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Oncology, neuroblastoma

R R Pravin, Tan Ee Kar Enrica, Tan Ah Moy
The portrait of a dying child is an homage to a child's journey from initial diagnosis to the terminal stages of illness in metastatic neuroblastoma, raising the critical question of the importance of defining a beautiful death - a concept I first came across as a literature student in Henrik Ibsen's renowned tragedy Hedda Gabler . In this article, we discuss a case study of a child named Peter (real names have been changed to maintain the confidentiality of the patient) and his family, whom I met during my oncology rotation as a junior pediatric resident, and various aspects of care - ranging from symptom management, pain control, the family as an emotional and spiritual unit and complications of metastatic disease...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Yael P Mosse, Elizabeth Fox, David T Teachey, Joel M Reid, Stephanie L Sagfren, Hernan Carol, Richard B Lock, Peter J Houghton, Malcolm A Smith, David C Hall, Donald A Barkauskas, Mark Krailo, Stephan D Voss, Stacey L Berg, Susan Blaney, Brenda J Weigel
BACKGROUND: Aurora A kinase (AAK) plays an integral role in mitotic entry, DNA damage checkpoint recovery, and centrosome and spindle maturation. Alisertib (MLN8237) is a potent and selective AAK inhibitor. In pediatric preclinical models, antitumor activity was observed in neuroblastoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and sarcoma xenografts. We conducted a phase 2 trial of alisertib in pediatric patients with refractory or recurrent solid tumors or acute leukemias (NCT01154816). PROCEDURES: Alisertib (80 mg/m2 /dose) was administered orally, daily for 7 days every 21 days...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sidney M Johnson, William G Lee, Devin P Puapong, Russell K Woo
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: High surgical volume for both surgeons and hospital systems has been linked to improved outcomes for many surgical problems, yet case volumes per pediatric surgeon are diminishing nationally in complex pediatric surgery. We therefore sought to review our experience in a geographically isolated setting where a surgical team approach has been used to improve per-surgeon exposure to index pediatric surgical cases. METHODS: As a surgical group, we incorporated a surgical team approach to complex pediatric surgical cases in 2010...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Suheyla Ocak, Rejin Kebudi, Zafer Cebeci, Nesimi Buyukbabani, Bilge Bilgic, Samuray Tuncer
Neuroblastoma of the iris is an extremely rare clinical entity. An otherwise healthy 2-month-old male infant presented to the oncology clinic with a nodular whitish iris lesion in his right eye. The excisional tumor biopsy was consistent with a pathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma with differentiation and negative MYCN gene mutation. Further systemic evaluation revealed a right adrenal mass with no metastatic lesion. The biopsy of the adrenal lesion was also consistent with neuroblastoma. After four courses of chemotherapy, the adrenal mass was completely resected...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Kleopatra Georgantzi, Erik Sköldenberg, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Åke Jakobson, Rolf Christofferson
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and accounts for 15% of deaths in pediatric oncology. Apart from the clinical stage at diagnosis, molecular factors are important for the characterization of the tumor and for decision on adequate treatment. Pretreatment diagnosis and molecular profiling are based on analysis of a tumor sample, obtained either by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), cutting needle biopsy or open surgical biopsy...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
İlknur Yıldırım, Ayça I Çelik, Sema B Bay, Özge Pasin, Ayşe Ç Tütüncü
BACKROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of complications related to propofol-based anesthesia and the factors associated with complications in children with radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent anesthesia for external beam radiotherapy between May 2013 and November 2017 were included in the study. We assessed the age/weight, sex, oncologic diagnosis, type of radiotherapy procedure, duration of anesthesia, applied agents, and complications related to anesthesia...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Frank Berthold, Christoph Bartenhagen, Lothar Krempel
BACKGROUND: The consistent focus of 'Advances in Neuroblastoma Research' congresses on the topic neuroblastoma sets it as a model for a circumscribed scientific community. METHODS: The contributions of authors, institutions and countries to congress abstracts and their collaborations were compared to the Hirsch index (h-index) calculated from the Web of Science publication output on the topic 'neuroblastoma'. RESULTS: From 1975 to 2016, 18 congresses were held...
