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Targeted therapies oncology

Arrvind Raghunath, Kunal Desai, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
In the past, the standard of care for treatment of BM was whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and surgery. There has been a greater role for medical therapies in the last two decades due to the discovery of driver mutations and corresponding targeted therapies. These innovations have dramatically altered the approach to treating these patients. Some of the important mutations include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in small cell lung cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) mutation in breast cancer, and BRAF mutation in melanoma...
February 15, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Jacqueline L Olin, Olga Klibanov, Alexandre Chan, Linda M Spooner
OBJECTIVE: To describe data with selected malignancies in people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV in individuals affected by both conditions and to summarize drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with clinical recommendations for point-of-care review of combination therapies. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were performed (2005 to December 2018) in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies of malignancies in PLWH in the modern era. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Article bibliographies and drug interaction databases were reviewed...
February 15, 2019: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Hisataka Kobayashi
Near infrared photoimmunotherapy(NIR-PIT)is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IRDye700DX(IR700), to a monoclonal antibody(mAb)targeting cell-surface molecules. NIR-PIT targetingEGFR usingthe cetuximab-IR700 conjugate is now in transition to fast-track global Phase Ⅲ clinical trial in late-stage head and neck squamous cell cancer patients. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highlyselective necrotic/immunogenic cell death(ICD)only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells...
January 2019: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
R Wendel Naumann, Robert L Coleman, Jubilee Brown, Kathleen N Moore
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality to case ratio. To improve the initial response to therapy, trials of biologic agents in combination with primary chemotherapy and as maintenance after completing chemotherapy are being conducted. Multiple trials are ongoing and this strategy has great promise. However, the changing landscape of primary treatment will make designing future trials in ovarian cancer difficult as there may not be a consensus on the optimal primary therapy...
February 12, 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Rita Seeboeck, Victoria Sarne, Johannes Haybaeck
The mTOR pathway is in the process of establishing itself as a key access-point of novel oncological drugs and targeted therapies. This is also reflected by the growing number of mTOR pathway genes included in commercially available next-generation sequencing (NGS) oncology panels. This review summarizes the portfolio of medium sized diagnostic, as well as research destined NGS panels and their coverage of the mTOR pathway, including 16 DNA-based panels and the current gene list of Foundation One as a major reference entity...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stefan Zimmerman, Arundhati Das, Shuhang Wang, Ricklie Julian, Leena Gandhi, Juergen Wolf
Small cell lung cancer remains an aggressive, deadly cancer with only modest effect on survival from standard chemotherapy. However, with the advent of immunotherapy and comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic profiling, multiple new targets are showing promise in the clinical arena, and just recently PD-L1 inhibition has been shown to improve the efficacy of standard chemotherapy in extended disease SCLC. Our increasing understanding of the interactions between different pathways will enable more tailored immuno- as well as targeted therapies based on specific biomarkers and rational combinations...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
N George Mikhaeel, Sarah A Milgrom, Stephanie Terezakis, Anne Kiil Berthelsen, David Hodgson, Hans Theodor Eich, Karin Dieckmann, Shu-Nan Qi, Joachim Yahalom, Lena Specht
Radiation therapy (RT) for the management of lymphomas has evolved over the past decades. Large extended or involved fields have been replaced by smaller involved site or nodal volumes. Currently, customized plans are created for each individual patient that encompass only the areas involved by disease. A critical factor that has enabled this shift in practice is the evolving use of imaging studies. Imaging plays a key role in patient selection, RT planning and delivery. The objective of this manuscript is to provide guidelines for best practice of use of imaging in pre-treatment evaluation, treatment choice, RT target volume definition, and RT treatment verification and delivery...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Aida Vehabovic-Delic, Marija Balic, Christopher Rossmann, Thomas Bauernhofer, Hannes A Deutschmann, Helmut Schoellnast
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the significance of volume computed tomography perfusion imaging of metastasizing renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the early period after the initiation of targeted therapy. METHODS: Blood flow (BF), blood volume, and clearance (CL) were calculated in 10 patients with histologically verified mRCC before and 1 month after initiation of targeted therapy using compartmental analysis algorithms. In addition, the longest diameter of tumor was measured for both time points and compared...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Neal Rakesh, Yan Cui Magram, Jay M Shah, Amitabh Gulati
Pain is a common issue that is present in cancer survivors as well as those with active malignant processes. Despite opioid analgesics and adjuvant therapies such as systemic corticosteroids, many patients have persistent localized pain. We describe a case series of 3 cancer patients who have concurrent hip- and greater trochanteric-related pain. We performed a single-insertion-site, ultrasound-guided injection to target both the intra-articular hip and greater trochanteric bursa for each patient. All patients reported an improvement in pain symptoms and function with no major complications...
