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RDS- (Reward Deficiency Syndrome)

Angelo G I Maremmani, Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Mental Disorders and Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) often co-occur and constitute correlated risk factors that the authors believe are best considered from a unitary perspective. In this article we review and discuss data collected by the V.P. Dole Research Group in Dual Disorder (V.P. Dole DD-RG) patients according to the following six discussion points: (1) Treatment of personality disorders during Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT); (2) Treatment of Mood Disorders during MMT; (3) Treatment of Anxiety Disorders during MMT; (4) Treatment of Psychotic Disorders during MMT; (5) Treatment of violence during MMT; (6) Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) during MMT...
February 3, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maria Carla Gerra, Matteo Manfredini, Elena Cortese, Maria Caterina Antonioni, Claudio Leonardi, Fernanda Magnelli, Lorenzo Somaini, Subramaniam Jayanthi, Jean Lud Cadet, Claudia Donnini
BACKGROUND: Vulnerability to cannabis use (CU) initiation and problematic use have been shown to be affected by both genetic and environmental factors, with still inconclusive and uncertain evidence. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible interplay between gene polymorphisms and psychosocial conditions in CU susceptibility. METHODS: Ninety-two cannabis users and ninety-three controls have been included in the study...
January 20, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
Mateusz Gola, Małgorzata Draps
Compulsive Sexual Behaviors (CSB) are a reason to seek treatment. Given this reality, the number of studies on CSB has increased substantially in the last decade and the World Health Organization (WHO) included CSB in its proposal for the upcoming ICD-11. Sixty percent of the neuroimaging studies on CSB published since 2014 aimed to examine similarities and differences between brain mechanisms underlying CSB, gambling disorder, and substance use disorders. One of the crucial brain circuits involved in addiction is the reward system involving the ventral striatum (including nucleus accumbens)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Jennifer Neary, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, David Siwicki, Mark Moran, Mary Hauser, Eric R Braverman, David Baron, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas Mc Laughlin, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
It is universally agreed that dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in terms of reward dependence, however, there remains controversy regarding how to modulate its role clinically to treat and prevent relapse for both substance and non-substance-related addictive behaviors. It is also agreed by most that there is a need to provide early genetic identification possibly through a novel researched technology referred to Genetic Addiction Risk Score(GARS).™ The existing FDA-approved medications promote blocking dopamine, however, we argue that a more prudent paradigm shift should be biphasic-short-term blockade and long-term upregulation, enhancing functional connectivity of brain reward...
January 7, 2018: Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research
Mark S Gold, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Edward Justin Modestino, Igor Elman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Anhedonia is a condition that leads to the loss of feelings pleasure in response to natural reinforcers like food, sex, exercise, and social activities. This disorder occurs in addiction, and an array of related neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Anhedonia may by due to derangements in mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways and their terminal fields (e.g., striatum, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex) that persist long after the traces of the causative drugs are eliminated (pharmacokinetically)...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward J Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Eric R Braverman, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
BACKGROUND: There is need for better treatments of addictive behaviors, both substance and non-substance related, termed Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). While the FDA has approved pharmaceuticals under the umbrella term Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), these drugs are not optimal. OBJECTIVES: It is our contention that these drugs work well in the short-term by blocking dopamine function leading to psychological extinction. However, use of buprenorphine/Naloxone over a long period of time results in unwanted addiction liability, reduced emotional affect, and mood changes including suicidal ideation...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Luis M Colon-Perez, Zsolt Demortrovics, Mark S Gold
Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Kenneth Blum, Thomas Simpatico, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, James Fratantonio, Gozde Agan, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Earlier work from our laboratory, showing anti-addiction activity of a nutraceutical consisting of amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition properties and our discovery of the first polymorphic gene (Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene [DRD2]) to associate with severe alcoholism serves as a blue-print for the development of "Personalized Medicine" in addiction. Prior to the later genetic finding, we developed the concept of Brain Reward Cascade, which continues to act as an important component for stratification of addiction risk through neurogenetics...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics
Willuhn et al., observed that habitual cocaine use was correlated with reductions in D2/D3 receptors linked to decreased cue activation in occipital cortex and cerebellum. Dopamine agonist therapy maintains dopamine function and is a relapse prevention tactic focused on psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) with emphasis on glutaminergic medications fails in the long-term treatment of Reward Deficiency Syndrome Behaviors (RDS). While the careful use of "dopamine antagonist-therapy" short-term is supported, the research-based concept of "dopamine agonist therapy" in long-term is proposed...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kenneth Blum, Peter K Thanos, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eliot Gardner, Zsolt Demetrovics, Claudia Fahlke, Brett C Haberstick, Kristina Dushaj, Mark S Gold
Recently there has been debate concerning the role of brain dopamine in reward and addiction. David Nutt and associates eloquently proposed that dopamine (DA) may be central to psycho stimulant dependence and some what important for alcohol, but not important for opiates, nicotine or even cannabis. Others have also argued that surfeit theories can explain for example cocaine seeking behavior as well as non-substance-related addictive behaviors. It seems prudent to distinguish between what constitutes "surfeit" compared to" deficit" in terms of short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) brain reward circuitry responsivity...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, Thomas Simpatico, Claudia Fahlke, Oscar-Berman M, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: In 1990, Blum and associates provided the first confirmed genetic link between the DRD2 polymorphisms and alcoholism. This finding was based on an earlier conceptual framework, which served as a blueprint for their seminal genetic association discovery they termed "Brain Reward Cascade." These findings were followed by a new way of understanding all addictive behaviors (substance and non-substance) termed "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS). RDS incorporates a complex multifaceted array of inheritable behaviors that are polygenic...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
David Miller, Merlene Miller, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo
There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call "Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)". While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use "aftercare" to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Mary Hauser, James Fratantonio, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors as well as altered pain tolerance. While there are many studies claiming a genetic association with addiction and other behavioral infractions, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), not all are scientifically accurate and in some case just wrong...
July 1, 2015: Addiction Genetics
Kenneth Blum, Benjamin Thompson, Zsolt Demotrovics, John Femino, John Giordano, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Scott Teitelbaum, David E Smith, A Kennison Roy, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
There are some who suggest that alcoholism and drug abuse are not diseases at all and that they are not consequences of a brain disorder as espoused recently by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Some would argue that addicts can quit on their own and moderate their alcohol and drug intake. When they present to a treatment program or enter the 12 Step Program & Fellowship, many addicts finally achieve complete abstinence. However, when controlled drinking fails, there may be successful alternatives that fit particular groups of individuals...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Edward Justin Modestino, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Mark S Gold, Drake D Duane, Sarah G S Sultan, Sanford H Auerbach
We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework. Additionally, we theorise that the development of narcolepsy on a baseline of ADHD/RDS leads to an additional assault on the dopaminergic reward system in such individuals. In this study, we propose to test these hypotheses by using a combination of broad genetic screening, and neuroimaging with and without pharmacological intervention, in those with pure ADHD, pure narcolepsy, and the combined ADHD-narcolepsy phenotype...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Thomas Mclaughlin, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Thomas Simpatico, John Giordano, Scot Jones, Debmayla Barh, William B Downs, Roger L Waite, Margaret Madigan, Kristina Dushaj, Raquel Lohmann, Eric R Braverman, David Han, Kenneth Blum
Background and aims Many patients presenting multiple behaviors including drug and food abuse as well as other pathological repetitive unwanted activities such as gambling, self-mutilation and paraphilias may not be appropriately diagnosed. Here we present a case of a male presenting many of these seemingly diverse behaviors and finally diagnosed with reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) by his attending physician. Methods The use of the dopamine agonist, ropinirole after two weeks showed improvement in terms of sexual behavior but tolerance set in and was discontinued especially when an infraction occurred with the patient's insurance...
June 2013: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: Lucid Dreams are a form of dream life, during which the dreamer may be aware that he/she is dreaming, can stop/re-start the dreams, depending on the pleasantness or unpleasant nature of the dream, and experiences the dream as if he/she were fully awake. Depending on their content, they may be pleasant, un-pleasant or terrifying, at least in the context of patients, who also exhibit characteristics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Thomas Simpatico, Marcelo Febo, Brett C Haberstick, Andrew Smolen, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors or RDS, which was coined to define addictive behaviors and their genetic components. METHODS: To carry out this review we searched a number of important databases including: Filtered: Cochrane Systematic reviews; DARE; Pubmed Central Clinical Quaries; National Guideline Clearinghouse and unfiltered resources: PsychINFO; ACP PIER; PsychSage; Pubmed/Medline...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
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