2019: PloS One
Arlene Naranjo, Meredith S Irwin, Michael D Hogarty, Susan L Cohn, Julie R Park, Wendy B London
PURPOSE: The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Staging System (INRGSS) was developed through international consensus to provide a presurgical staging system that uses clinical and imaging data at diagnosis. A revised Children's Oncology Group (COG) neuroblastoma (NB) risk classification system is needed to incorporate the INRGSS and within the context of modern therapy. Herein, we provide statistical support for the clinical validity of a revised COG risk classification system...
December 2018: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Davide Mattavelli, Marco Ferrari, Andrea Bolzoni Villaret, Alberto Schreiber, Vittorio Rampinelli, Mario Turri-Zanoni, Davide Lancini, Valentina Taglietti, Remo Accorona, Francesco Doglietto, Paolo Battaglia, Paolo Castelnuovo, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: In nasal-ethmoidal malignancies, brain involvement is associated with dismal prognosis. METHOD: Patients undergoing endoscopic resection with transnasal craniectomy and subpial dissection (ERTC-SD) for brain-invading nasal-ethmoidal cancer between 2008 and 2016 were included. Complications were analyzed in all patients, whereas oncological outcomes only in patients with pathological brain invasion. The prognostic impact of previous treatments, brain edema, and histology was assessed...
January 12, 2019: Head & Neck
Devin R Halleran, Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Carlos A Reck, Tassiana Maloof, Laura Weaver, Joseph Stanek, Marc A Levitt, Richard J Wood, Jennifer H Aldrink
BACKGROUND: Despite variability at presentation, presacral masses in patients with and without anorectal malformations (ARM) appear histologically similar. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in oncologic outcomes between these two groups. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed utilizing our institutional cancer and colorectal and pelvic reconstruction databases for patients with presacral masses and sacrococcygeal teratomas between 1990 and 2017...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Claudia Pasqualini, Fanny Rialland, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Jean Michon, Véronique Minard-Colin
New therapeutic paradigms are needed to improve the survival of children and adolescents with high-risk malignancies, and to reduce the sequelae associated with treatment. Immunotherapies, targeting tumor cells and/or the immune system to enhance existing anti-tumor immunity or induce novel anti-tumor immune responses, are becoming increasingly successful in adult oncology. Based on the results obtained with anti-ganglioside2 antibodies in neuroblastoma, rituximab in mature B malignancies, immune checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma and especially in Hodgkin lymphoma, blinatumomab and CAR-T CD19 cells for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, immunotherapy has demonstrated irrefutable benefits in pediatric patients...
December 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Valerio Maggio, Marco Chierici, Giuseppe Jurman, Cesare Furlanello
We introduce the CDRP (Concatenated Diagnostic-Relapse Prognostic) architecture for multi-task deep learning that incorporates a clinical algorithm, e.g., a risk stratification schema to improve prognostic profiling. We present the first application to survival prediction in High-Risk (HR) Neuroblastoma from transcriptomics data, a task that studies from the MAQC consortium have shown to remain the hardest among multiple diagnostic and prognostic endpoints predictable from the same dataset. To obtain a more accurate risk stratification needed for appropriate treatment strategies, CDRP combines a first component (CDRP-A) synthesizing a diagnostic task and a second component (CDRP-N) dedicated to one or more prognostic tasks...
