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Pulmonary test technology

Collins Timire, Charles Sandy, Ajay Mv Kumar, Mkhokheli Ngwenya, Barbara Murwira, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Anthony D Harries
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cohort study using secondary data. RESULTS: Xpert MTB/RIF results were used to identify 133 RR-TB patients for this study. Their mean age (SD) was 37.9 (11.1) years, 83(62%) were males and 106 (80%) were HIV-infected...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kolene E Bailey, Tyler J D'Ovidio, Nicole Manning, Melanie Koenigshoff, Chelsea M Magin
RATIONALE: Continued reliance on preclinical animal models and traditional human cell culture experiments conducted on supraphysiologically stiff surfaces in two dimensions often limits the translation of cellular and molecular mechanistic findings into effective therapies for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD ranks as the fourth highest cause of mortality in the United States, and thus it is imperative to improve ex vivo models of this devastating disease...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Thijs T Wingelaar, Pieter-Jan A M van Ooij, Paul Brinkman, Rob A van Hulst
Introduction: Exposure to hyperbaric hyperoxic conditions can lead to pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Although a decrease in vital capacity has long been the gold standard, newer diagnostic modalities may be more accurate. In pulmonary medicine, much research has focussed on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with inflammation in exhaled breath. In previous small studies after hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure several methyl alkanes were identified. This study aims to identify which VOCs mark the development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Lauren Auster, Morgan Sutton, Mary Chandler Gwin, Christopher Nitkin, Tracey L Bonfield
Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a complication of lung disease in immunocompromised patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). The most widespread, disease-causing NTM is Mycobacterium avium complex ( MAC ), which colonizes the lungs as a combination of Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and other mycobacterial species. While combination drug therapy exists for MAC colonization, there is no cure...
February 1, 2019: Microorganisms
Lu Zhan, Zhengyang Shao, Haili Jin, Junlan Lian, Jiajun Ding, Fei He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of children bronchial asthma detection by using negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique. METHODS: The children with bronchial asthma admitted to Department of Pediatrics of Zhejiang Provincial Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital from March 2016 to March 2018 were enrolled. They were divided into mild group (0-4 scores) and severe group (5-12 scores) according to asthma clinical scoring criteria...
January 2019: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Anne-Kathrin Wagner, Arno Hapich, Marios Nikos Psychogios, Ulf Teichgräber, Ansgar Malich, Ismini Papageorgiou
This study evaluates the accuracy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) application for pulmonary nodular lesions (PNL) in computed tomography (CT) scans, the ClearReadCT (Riverain Technologies). The study was retrospective for 106 biopsied PNLs from 100 patients. Seventy-five scans were Contrast-Enhanced (CECT) and 25 received no enhancer (NECT). Axial reconstructions in soft-tissue and lung kernel were applied at three different slice thicknesses, 0.75 mm (CECT/NECT n = 25/6), 1.5 mm (n = 18/9) and 3...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Dawit Assefa, Feleke Belachew, Getachew Wondimagegn, Eveline Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Every year around 4 million people with tuberculosis (TB) are not detected. Thus may not get the medical care that they need and deserve from their respective health systems. Ethiopia is included in the 12 countries who contribute 75% of the globally estimated "missed" cases. This study assessed if there are missed Pulmonary TB (PTB) cases among inpatients of a large referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross sectional survey was conducted in the general medical wards of the large referral hospital from June to August 2015...
January 17, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Asim Saha, Anirban Das, Bhaskar Prasad Chattopadhyay, Jane Alam, Tilak Kanti Dasgupta
Background: Byssinosis is an acute respiratory difficulty that is caused usually following exposure to cotton and hemp dust. Occurrence of such similar acute symptoms had been reported following exposure to jute dust/fiber also. With passage of time, Jute industries have modernized themselves for increased quality and productivity, which has lessened workforce and thereby provided more working space. However, occupational health benefit due to such changes has rarely been explored. This study was initiated to understand whether this modernization can protect the health of workers...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Peijun Tang, Ping Xu, Wei Shu, Xiafang Wang, Jian Guo, Huafeng Song, Sumei Li, Yu Pang, Meiying Wu
Background: We performed a prospective study to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis exposure to fluoroquinolone (FQ) and laboratory testing results among tuberculosis (TB) patients. Patients and methods: Each TB-suspected patient provided sputum specimen for mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture and GeneXpert among pulmonary TB patients. Confirmed TB patients and clinically diagnosed TB patients were further enrolled in the final analysis...
2019: Infection and Drug Resistance
Malay Sarkar, Rajeev Bhardwaz, Irappa Madabhavi, Mitul Modi
We reviewed the various physical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, their pathogenesis, and clinical importance. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the CINAHL from inception to March 2018. We used the following search terms: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical examination, purse-lip breathing, breath sound intensity, forced expiratory time, abdominal paradox, Hoover's sign, barrel-shaped chest, accessory muscle use, etc. All types of studies were chosen. Globally, history taking and clinical examination of the patients is on the wane...
January 2019: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Gloria Manzotti, Federica Torricelli, Benedetta Donati, Filippo Lococo, Valentina Sancisi, Giulio Rossi, Simonetta Piana, Alessia Ciarrocchi
Purpose: Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma (PSC) is an aggressive form of NSCLC. Rarity and poor characterization have limited development of PSC-tailored treatment protocols, leaving patients with inadequate therapeutic options. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profile of PSCs, with the aim to characterize the molecular mechanisms responsible for their evolution and to identify new drugs for their treatment. Experimental Design: A training set of 17 biphasic PSCs was tested for the expression of a large panel of 770 genes related to cancer progression using Nanostring technology...
