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Low oestrogen

Arielle Mendel, Sasha Bernatsky, Christian A Pineau, Yvan St-Pierre, John G Hanly, Murray B Urowitz, Ann E Clarke, Juanita Romero-Diaz, Caroline Gordon, Sang-Cheol Bae, Daniel J Wallace, Joan T Merrill, Jill Buyon, David A Isenberg, Anisur Rahman, Ellen M Ginzler, Michelle Petri, Mary Anne Dooley, Paul Fortin, Dafna D Gladman, Kristján Steinsson, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Munther A Khamashta, Cynthia Aranow, Meggan Mackay, Graciela Alarcón, Susan Manzi, Ola Nived, Andreas Jönsen, Asad A Zoma, Ronald F van Vollenhoven, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Giuillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Sam Lim, Kenneth C Kalunian, Murat Inanc, Diane L Kamen, Christine A Peschken, Søren Jacobsen, Anca Askanase, Jorge Sanchez-Guerrero, Ian N Bruce, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Evelyne Vinet
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in reproductive-age women with SLE with and without possible contraindications and to determine factors associated with their use in the presence of possible contraindications. Methods: This observational cohort study included premenopausal women ages 18-45 years enrolled in the SLICC Registry ⩽15 months after SLE onset, with annual assessments spanning 2000-2017. World Health Organization Category 3 or 4 contraindications to CHCs (e...
February 8, 2019: Rheumatology
Anne Lethaby, Michelle R Wise, Maria Aj Weterings, Magdalena Bofill Rodriguez, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Menorrhagia or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an excessive blood loss that impairs a woman's quality of life, either physical, emotional, social or material. It is benign and not associated with pregnancy or any other gynaecological or systemic disease. Medical treatments used to reduce excessive menstrual blood loss (MBL) include prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, antifibrinolytics, oral contraceptive pills, and other hormones. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is claimed to have a variety of beneficial effects, inducing a regular shedding of a thinner endometrium and inhibiting ovulation, thus having the effect of both treating HMB and providing contraception...
February 11, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lois H Thomas, Jacqueline Coupe, Lucy D Cross, Aidan L Tan, Caroline L Watkins
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence can affect 40% to 60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems when discharged from hospital and 15% remaining incontinent after one year.This is an update of a review published in 2005 and updated in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions for treating urinary incontinence after stroke in adults at least one-month post-stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence and Cochrane Stroke Specialised Registers (searched 30 October 2017 and 1 November 2017 respectively), which contain trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials...
February 1, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael R Holt, John J Miles, Warrick J Inder, Rachel Thomson
Lung disease due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) occurs with disproportionate frequency in postmenopausal women with a unique phenotype and without clinically apparent predisposing factors. Dubbed "Lady Windermere Syndrome", the phenotype includes low body mass index (BMI), tall stature, and higher than normal prevalence of scoliosis, pectus excavatum and mitral valve prolapse. Although the pathomechanism for susceptibility to NTM lung disease in these patients remains uncertain, it is likely to be multifactorial...
January 29, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Laura J Owen, Phillip J Monaghan, Anne Armstrong, Brian G Keevil, Claire Higham, Zena Salih, Sacha Howell
Biochemical evaluation of menopausal status is used to inform treatment decisions, including clinical trial eligibility in women with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. However, fulvestrant may interfere with oestradiol immunoassays and confound accurate assessment in this context. We conducted a service evaluation of two immunoassays and an LC-MS/MS assay to determine the extent of the interference. Serum oestradiol levels were analysed by two immunoassays (Siemens Centaur XP and Abbott Architect) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)...
January 25, 2019: British Journal of Cancer
Frederick S Vom Saal
The Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA) involved the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program and 14 academic investigators funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Two key questions to be answered by CLARITY-BPA were: 1. Would the academic investigator studies show effects at low doses of BPA while the core guideline study conducted by the FDA only showed toxic effects at high doses? 2. Would the academic investigators be able to replicate their numerous prior studies with animals raised and treated in the FDA's toxicology centre? Several flaws in the design and execution of CLARITY-BPA biased the experiment toward not finding significant results (Type 2 error): 1...
December 27, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Agostina Nardone, Hazel Weir, Oona Delpuech, Henry Brown, Carmine De Angelis, Maria Letizia Cataldo, Xiaoyong Fu, Martin J Shea, Tamika Mitchell, Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Chandandeep Nagi, Mark Pilling, Mothaffar F Rimawi, Meghana Trivedi, Susan G Hilsenbeck, Gary C Chamness, Rinath Jeselsohn, C Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff
BACKGROUND: The oestrogen receptor (ER) is an important therapeutic target in ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer. The selective ER degrader (SERD), fulvestrant, is effective in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but its intramuscular route of administration and low bioavailability are major clinical limitations. METHODS: Here, we studied the pharmacology of a new oral SERD, AZD9496, in a panel of in vitro and in vivo endocrine-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer models...
December 17, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Giussy Barbara, Laura Buggio, Edgardo Somigliana
Elagolix, an orally active non-peptidic GnRH antagonist, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis. As the degree of ovarian suppression obtained with elagolix is dose-dependent, pain relief may be achieved by modulating the level of hypo-oestrogenism while limiting side effects. Elagolix may thus be considered a novelty in terms of its endocrine and pharmacological properties but not for its impact on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometriosis, as the target of this new drug is, yet again, alteration of the hormonal milieu...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Donghee Kim, Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into the longer chain n-3 PUFA has been suggested to be affected by the dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), but the mechanism is not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-LA diet with and without oestrogen on the fatty acid conversion enzymes and transcription factors. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFA or ALA, containing low or high amounts of LA for 12 weeks. At 8 weeks, the rats were injected with maize oil with or without 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E) at constant intervals for the remaining 3 weeks...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Mashuk Alam Khan, Laura Henderson, Dayalan Clarke, Simon Harries, Lucie Jones
Introduction: Oncotype DX® analyses the expression of 21 genes within tumour tissue to determine a Recurrence Score® (RS). RS is a marker of risk for distant recurrence in oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer, allowing patient-specific benefit of chemotherapy to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the introduction of Oncotype DX led to a net reduction in chemotherapy use. Methods: Consecutive patients that underwent Oncotype DX at Warwick Hospital were reviewed...