2018: PloS One
Sujith Baliga, Torunn I Yock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Maddalena Grimaldi, Veronica Dal Bo, Beatrice Ferrari, Elisa Roda, Fabrizio De Luca, Paola Veneroni, Sergio Barni, Manuela Verri, Sandra A De Pascali, Franco P Fanizzi, Graziella Bernocchi, Maria G Bottone
Cisplatin (cisPt), among the best known components of multi-drug front-line therapies used for the treatments of solid tumors, such as the childhood neuroblastoma, acts through DNA linking. Nevertheless, the cisPt effectiveness is compromised by the onset of severe side effects, including neurotoxicity that results in neurodegeneration, cell death, and drug-resistance. In the field of experimental oncology, aimed at overcoming cytotoxicity and chemoresistance, great efforts are devoted to the synthesis of new platinum-based drugs, such as [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (PtAcacDMS), which shows a specific reactivity with sulfur residues of enzymes involved in apoptosis...
December 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Katherine Cooper, Guy Makin, Emma Davies, Andrew Turner, Prashant Hiwarkar, Robert Wynn
We report an 8 year old boy with disseminated, life-threatening, drug treatment-resistant varicella zoster infection occurring during standard treatment for neuroblastoma in whom viral clearance and cure was effected by donor Lymphocyte infusion from his HLA-identical twin sibling.
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Wei Yao, Kai Li, Kui-Ran Dong, Shan Zheng, Xian-Min Xiao
BACKGROUND: Low-risk neuroblastomas have favorable biologic characteristics. Children Oncology Group (COG) proposed that surgical resection of the primary tumor was sufficient. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of surgery alone for patients with low-risk neuroblastoma in China. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with low-risk neuroblastoma were treated in our center between Jan 2009 and Dec 2013. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: The primary lesion was located in the adrenal gland in 19 patients, the retroperitoneum in 5, the posterior mediastinum in 9 and the neck in 1...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Clare J Twist, Arlene Naranjo, Mary Lou Schmidt, Sheena C Tenney, Susan L Cohn, Holly J Meany, Peter Mattei, E Stanton Adkins, Hiroyuki Shimada, Wendy B London, Julie R Park, Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris
PURPOSE: Infants with stage 4S neuroblastoma usually have favorable outcomes with observation or minimal chemotherapy. However, young infants with symptoms secondary to massive hepatomegaly or with unfavorable tumor biology are at high risk of death. Our aim was to improve outcomes for patients with symptomatic and/or unfavorable biology 4S neuroblastoma with a uniform treatment approach using a biology- and response-based algorithm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subset of patients with 4S disease with MYCN-not amplified tumors with impaired or impending organ dysfunction, or with unfavorable histology and/or diploid DNA index, were eligible...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
(no author information available yet)
The interaction between pituitary hormones, GH - PRL, and Growth Factors, GF, plays a fundamental role in the physiological and neoplastic mechanisms of growth, the latter using these factors to a much greater extent compared to the former, with a direct dose-dependent effect on the speed of local or metastatic expansion. In hormone-dependent tumours, the respective male and female sex hormones interact with GH - PRL - GF to sustain the expansion of the tumour. We carried out a review of the literature on the relationship between the expression of GH and GHR in tumour tissues compared to healthy tissues, and on the correlation between this expression and tumour aggressiveness...
September 15, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Holly L Pacenta, Margaret E Macy
RTK plays important roles in many cellular signaling processes involved in cancer growth and development. ALK, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, and ROS1 are RTKs involved in several canonical pathways related to oncogenesis. These proteins can be genetically altered in malignancies, leading to receptor activation and constitutive signaling through their respective downstream pathways. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, and despite intensive therapy, there is a high mortality rate in cases with a high-risk disease...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Viera Dobrotkova, Petr Chlapek, Pavel Mazanek, Jaroslav Sterba, Renata Veselska
For decades, retinoids and their synthetic derivatives have been well established anticancer treatments due to their ability to regulate cell growth and induce cell differentiation and apoptosis. Many studies have reported the promising role of retinoids in attaining better outcomes for adult or pediatric patients suffering from several types of cancer, especially acute myeloid leukemia and neuroblastoma. However, even this promising differentiation therapy has some limitations: retinoid toxicity and intrinsic or acquired resistance have been observed in many patients...
November 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
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