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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895196/epidemiology-of-maxillofacial-fractures-at-a-teaching-hospital-in-malaysia-a-retrospective-study
#1
Maher M Abosadegh, Norkhafizah Saddki, Badr Al-Tayar, Shaifulizan Ab Rahman
Background/Aim: Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures (MFF) varies between populations. This study investigated the epidemiology of MFF treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Methods: A retrospective review of 473 medical records of patients with MFF treated from June 2013 to December 2015 was conducted. Information on demographic characteristics of patients, aetiology of injury, types of MFF, and treatment was obtained...
2019: BioMed Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876520/investigating-safety-of-vulnerable-road-users-in-selected-eu-countries
#2
Piotr Olszewski, Piotr Szagała, Daniel Rabczenko, Anna Zielińska
PROBLEM: Vulnerable road users comprise over half of all road accident victims in the EU and their safety situation is not improving as fast as for motorists. The paper examines factors affecting fatality risk of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and moped riders in seven EU countries using data from CARE database. METHOD: Comparing accident severity indicators between countries is problematic because of data quality issues, different degree of underreporting, and different exposure levels...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864017/how-common-are-vascular-injuries-in-open-tibial-fractures-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#3
O O'Malley, A J Trompeter, S Krishnanandan, M Vesely, P Holt, G Goh, N Papadakos, V Bhatia, C B Hing
BACKGROUND: Tibial fractures have an incidence of 15% of all adult fractures. They have been shown to have the highest incidence of non-union in long bone fractures and the highest incidence of vascular injury. Evidence from the literature suggests that a good vascular supply is important to ensure bone union. The aim of our study was to prospectively assess the incidence of vascular injuries in open tibial fractures and determine whether they were associated with an increased risk of non-union...
March 13, 2019: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805543/impact-of-vision-2030-on-traffic-safety-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohammed A H Dahim
Background and objectives: Road traffic accident (RTA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the first and major cause of death. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of Saudi Vision 2030 on road traffic safety. The Vision 2030 programs lead to the implementation of two crucial steps. The first step was to introduce value-added tax (VAT), and the second step was to increase fuel prices. The effect of these two steps on RTAs, injuries, and fatalities is determined and evaluated in this study...
September 2018: International Journal of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30802778/impact-of-heterogeneity-of-car-following-behavior-on-rear-end-crash-risk
#5
Junjie Zhang, Yunpeng Wang, Guangquan Lu
An increasing number of vehicles travel on freeways result not only in traffic congestions but also accidents. Rear-end crashes in freeways can be collectively attributed to drivers, vehicles, and road infrastructure, but driving behavior plays a key role in influencing car-following safety. This study aims to investigate the impact of heterogeneity of driving behavior on rear-end crash risk. Driving behavior depends on perceived risk levels, acceleration and deceleration habits, and driver reaction characteristics...
April 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776986/multiplex-limited-penetrable-horizontal-visibility-graph-from-eeg-signals-for-driver-fatigue-detection
#6
Qing Cai, Zhong-Ke Gao, Yu-Xuan Yang, Wei-Dong Dang, Celso Grebogi
Driver fatigue is an important contributor to road accidents, and driver fatigue detection has attracted a great deal of attention on account of its significant importance. Numerous methods have been proposed to fulfill this challenging task, though, the characterization of the fatigue mechanism still, to a large extent, remains to be investigated. To address this problem, we, in this work, develop a novel Multiplex Limited Penetrable Horizontal Visibility Graph (Multiplex LPHVG) method, which allows in not only detecting fatigue driving but also probing into the brain fatigue behavior...
December 9, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733575/an-epidemiological-study-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injuries-in-the-fastest-aging-area-in-japan
#7
Daisuke Kudo, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Michio Hongo, Yuji Kasukawa, Yoshinori Ishikawa, Noriyuki Ishikawa, Yoichi Shimada
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective epidemiological study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in the fastest aging area in Japan. SETTING: Hospitals in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Akita Prefecture has the highest ratio of people aged 65 or older in Japan (30.4% in 2012 and 34.6% in 2016). METHODS: Patients with acute TSCI who required hospital treatment between 2012 and 2016 were included...
