Qian Liu, Peng-Hua Wang, De-Min Yu, Chun-Jun Li
AIMS: High glucose (HG)-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis may be a major contributor to the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). NADPH oxidase (NOX2) has been considered a crucial regulator in β-cell apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1Ra) liraglutide on pancreatic β-cell apoptosis in diabetes and the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: The diabetic rat models induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and a high fat diet (HFD) received 12 weeks of liraglutide treatment...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
C Lee, D L Morris, J E Copelin, J M Hettick, I H Kwon
An experiment was conducted to examine effects of supplemental lysophospholipids (LPL) in dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were (1) a dairy ration [CON; 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis], (2) a positive control diet supplemented with monensin (MON; 16 mg/kg in dietary DM; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN], (3) a control diet supplemented with low LPL (0.05% of dietary DM; Lipidol Ultra, Easy Bio Inc...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
J D Quigley
Provision of nutrients in appropriate amounts to meet nutrient requirements for growth, production, and reproduction is the basis for modern animal nutrition. Ration formulation systems predict nutrient requirements based on numerous inputs and then predict nutrient supply based on predicted intake and nutrient content of feeds. Energy systems are used to predict energy supply based on gross caloric content of feeds followed by adjustments for digestion and metabolism of ingested energy. Many models of energy supply use static coefficients of digestibility based on nutrient composition of feed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, Amia Jones Elizabeth, Siriwan Butadej, Soontaree Nakasatien, Phawinpon Chotwanvirat, Ekgaluck Wanothayaroj, Sirinate Krittiyawong, Tinapa Himathongkam, Thep Himathongkam
BACKGROUND: Dysglycemic status defined by prediabetes and diabetes is known to be related with future risk of diabetic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) when compared with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a reference test in identifying dysglycemic status among high-risk Thai patients receiving care in an out-patient setting. METHODS: An 11-year retrospective cross-sectional study of high-risk Thai patients who underwent OGTT during 2007-2017 was analysed...
February 15, 2019: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Song Zhang, Shun Guo, Xiao-Bo Gao, An Liu, Wei Jiang, Xi Chen, Peng Yang, Lin-Na Liu, Lei Shi, Yan Zhang
Lipid metabolism disorders lead to vascular endothelial injury. Matrine is an alkaloid that has been used to improve obesity and diabetes and for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, its effect on lipid metabolism disorders and vascular injury is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of matrine on high-fat diet fed mice and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Computational virtual docking analyses, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C-α (PKCα) inhibitors were used to localize matrine in vascular injuries...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Cristian Álvarez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Alejandro Lucia, Alicia Alonso-Martínez, Harry Faúndez, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo
Our aim was to investigate the effects of 12-weeks of CT (i.e., high-intensity interval and resistance training) in Mapuche adults from Chile and in their peers of European descent. In total, 96 hyperglycemic adult women (mean age 46 years [95% confidence interval; 38, 53]) were divided in four groups: Mapuche CT (Map-CT, n=14) or control group (Map-CG, n=44), and European CT (Eur-CT, n=14) or control group (Eur-CG, n=23). The following endpoints were analyzed at baseline and after 12 weeks: anthropometric (body mass, body mass index, waist circumference), body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, lean mass), cardiovascular (systolic [SBP]/diastolic [DBP] blood pressure), metabolic (blood fasting glucose and total cholesterol), and muscle strength (handgrip of dominant/non-dominant arm)...
February 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Maciej Haberka, Michael Skilton, Małgorzata Biedroń, Karolina Szóstak-Janiak, Małgorzata Partyka, Monika Matla, Zbigniew Gąsior
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease. Our aim was to assess the associations between obesity, fat depots and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: The study group included 391 patients (F/M: 136/255 pts.; age: 61.8 ± 8 years) scheduled for elective coronary angiography. A comprehensive clinical assessment included a carotid artery and abdominal ultrasound involving the following fat depots: (1) carotid extra-media thickness (EMT) indexed to the body mass index (perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]), and (2) abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Rubén Martin Payo, Claudia Sánchez Díaz, Mario Suarez Colunga, Rebeca García García, María Blanco Díaz, María Del Mar Fernández Álvarez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional composition of food vending machines (VM) located in university public buildings and hospitals in Asturias. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. LOCATION: The analysis was made of the contents of VMs located in public buildings, hospitals, and university teaching centres in the Principality of Asturias. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: After the public buildings were mapped, each of them was visited to check for the presence of the VMs...
