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Katrine Pilely, Siril S Bakke, Yaseelan Palarasah, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt, Emil D Bartels, Terje Espevik, Peter Garred
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol crystal (CC)-induced inflammation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. CCs activate the complement system and induce an inflammatory response resulting in phagocytosis of the CCs, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of cytokines. The cyclodextrin 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin has been found to reduce CC-induced complement activation and induce regression of established atherosclerotic plaques in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, thus inhibition of complement with cyclodextrins is a potential new strategy for treatment of inflammation during atherosclerosis...
February 3, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Xian Wu, Gar Yee Koh, Yueyi Huang, Jimmy W Crott, Roderick T Bronson, Joel B Mason
SCOPE: High fat diets (HFDs) and adiposity increase colorectal cancer risk, in part by elevating pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol and salsalate (SAL), an NSAID lacking the gastrotoxicity of aspirin, each suppress inflammatory signaling, but via different cellular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: A/J mice (n = 110) were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal), a HFD (60% kcal), a HFD containing 0...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Konstantin E Starkov, Giovana Andres Garfias
In the present paper convergence dynamics of one tumor-immune-virus model is examined with help of the localization method of compact invariant sets and the LaSalle theorem. This model was elaborated by Eftimie et al. in 2016. It is shown that this model possesses the Lagrange stability property of positive half-trajectories and ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets are obtained. Conditions of convergence dynamics are found. It is explored the case when any trajectory is attracted to one of tumor-only equilibrium points or tumor-free equilibrium points...
December 17, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Lok-Sze Wong, Hoi-Wing Leung, Si Gao, Julia Yuen-Shan Tsang, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Gary Man-Kit Tse, Clara Bik-San Lau
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of breast cancer patients in Asian countries has been found to consume dietary supplements including phytoestrogen-rich Chinese herbal medicines with an expectation to alleviate the side effects of conventional cancer therapies. PURPOSE: The question of whether estrogenic Chinese herbal medicines are beneficial or detrimental to the health of breast cancer patients remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: The present study aimed at establishing a systematic approach to look at the safety profiles of estrogenic Chinese herbal medicines (CHM)...
October 8, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hua-Mei Yue, Huan Ye, Rui Ruan, Hao Du, Chuang-Ju Li, Qiwei Wei
In tetrapods, kisspeptins are a group of peptides that play essential roles in the regulation of the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, and may participate in the feedback regulation of sex steroids as well. In this study, two kiss paralogs, designated as dskiss1 and dskiss2 were identified in Acipenser dabryanus. The full-length cDNA sequences of dskiss1 and dskiss2 are 1265 and 744 base pairs (bp), encoding 130 and 146 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that both Kiss1 and Kiss2 decapeptides were highly conserved among vertebrates...
January 18, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
P Corcia, C Brulard, S Beltran, S Marouillat, S E Bakkouche, C R Andres, H Blasco, P Vourc'h
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most frequent motor neuron disorders (MND) in adults. The role of genetic factors is worldwide accepted, and currently, more than 30 genes have been linked to this disease. Genetics was also the matter of numerous studies in distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN). GARS is classically linked to a predominant dHMN and, until now, no mutation has been described in GARS in other MND. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who developed a classical bulbar ALS phenotype...