February 7, 2019: Spinal Cord
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719468/prevalence-and-socio-economic-determinants-of-disabilities-caused-by-road-traffic-accidents-in-iran-a-national-survey
#8
Payam Roshanfekr, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie-Ardakani, Hossein Malek Afzali Ardakani, Homeira Sajjadi
Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-economic disparity among victims with disabilities caused by RTAs in Iran as country with a high rate of accidents. Method: The source of data was the Iranian Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study. The sampling framework was based on the population and housing census for Iran in 2006. Provincial samples ranged from 400 to 6,400 households. The target sample was 3,096 clusters consisting of 2,187 urban and 909 rural clusters...
January 2019: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678890/a-fully-nonlinear-viscohyperelastic-model-for-the-brain-tissue-applicable-to-dynamic-rates
#9
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis
Understanding the mechanical response of the brain to external loadings is of critical importance in investigating the pathological conditions of this tissue during injurious conditions. Such injurious loadings may occur at high rates, for example among others, during road traffic or sport accidents, falls, or due to explosions. Hence, investigating the injury mechanism and design of protective devices for the brain requires constitutive modeling of this tissue at such rates. Accordingly, this paper is aimed at critically investigating the physical background for viscohyperelastic modeling of the brain tissue with scrutinizing the elastic fields pertinent to large, time dependent deformations, and developing a fully nonlinear multimode Maxwell model that can mathematically explain such deformations...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678685/cause-specific-mortality-estimates-for-malaysia-in-2013-results-from-a-national-sample-verification-study-using-medical-record-review-and-verbal-autopsy
#10
Azahadi Omar, Shubash Shander Ganapathy, Mohamad Fuad Mohamad Anuar, Yi Yi Khoo, Chandrika Jeevananthan, S Maria Awaluddin, Jane Ling Miaw Yn, Chalapati Rao
BACKGROUND: Mortality indicators are essential for monitoring population health. Although Malaysia has a functional death registration system, the quality of information on causes of death still needs improvement, since approximately 30% of deaths are classified to poorly defined causes. This study was conducted to verify registered causes in a sample of deaths in 2013 and utilise the findings to estimate cause-specific mortality indicators for Malaysia in 2013. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving a nationally representative sample of 14,497 deaths distributed across 19 districts...
January 24, 2019: BMC Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678633/the-prevalence-of-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-among-injured-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-of-a-national-hospital-in-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Müller M Mundenga, Hendry R Sawe, Michael S Runyon, Victor G Mwafongo, Juma A Mfinanga, Brittany L Murray
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and illicit drugs have been found to be major contributing factors leading to severe injuries in a variety of settings. In Tanzania, the use of these substances among injured patients has not been studied. We investigated the prevalence of positive tests for alcohol and illicit drug use among injured patients presenting to the emergency medicine department (ED) of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of a consecutive sample of patients > 18 years of age presenting to the ED-MNH with injury related complaints in October and November 2015...
January 24, 2019: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30647993/network-models-of-driver-behavior
#12
Markus T Mattsson
The way people behave in traffic is not always optimal from the road safety perspective: drivers exceed speed limits, misjudge speeds or distances, tailgate other road users or fail to perceive them. Such behaviors are commonly investigated using self-report-based latent variable models, and conceptualized as reflections of violation- and error-proneness. However, attributing dangerous behavior to stable properties of individuals may not be the optimal way of improving traffic safety, whereas investigating direct relationships between traffic behaviors offers a fruitful way forward...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597331/motorcyclist-injury-risk-as-a-function-of-real-life-crash-speed-and-other-contributing-factors
#13
Chengkai Ding, Matteo Rizzi, Johan Strandroth, Ulrich Sander, Nils Lubbe
The Vision Zero approach advocates for a road transport system designed with human injury tolerance and human fallibility as its basis. While biomechanical limits and the relationship between speed and injury outcome has been extensively investigated for car occupants and pedestrians, research analyzing this relationship for motorcyclists remains limited. The aim of this study was to address this issue by developing multivariate injury risk models for motorcyclists that estimate the relationship between speed and injury severity...
December 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594164/seatbelt-use-and-risk-of-major-injuries-sustained-by-vehicle-occupants-during-motor-vehicle-crashes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#14
Nicole Fouda Mbarga, Abdul-Razak Abubakari, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde, Antony R Morgan
BACKGROUND: In 2004, a World Health Report on road safety called for enforcement of measures such as seatbelt use, effective at minimizing morbidity and mortality caused by road traffic accidents. However, injuries caused by seatbelt use have also been described. Over a decade after publication of the World Health Report on road safety, this study sought to investigate the relationship between seatbelt use and major injuries in belted compared to unbelted passengers. METHODS: Cohort studies published in English language from 2005 to 2018 were retrieved from seven databases...