February 7, 2019: A&A practice
Cornelia Brendle, Norbert Stefan, Irina Stef, Sabine Ripkens, Martin Soekler, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christina Pfannenberg
Increased activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in adults is thought to prevent obesity. Therefore, regulators of BAT activity might serve as anti-obesity therapy in future, but are not investigated thoroughly up to now. In our study, we assessed retrospectively the association of BAT activity with several external factors and diverse chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents in a collective of 702 patients. The patients underwent at least two clinically indicated PET/CT examinations in the course of different oncological and inflammatory diseases...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Timothy M Markman, Maurie Markman
Traditional chemotherapeutic agents and newer targeted therapies for cancer have the potential to cause cardiovascular toxicities. These toxicities can result in arrhythmias, heart failure, vascular toxicity, and even death. It is important for oncologists and cardiologists to understand the basic diagnostic and management strategies to employ when these toxicities occur. While anti-neoplastic therapy occasionally must be discontinued in this setting, it can often be maintained with caution and careful monitoring...
2019: F1000Research
David Schiff, Martin van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, Wolfgang Wick, C Ryan Miller, Martin Taphoorn, Whitney Pope, Paul D Brown, Michael Platten, Rakesh Jalali, Terri Armstrong, Patrick Y Wen
The finding that most grade II and III gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations conveying a relatively favorable and fairly similar prognosis in both tumor grades highlights that these tumors represent a fundamentally different entity from IDH wild-type gliomas exemplified in most glioblastoma. Herein we review the most recent developments in molecular neuropathology leading to reclassification of these tumors based upon IDH and 1p/19q status, as well as the potential roles of methylation profiling and CDKN2A/B deletional analysis...
February 8, 2019: Neuro-oncology
Shivashankar Damodaran, Joshua M Lang, David F Jarrard
PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy(ADT) alone has been the standard of care for metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer(mHSPC) for the last 75 years. This review focuses on recent trials and mechanisms that highlight a new paradigm, combining ADT with other agents, changing the management of prostate cancer patients with advanced disease. METHODS: A PubMed and Web of Science database search on peer-reviewed literature was performed through January 2018 using the keywords "metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer", " metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer", "docetaxel", "abiraterone" and "senescence in cancer"...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Urology
Amanda W Cai, Marian H Taylor, Bhavadharini Ramu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of cancer survivors is increasing, and cardiovascular events are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Preexisting cardiovascular conditions as well as the development of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD), in particular left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, limit the options for cancer therapies for these patients and contribute to reduced cancer survival. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent guidelines and position statements from various cardiology and oncology societies provide an outline for the practicing physician for the management of CTRCD...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Bridgette A Sisson, Jasmina Uvalic, Kevin Kelly, Pavalan Selvam, Andrew N Hesse, Guruprasad Ananda, Harshpreet Chandok, Daniel Bergeron, Lauren Holinka, Honey V Reddi
The standard of care in oncology has been genomic profiling of tumor tissue biopsies for the treatment and management of disease, which can prove to be quite challenging in terms of cost, invasiveness of procedure, and potential risk for the patient. As the number of available drugs in oncology continues to increase, so too does the demand for technologies and testing applications that can identify genomic alterations targetable by these new therapies. Liquid biopsies that use a blood draw from the diseased patient may offset the many disadvantages of the invasive procedure...