December 26, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Nir Uriel, Gabriel Sayer, Teruhiko Imamura, Daniel Rodgers, Gene Kim, Jayant Raikhelkar, Nitasha Sarswat, Sara Kalantari, Ben Chung, Ann Nguyen, Daniel Burkhoff, Aharon Abbo
Background Right heart catheterization is the gold standard in clinical practice for the assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics, but it is an invasive procedure requiring expertise in both insertion and reading. Remote dielectric sensing (Re DS ) is a noninvasive electromagnetic-based technology intended to quantify lung fluid content. Methods and Results In this prospective single-center study, Re DS readings were obtained in supine position just before right heart catheterization procedure in patients with heart failure...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Mona M Khamis, Darryl J Adamko, Randy W Purves, Anas El-Aneed
The diagnosis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be challenging due to the overlap in their clinical presentations in some patients. There is a need for a more objective clinical test that can be routinely used in primary care settings. Through an untargeted 1 H NMR urine metabolomic approach, we identified a set of endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for the differentiation of asthma and COPD. A subset of these potential biomarkers contains 7 highly polar metabolites of diverse physicochemical properties...
January 24, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
A Van Deun, S Tahseen, D Affolabi, M A Hossain, M L Joloba, P K Angra, J C Ridderhof, B C de Jong, H L Rieder
A balanced perspective is advocated for the assessment and application of the most recent and the oldest diagnostic methods for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)—the molecular Xpert® MTB/RIF assay and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli. We discuss their respective merits and shortcomings and identify threats that may hamper their use in TB control. Neither test on its own provides all the information needed for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Considering all aspects important for both individual patient care and disease control, neither seems ‘better' than the other...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Brian A Boe, Sharon L Cheatham, Aimee K Armstrong, Darren P Berman, Joanne L Chisolm, John P Cheatham
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the leaflet morphology variation in the Melody Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve (TPV) and evaluate associated outcomes. The Melody TPV is constructed from harvested bovine jugular venous valves which have been rigorously tested. Natural anatomic leaflet variations are seen in the Melody TPV but have not been evaluated. DESIGN: A Melody TPV leaflet morphology classification system was devised after reviewing a subset of photographed and implanted TPVs...
December 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Nicholas W Morrell, Micheala A Aldred, Wendy K Chung, C Gregory Elliott, William C Nichols, Florent Soubrier, Richard C Trembath, James E Loyd
Since 2000 there have been major advances in our understanding of the genetic and genomics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although there remains much to discover. Based on existing knowledge, around 25-30% of patients diagnosed with idiopathic PAH have an underlying Mendelian genetic cause for their condition and should be classified as heritable PAH (HPAH). Here, we summarise the known genetic and genomic drivers of PAH, the insights these provide into pathobiology, and the opportunities afforded for development of novel therapeutic approaches...
December 13, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Rodney J Hicks, Shankar Siva, Michael S Hofman
Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) is now possible by substituting Technetium-99m (99m Tc) with Gallium-68 (68 Ga), using the same carrier molecules as conventional V/Q imaging. Ventilation imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-carbon nanoparticles using the same synthesis device as Technegas. Perfusion imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Similar physiological processes can therefore be evaluated by either V/Q SPECT/CT or PET/CT. However, V/Q PET/CT is inherently a superior technology for image acquisition, with higher sensitivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and superior quantitative capability, allowing more accurate delineation and quantification of regional lung function...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Tudor P Toma, Marco Trigiani, Alessandro Zanforlin, Riccardo Inchingolo, Mauro Zanobetti, Lucia Sammicheli, Emanuele G Conte, Giuseppe Buggio, Liliana Villari, Giampietro Marchetti
Ultrasound examination is traditionally considered a safe and repeatable exam, but its use is highly operator dependent. Because of this, lack of sufficient operator skills could lead to diagnostic errors and damage to patient safety related to unnecessary tests or interventional procedures. The indications for lung ultrasound include: diagnosis, quantification, and follow-up of different conditions for which acute respiratory failure or chest pain are the main clinical presentation. Clinician should have theoretical and practical knowledge on: physics and technology of ultrasound, indications and methodology of US examination, normal echographic thoracic anatomy and identification and detection of signs of pleuro-pulmonary pathology...
November 27, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir
PURPOSE: Continuous peripheral pulse oximetry for monitoring adequacy of oxygenation is probably the most important technological advance for patients' monitoring and safety in the last decades. Pulse oximetry has the disadvantage of measuring the peripheral circulation, and the only mean to measure oxygen content of the central circulation is by invasive technology. Determination of blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation in the retinal vessels of the eye can be achieved noninvasively through spectrophotometric retinal oximetry which provides access to the central nervous system circulation...
November 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Ángela Sánchez-Sánchez, Óscar Girón-Vallejo, Ramón Ruiz-Pruneda, Maria Fernandez-Ibieta, Darío García-Calderon, Vanesa Villamil, María Cristina Giménez-Aleixandre, Carlos Andrés Montoya-Rangel, Juan Pedro Hernández Bermejo
Introduction  Three-dimensional (3D) technology is increasingly applied for planning challenging surgical interventions. We report our experience using 3D printing and virtual reconstruction for surgical planning of complex tumor resections in children. Methods  Data were obtained from preoperative magnetic resonance. imaging analysis and 3D virtual recreations were performed using specialized computer software. 3D real-scale geometry models, including tumor, adjacent organs, and relevant vascularization, were printed in colorimetric scale and different materials for optimal structures discrimination...
January 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
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