December 29, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594034/coherence-assessment-of-accident-database-kinematic-data
#15
Dario Vangi, Michelangelo-Santo Gulino, Carlo Cialdai
The analysis and research of accidents aimed at improving the safety of vehicles and infrastructures are typically based on the retrospective investigation of data that are collected in in-depth accident databases. In particular, kinematic data related to accidents (impact velocity, velocity change of the vehicles, etc.) make possible the identification of correlations between impact severity and injury risk (IR), as well as assessing the effectiveness of vehicle protection systems. The necessary condition to conduct suitable and significant analyses is to utilise data which are correct and representative of national statistics, i...
December 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30591964/high-accuracy-monitoring-system-to-estimate-forest-road-surface-degradation-on-horizontal-curves
#16
Huseyin Yurtseven, Mustafa Akgul, Anil Orhan Akay, Serdar Akburak, Hikmet Kerem Cigizoglu, Murat Demir, Tolga Ozturk, Mert Eksi
Well-maintained pavements reduce occurring severe accidents on horizontal curves. For this reason, the monitoring and evaluation of pavement conditions are important. This study evaluates pavement conditions considering volumetric degradation or displacement on 11 horizontal curves in forest roads, depending on meteorological conditions, traffic effects, and curve parameters. Within this context, pavement displacement (degradation) was investigated and measured with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for a year on a monthly basis...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581792/investigation-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-among-192-dog-carcasses-killed-by-road-accidents-in-khorasan-razavi-northeastern-iran-during-2014-2016
#17
Elham Moghaddas, Abdolmajid Fata, Mehdi Zarean, Majid Derakhshani, Mahdi Fakhar, Seyed Aliakbar Shamsian
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), so-called Kala-azar is a life threating parasitic infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. L. infantum is the main causative agent for Mediterranean form of Kala-azar which is endemic in northeastern Iran. This study attempted to investigate existence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Khorasan Razavi. Methods: Between 2014 and 2016, tissue samples collected from spleen and liver of 192 stray dogs were examined to investigate existence of L...
November 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557079/evaluation-of-alternative-intersection-treatments-at-rural-crossroads-using-simulation-software
#18
Sujanie Peiris, Bruce Corben, Michael Nieuwesteeg, Hampton C Gabler, Andrew Morris, Diana Bowman, Michael G Lenné, Michael Fitzharris
OBJECTIVE: Rural roads are characterized by hazardous roadsides and suboptimal geometry yet allow for high travel speeds and unfavorable impact angles. In Victoria, 25% of persons seriously injured and 52% of fatalities occur on rural roads, with 30% occurring at intersections. In the United States, almost twice the number of traffic fatalities occur in rural areas than in urban areas, while accounting for less than half of all vehicle miles traveled and 21% of the population. The choice of safety countermeasure is therefore paramount...
December 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30553433/cyclist-casualty-severity-at-roundabouts-to-what-extent-do-the-geometric-characteristics-of-roundabouts-play-a-part
#19
Nurten Akgün, Dilum Dissanayake, Neil Thorpe, Margaret C Bell
INTRODUCTION: In general, priority junctions are converted into roundabouts to increase capacity and reduce vehicle accidents. However, previous research has indicated that roundabouts are dangerous for vulnerable users, especially cyclists. METHOD: This paper investigates which design factors influence cyclist casualty severity at give way (non-signalized) roundabouts with mixed traffic, using the UK STATS19 National dataset of cyclist casualties. First, the correlation matrix was generated to observe the relationship between variables...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30553431/association-rule-analysis-of-factors-contributing-to-extraordinarily-severe-traffic-crashes-in-china
#20
Chengcheng Xu, Jie Bao, Chen Wang, Pan Liu
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the contributing factors to serious casualty traffic crashes and their interdependency in China. Serious casualty crashes are defined as crashes that lead to more than 10 deaths. METHOD: The data of serious casualty crashes between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China (MPSC). Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the characteristics of serious casualty crashes in terms of road user behavior, vehicle conditions, geometric characteristics, and environmental conditions...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
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