January 20, 2019: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Gar-Hing Andrew Lee, Ian Arthur, Adam Merritt, Michael Leung
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes have a worldwide distribution; however, there is geographical variation in the prevalence of different molecular types. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility differences between molecular types have been demonstrated. This study investigates the distribution of cryptococcal molecular types among human clinical isolates over a 10-year period from a Western Australian population. Molecular type was determined based on polymorphisms in the phospholipase gene locus identified through amplification and sequencing...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Farid Foroutan, Ana Carolina Alba, Madeleine Stein, John Krakovsky, Kevin Gar Wai Chien, Sharon Chih, Gordon Guyatt, Heather Ross
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) developed a classification instrument for left ventricular (LV) and isolated right ventricular (RV) primary graft dysfunction post‒heart transplant. The instrument classifies LV-PGD as mild, moderate, or severe. In this study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this instrument. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 412 consecutive patients transplanted between 2004 and 2015 at the Toronto General Hospital and Ottawa Heart Institute (Canada)...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Hamdy Awad, Mohamed Gar Alalm, Hisham Kh El-Etriby
Most of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in developing countries comprised primary and secondary treatment without including any tertiary treatment or sludge processing. Decision makers think that additional treatment is costly and the gained environmental benefits are limited. This study aims to investigate the environmental and economic benefits of improving current conventional WWTPs in developing countries by adding tertiary treatment and/or anaerobic digestion of sludge. For this purpose, life cycle assessment (LCA) for four different scenarios was studied for a wastewater plant located in Gamasa, Egypt...
January 3, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Dehuai Luo, Yanping Li, Qingyuan Zhao, Lianpeng Zhao, Arne Ludwig, Zuogang Peng
Order Acipenseriformes contains 27 extant species distributed across the northern hemisphere, including so-called "living fossil" species of garfish and sturgeons. Previous studies have focused on their mitochondrial genetics and have rarely used nuclear genetic data, leaving questions as to their phylogenetic relationships. This study aimed to utilize a bioinformatics approach to screen for candidate single-copy nuclear genes, using transcriptomic data from sturgeon species and genomic data from the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus ...
January 10, 2019: Genes
Shuo Li, Huaxiang Xu, Chuntao Wu, Wenquan Wang, Wei Jin, Heli Gao, Hao Li, Shirong Zhang, Jinzhi Xu, Wuhu Zhang, Shuaishuai Xu, Tianjiao Li, Quanxing Ni, Xianjun Yu, Liang Liu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating malignancy with poor prognosis. Many preoperative biomarkers can predict postoperative survival of PDAC patients. In this study, we created a novel ratio index based on preoperative liver function test, γ-glutamyltransferase-to-albumin ratio (GAR), and evaluated its prognostic value in predicting clinical outcomes of PDAC patients following radical surgery. We retrospectively enrolled 833 PDAC patients who had underwent radical surgery at our institution between January 2010 and January 2017...
January 10, 2019: Cancer Medicine
Cecilie Bo Hansen, Anton Willer, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Claudia Kemper, Peter Garred
Complement activation is traditionally thought to occur in the extracellular space. However, it has been suggested that complement proteins are activated and function at additional locations. T cells contain intracellular stores of C3 and C5 that can be cleaved into C3a and C5a and bind to intracellular receptors, which have been shown to be of vital importance for the differentiation and function of these cells. However, whether the origin of the complement proteins located within T cells is derived from endogenous produced complement or from an uptake dependent mechanism is unknown...
December 27, 2018: Immunobiology
Kebede T Muleta, Gael Pressoir, Geoffrey P Morris
Young breeding programs in developing countries, like the Chibas sorghum breeding program in Haiti, face the challenge of increasing genetic gain with limited resources. Implementing genomic selection (GS) could increase genetic gain, but optimization of GS is needed to account for these programs' unique challenges and advantages. Here, we used simulations to identify conditions under which genomic-assisted recurrent selection (GARS) would be more effective than phenotypic recurrent selection (PRS) in small new breeding programs...
December 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Hee-Jeong Kim, Bohkyung Kim, Eun-Gyung Mun, Soon-Yeon Jeong, Youn-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ginger, a root vegetable, is known to have antioxidant and antiobesity effects. Preparation, such as by steaming, can affect the chemical composition of prepared root vegetables or herbs and can change their functional activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of steamed ginger against oxidative stress and steatosis in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids in two different extracts of steamed ginger, i...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Penghui Cao, Yakun Ren, Xi Liu, Tianyu Zhang, Ping Zhang, Lianjie Xiao, Fulin Zhang, Shijia Liu, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
GARS encodes an enzyme catalyzing the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis and plays an important role to maintain the development of chloroplasts in juvenile plants by affecting the expression of plastid-encoded genes. A series of rice white striped mutants were previously described. In this research, we characterized a novel gars mutant with white striped leaves at the seedling stage. By positional cloning, we identified the mutated gene, which encodes a glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase (GARS) that catalyzes the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis...