February 12, 2019: Atencion Primaria
Xiang Tao, Yuting Hu, Li Li, Rui Xu, Jing Fu, Qiangsong Tong, Qin Fu
β2 Adrenergic receptors (β2 ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in major insulin target tissues. β2 ARs play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism during aging; however, little is known about the significance of β2 ARs in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. This study aims to examine the role of β2 AR in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by HFD and the underlying mechanisms. Surprisingly, we found that genetic deletion of β2 AR significantly increased the liver weight of mice fed a HFD for 20 weeks compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice...
February 12, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lin Su, Zhe Wu, Yujing Chi, Yang Song, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Xu Cong, Yulan Liu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Co-culture assays showed MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from HFD-fed mice tended to migrate to the liver and promoted hepatic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from NAFLD mice to HFD-fed mice resulted in higher transaminase, worse hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation...
January 28, 2019: Cellular Immunology
Alejandro Blas, Alberto Garrido, Olcay Unver, Bárbara Willaarts
The promotion of responsible consumption is a key strategy to achieve environmental benefits, sustainable food security, and enhance public health. Countries like Spain are making efforts to reverse growing obesity and promote healthy diets, such as the recommended and traditional Mediterranean, recognized as a key strategy to improve the population's health with locally grown, traditional, and seasonal products like fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and fish. With a view to connecting water, agriculture, food security, nutrition and health, this research aims to investigate and compare the nutritional and water implications of the current food consumption of Spanish households with the recommended Mediterranean diet...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Harish S Appiakannan, Daniel R Kestyus, E Todd Weber
Both high-fat diet and chronic circadian disruption have been associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids, which have considerable impacts on physiological processes such as intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and fat metabolism, have also been implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) or chronic circadian challenge in C57BL/6J mice on basal and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose levels were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Maryam Hussain, Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Cheong Kc Kwong Chung, Lukas Bäriswyl, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Brian S Kim, Philipp Engel, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced obesity and food allergies rise in tandem, but a potential cause-and-effect relationship between these diseases of affluence remains to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of high dietary fat intake, diet-induced obesity and associated changes in gut microbial community structure on food allergy pathogenesis. METHODS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks prior to food allergen sensitization on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intra-gastric allergen challenge to induce experimental food allergy...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Meijiao Wang, Dan Zhao, Liangzhi Xu, Wenjing Guo, Li Nie, Yi Lei, Yun Long, Min Liu, Yichen Wang, Xueqin Zhang, Li Zhang, Hanna Li, Jinhu Zhang, Dongzhi Yuan, Limin Yue
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin / kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a critical role in the cholesterol metabolism by negatively regulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Lipid metabolic and ovarian disorders are the common clinical manifestation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we intended to elucidate the role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of PCOS conducted on a human population in case-control design and animal part in an interventional study. METHODS: We firstly investigated the serum levels of PCSK9 in 46 PCOS patients compared with 49 healthy women as controls, and then developed a PCOS mouse model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and a high-fat diet (HFD) to determine the role of PCSK9 in abnormal lipid metabolism and ovarian dysfunction of PCOS in four groups (n = 40 per group): control, PCOS mice, PCOS plus alirocumab group, and PCOS plus vehicle group...
February 12, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Kacey Anderson, Hao Zheng, Mona Kotecha, Jennifer Cuvin, Bob Scott, Shringi Sharma, Ann Ran-Ran Qin, Florence Namour, Yan Xin
Filgotinib is a potent, selective Janus kinase-1 inhibitor being developed to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. This phase 1 study in healthy subjects evaluated the relative bioavailability of filgotinib maleate tablets versus the reference tablet (filgotinib hydrochloride) and effects of food and acid-reducing agents (ARAs) on the pharmacokinetics of filgotinib and its major metabolite. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of filgotinib and its major metabolite were compared between the 2 tablets at 100- and 200-mg doses and with or without food or ARAs...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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