2019: Biomarker Insights
Tae Wook Kong, Hee Sug Ryu, Seung Cheol Kim, Takayuki Enomoto, Jin Li, Kenneth H Kim, Seung Hyuk Shim, Peng Hui Wang, Suwanit Therasakvichya, Yusuke Kobayashi, Maria Lee, Tingyan Shi, Shin Wha Lee, Mikio Mikami, Satoru Nagase, Myong Cheol Lim, Jianliu Wang, Sarikapan Wilailak, Sang Wun Kim, Sook Hee Hong, David Sp Tan, Masaki Mandai, Suk Joon Chang, Ruby Yun Ju Huang, Kimio Ushijima, Jung Yun Lee, Xiaojun Chen, Kazunori Ochiai, Taek Sang Lee, Bingyi Yang, Farhana Kalam, Qiaoying Lv, Mohd Faizal Ahmad, Muhammad Rizki Yaznil, Kanika Batra Modi, Manatsawee Manopunya, Dae Hoon Jeong, Arb Aroon Lertkhachonsuk, Hyun Hoon Chung, Hidemichi Watari, Seob Jeon
The Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2018 on gynecologic oncology was held in the Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, Korea on the 24th to 25th August 2018. The workshop was an opportunity for Asian doctors to discuss the latest findings of gynecologic cancer, including cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, as well as the future of fertility-sparing treatments, minimally invasive/radical/debulking surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Clinical guidelines and position statement of Asian countries were presented by experts...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Yu-Long Lan, Yu-Jie Zou, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Xun Wang, Shuang Zou, Bin-Bin Ma, Yan Ding, Bo Zhang
Bufalin is the primary component of the traditional Chinese medicine "Chan Su," which has been widely used for cancer treatment at oncology clinics in certain countries. Evidence suggests that this compound possesses potent antitumor activities, although the exact molecular mechanism(s) require further elucidation. Therefore, this study aimed to further clarify the in vitro and in vivo antiglioma effects of bufalin and the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of drug sensitivity. The anticancer effects of bufalin were determined by colony formation assays, apoptosis assays, and cellular redox state tests of glioma cells...
February 9, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Carlotta Dolci, Chiara Spadavecchia, Cinzia Crivellaro, Elena De Ponti, Sergio Todde, Sabrina Morzenti, Elia Anna Turolla, Andrea Crespi, Luca Guerra, Claudio Landoni
PURPOSE: To investigate influences of reconstruction algorithms and count statistics variation on quantification and treatment response assessment in cancer patients, by using a large field of view-FOV scanner. METHODS: 54 cancer patients underwent PET/CT scan: 1) at baseline: 1.5 min/FOV, reconstructed by ordered-subset expectation maximization + point-spread-function-OSEM-PSF and bayesian penalised-likelihood-BPL algorithm 2) at restaging: 2 min/FOV, reconstructed also at 1...
January 2019: Physica Medica: PM
S G C Kroeze, C Fritz, L Basler, E Gkika, T B Brunner, A L Grosu, M Guckenberger
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly used in metastasized patients receiving targeted/immunotherapy. Information on safety and effectivity of concurrent SBRT and targeted/immunotherapy remains limited, resulting in a lack of consensus on treatment strategies. This study aimed to investigate how SBRT-experienced centers in German-speaking countries combine both therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patterns-of-care of combined treatment with SBRT and targeted/immunotherapy were assessed in 27 radiation oncology centers (19 German, 1 Austrian and 7 Swiss centers)...
February 8, 2019: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Abdullah Ladha, Jianzhi Zhao, Elliot M Epner, Jeffrey J Pu
Mantle cell lymphoma is a relatively new recognized hematological malignant disease, comprising of 2.5-6% non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The complexity of its clinical presentations (nodular pattern, diffuse pattern, and blastoid variant), variety in disease progression, and treatment response, make this disease a research focus to both experimental oncology and clinical oncology. Overexpression of cyclin D1 and chromosome t(11,14) translocation are the known molecular biomarkers of this disease. Mantle cell international prognostic index (MIPI), ki-67 proliferation index, and TP53 mutation are emerging as the prognostic biomarkers...
2019: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
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