November 29, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Elen Kristine Höglander, Silje Nord, David C Wedge, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Laxmi Silwal-Pandit, Hedda vdL Gythfeldt, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, Thomas Fleischer, Marit Krohn, Ellen Schlitchting, Elin Borgen, Øystein Garred, Marit M Holmen, Erik Wist, Bjørn Naume, Peter Van Loo, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Olav Engebraaten, Vessela Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the neoadjuvant setting. Bevacizumab is an antibody which binds to vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and inhibits its receptor interaction, thus obstructing the formation of new blood vessels. METHODS: A phase II randomized clinical trial of 123 patients with Her2-negative breast cancer was conducted, with patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil (5FU)/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and taxane), with or without bevacizumab...
November 29, 2018: Genome Medicine
Chinmay Satish Rahane, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive tumor whose molecular signaling pathways are not fully understood. Using an in-silico clinical data analysis approach we retrieved human gene mutation data from the highly reputed Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). ACC-specific gene mutations were correlated with proliferation marker FAM72 expression and Mutsig along with the algorithmic implementation of the 20/20 rule were used to validate their oncogenic potential. The newly identified oncogenic driver gene set (ZFPM1, LRIG1, CRIPAK, ZNF517, GARS and DGKZ), specifically and most repeatedly mutated in ACC, is involved in tumor suppression and cellular proliferation and thus could be useful for the prognosis and development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ACC...
November 9, 2018: Cancer Genetics
William B Dobyns, Kimberly A Aldinger, Gisele E Ishak, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Andrew E Timms, Megan E Grout, Marjolein H G Dremmen, Rachel Schot, Laura Vandervore, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Martina Wilke, Esmee Kasteleijn, Arthur S Lee, Brenda J Barry, Katherine R Chao, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Joyce Kobori, Andrea Hanson-Kahn, Jonathan A Bernstein, Lucinda Carr, Felice D'Arco, Kaori Miyana, Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Soma Das, Marsha M Wheeler, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Elizabeth C Engle, Frans W Verheijen, Dan Doherty, Grazia M S Mancini
To date, mutations in 15 actin- or microtubule-associated genes have been associated with the cortical malformation lissencephaly and variable brainstem hypoplasia. During a multicenter review, we recognized a rare lissencephaly variant with a complex brainstem malformation in three unrelated children. We searched our large brain-malformation databases and found another five children with this malformation (as well as one with a less severe variant), analyzed available whole-exome or -genome sequencing data, and tested ciliogenesis in two affected individuals...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Thomas Hengl, Jörn Herfert, Alexander Soliman, Kim Schlinzig, Ralph M Trüeb, Harry F Abts
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be harmful to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) of the epidermal skin layer, as well as to hair-follicle-associated keratinocytes. An oral formulation containing l-cystine, thiamin, calcium d-pantothenate, medicinal yeast, keratin and p-aminobenzoic acid (Panto[vi]gar®) has demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of diffuse telogen effluvium; however, its mode of action at the cellular level, and in particular whether protective mechanisms are involved, has yet to be elucidated...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hiroyuki Hachiya, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Kazutoshi Takagi, Yoshimi Iwasaki, Norisuke Shibuya, Yusuke Nishi, Taku Aoki, Keiichi Kubota
Aim: A previous study has revealed that the albumin/globulin ratio (GAR) before treatment is a predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of GAR for prediction of postoperative survival in patients with CRC. Methods: Nine hundred and forty-one patients who had undergone elective CRC surgery were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate analysis models were performed to detect the clinical characteristics that were most closely associated with overall survival (OS)...
November 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
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