October 2018: Breast Care
Sabine Schäfer-Somi, Duygu Kaya, Mahmut Sözmen, Semra Kaya, Selim Aslan
Aim of the study was to examine the effect of deslorelin on uterine tissues of eleven pre-pubertal bitches aged 4.2 ± 0.6 m. Implants containing placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%; n = 4, G I), 4.7 mg (n = 3, GII) or 9.4 mg (n = 4, GIII) deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin® ; Virbac, France), were administered subcutaneously. Signs of oestrus, vaginal cytology, serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations were monitored until the occurrence of oestrus. Bitches were ovariohysterectomized and sections from the uterine tissue were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of GnRH receptor (R), Kisspeptin (KP)10, Kisspeptin receptor (GPR54), androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER) α,β, and progesterone receptor (PR)...
November 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Takehiro Michikawa, Shin Yamazaki, Masaji Ono, Tatsuo Kuroda, Shoji F Nakayama, Eiko Suda, Tomohiko Isobe, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Yayoi Kobayashi, Junzo Yonemoto, Kenji Tamura, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Hiroshi Nitta
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between isoflavone intake in early pregnancy (the critical window of masculinisation) and hypospadias. Since oestrogen is likely to contribute to the differentiation of male external genitalia, dietary intake of isoflavone, which has a similar structure to human oestrogen, may be associated with the occurrence of hypospadias. However, there has been little evidence of this association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data of a nationwide birth cohort study, which recruited women as early in pregnancy as possible throughout Japan between 2011 and 2014...
November 14, 2018: Urology
Cameron E Snell, Madeline Gough, Cheng Liu, Kathryn Middleton, Christopher Pyke, Catherine Shannon, Natasha Woodward, Theresa E Hickey, Jane E Armes, Wayne D Tilley
BACKGROUND: Recent pre-clinical studies indicate that activated progesterone receptor (PR) (particularly the PR-B isoform) binds to oestrogen receptor-α (ER) and reprogrammes transcription toward better breast cancer outcomes. We investigated whether ER and PR-B interactions were present in breast tumours and associated with clinical parameters including response to aromatase inhibitors. METHODS: We developed a proximity ligation assay to detect ER and PR-B (ER:PR-B) interactions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues...
November 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Jun Gao, Yang Liu, Gaijing Han, Kan Deng, Xiaohai Liu, Xinjie Bao, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Wei Lian, Bing Xing, Xiang Lv, Renzhi Wang
Metformin (MET) is a diabetes drug that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and is suggested to have anticancer efficacy. Here, we investigated the role of AMPK signalling in prolactinoma (PRLoma), with particular respect to MET and bromocriptine (BC) as a PRLoma treatment. We analysed AMPK phosphorylation, dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in both BC-sensitive and -resistant PRLoma samples; effects of the AMPK agonist MET (alone or with BC) on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis, xenograft growth and prolactin (PRL) secretion of BC-sensitive and -resistant cells, and ER expression in xenografts...
December 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
N Green, A Al-Allak, C Fowler
INTRODUCTION: Decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in women with oestrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, node negative, early invasive breast cancer are unclear. The Recurrence Score® (RS) from Oncotype DX® (ODX) testing guides decisions based on individual cancer genomics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of introducing ODX results on adjuvant treatment decisions and its potential economic benefits. METHODS: Patients offered the test were identified from the ODX requesting system...
October 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Pavlos Siolos, Dimitrios Krikidis, Dimitrios G Goulis, John C Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetically determined lipid disorder, affecting 1 per 200-500 individuals in the general population. It is significantly and independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although it remains still an underrecognized and undertreated disease. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-like molecule, containing an additional protein, apolipoprotein (a). OBJECTIVE: This review aims to present and discuss available data on the role of Lp(a) in patients with FH, in terms of its potential augmentation of CVD risk...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
Kathryn E Ackerman, Vibha Singhal, Charumathi Baskaran, Meghan Slattery, Karen Joanie Campoverde Reyes, Alexander Toth, Kamryn T Eddy, Mary L Bouxsein, Hang Lee, Anne Klibanski, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: Normal-weight oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes (OAA) are at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Data are lacking regarding the impact of oestrogen administration on bone outcomes in OAA. Our objective was to determine the effects of transdermal versus oral oestrogen administration on bone in OAA engaged in weight-bearing activity. METHODS: 121 patients with OAA aged 14-25 years were randomised to receive: (1) a 17β-estradiol transdermal patch continuously with cyclic oral micronised progesterone (PATCH), (2) a combined ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel pill (PILL) or (3) no oestrogen/progesterone (NONE)...
October 9, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
John C Stevenson, Sophia Tsiligiannis, Nick Panay
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol...
October 2, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
C L G Chong, Faizah Othman, Farida Hussan
Atherosclerosis is now well understood as an inflammatory disease instead of lipid storage disorder; however, the conventional treatment is not targeted on treating the inflammation. Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) leaf or noni leaf, which is a medicinal food ( ulam ) used in Traditional Malay Medicine to prevent chronic diseases, may have the potential to be formulated into a functional antiatherosclerotic agent. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (MCLE) treatment at histological and ultrastructural level, comparing it with Simvastatin...
2018: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
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