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Stephen Parker, Gordon Hopkins, Dan Siskind, Meredith Harris, Gemma McKeon, Frances Dark, Harvey Whiteford
BACKGROUND: Clinically operated community-based residential rehabilitation units (Community Rehabilitation Units) are resource intensive services supporting a small proportion of the people with severe and persisting mental illness who experience difficulties living in the community. Most consumers who engage with these services will be diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder. This review seeks to: generate a typology of service models, describe the characteristics of the consumers accessing these services, and synthesise available evidence about consumers' service experiences and outcomes...
February 4, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Q-Y Xu, Q-W Meng, P Deng, K-Y Fu, W-C Guo, G-Q Li
Dietary delivery of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has a great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An important first step is to discover possible RNA-interference (RNAi)-target genes effective against larvae, especially the old larvae. In the present paper, five putative Broad-Complex (BrC) cDNAs (Z1-Z4, and Z6) were identified in L. decemlineata. The expression of the five LdBrC isoforms was suppressed by juvenile hormone signaling, whereas the transcription was upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling at the fourth (final) instar larval stage...
February 1, 2019: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Xin Jin, Junmin Yao, Haili Fan, Yucheng Che, Jieru Pan, Lingling Zhang, Xiaohong Pan, Ivan Gelbič, Tianpei Huang, Xiong Guan
A novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteriocin BtCspB, active against a food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, was identified and purified by a traditional four-step chromatographic process with low yield (44.5 µg/L) in our lab previously. The aim of this study was to dramatically increase its yield by heterologous expression of BtCspB. The BtCspB gene from Bt BRC-ZYR2 was successfully heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Affinity chromatography was used to obtain the pure BtCspB up to 20 mg/L...
January 21, 2019: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Tatiana Garcia-Muse, U Galindo-Diaz, M Garcia-Rubio, J S Martin, J Polanowska, N O'Reilly, A Aguilera, Simon J Boulton
Accurate meiotic chromosome segregation critically depends on the formation of inter-homolog crossovers initiated by double-strand breaks (DSBs). Inaccuracies in this process can drive aneuploidy and developmental defects, but how meiotic cells are protected from unscheduled DNA breaks remains unexplored. Here we define a checkpoint response to persistent meiotic DSBs in C. elegans that phosphorylates the synaptonemal complex (SC) to switch repair partner from the homolog to the sister chromatid. A key target of this response is the core SC component SYP-1, which is phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) or unrepaired meiotic DSBs...
January 15, 2019: Cell Reports
Qing-Yu Xu, Qing-Wei Meng, Pan Deng, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Broad-Complex (BrC) is a down-stream target of both 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone signaling. BrC regulates morphogenetic changes between nymphal instars in hemimetabolans, whereas it controls pupal commitment, pupal morphogenesis and inhibits adult differentiation in holometabolans. Among five BrC cDNAs (Z1-Z4, and Z6) identified in the Colorado potato beetle, we found in the present paper that Z1, Z2 and Z6 were mainly expressed at the last (fourth) instar and prepupal stages, whereas the levels of Z3 and Z4 increased during the penultimate (3rd) instar stage, peaked at the last instar larval phase, and gradually decreased at the prepupal and pupal periods...
January 10, 2019: Insect Molecular Biology
Indresh Singh, Mehmet Kuscuoglu, Derek M Harkins, Granger Sutton, Derrick E Fouts, Karen E Nelson
BACKGROUND: The development of high-throughput sequencing and analysis has accelerated multi-omics studies of thousands of microbial species, metagenomes, and infectious disease pathogens. Omics studies are enabling genotype-phenotype association studies which identify genetic determinants of pathogen virulence and drug resistance, as well as phylogenetic studies designed to track the origin and spread of disease outbreaks. These omics studies are complex and often employ multiple assay technologies including genomics, metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics...
January 7, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Yun Zhang, Christian Zmasek, Guangyu Sun, Christopher N Larsen, Richard H Scheuermann
The Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; ) is a US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center providing bioinformatics support for major human viral pathogens. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) portal of ViPR facilitates basic research and development of diagnostics and therapeutics for HCV, by providing a comprehensive collection of HCV-related data integrated from various sources, a growing suite of analysis and visualization tools for data mining and hypothesis generation, and personal Workbench spaces for data storage and sharing...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Haynes, Keith E Miller, Brian J Majestic
Brown carbon (BrC) is a collection of oxidized atmospheric aromatic compounds detected worldwide with broad functionality. This multifunctional nature allows BrC to be water soluble, bioavailable, and to demonstrate light absorption at multiple wavelengths. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major primary products of combustion emissions and have long been known to oxidize in the environment as a component of secondary organic aerosols. In this study we have exposed aqueous PAH suspensions to simulated sunlight to investigate oxidized PAH as BrC precursors...
December 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Meiju Li, Xingjun Fan, Mengbo Zhu, Chunlin Zou, Jianzhong Song, Siye Wei, Wanglu Jia, Ping'an Peng
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions, including water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble humic-like substances (HULISw), alkaline soluble organic carbon (ASOC) and methanol soluble organic carbon (MSOC) were extracted from particles emitted from the residential combustion of coal with different geological maturities. The abundances and light absorption properties of these BrC fractions were comprehensively studied. The results showed that the abundances of the different constituents of the BrC fraction varied greatly with the extraction solvent, accounting for 4...
December 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tae Young Ryu, Kwangho Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Jung-Hwa Oh, Jeong-Ki Min, Cho-Rok Jung, Mi-Young Son, Dae-Soo Kim, Hyun-Soo Cho
Breast cancer (BRC) is the most invasive cancer in women. Although the survival rate of BRC is gradually increasing due to improved screening systems, development of novel therapeutic targets for inhibition of BRC proliferation, metastasis and recurrence have been constantly needed. Thus, in this study, we identified overexpression of SETDB1 (SET Domain Bifurcated 1), a histone methyltransferase, in RNA-seq data of BRC derived from TCGA portal. In Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, cell migration-related GO terms were enriched, and we confirmed down-regulation of cell migration/invasion and alteration of EMT /MET markers after knockdown of SETDB1...
December 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Yuemeng Ji, Yujue Wang, Song Guo, Yun Lin, Mario Gomez-Hermandez, Jianfei Peng, Yixin Li, Jeremiah Secrest, Misti Levy Zamora, Yuan Wang, Taicheng An, Renyi Zhang
Brown Carbon (BrC) aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation, directly affecting the Earth's radiative budget. However, considerable uncertainty exists concerning the chemical mechanism leading to BrC formation and their optical properties. In this work, BrC particles were prepared from mixtures of small α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and amines (methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine). The absorption and scattering of BrC particles were measured using a photo-acoustic extinctometer (405 and 532 nm), and the chemical composition of the α-dicarbonyl-amine mixtures was analyzed using orbitrap-mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dominique Maiter
<br>Dopamine agonists are usually very effective in the treatment of prolactinomas. Nonetheless, a subset of individuals does not respond satisfactorily to these agents and this resistance is characterized by failure to achieve normoprolactinaemia and a 30% or more reduction in maximal tumor diameter (in the case of macroprolactinoma) under maximally tolerated doses. Its overall prevalence is 20-30% for bromocriptine (BRC) and around 10% for cabergoline (CAB). The two main predictive factors are male gender and tumor invasiveness...
November 27, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Vânia Lages, Natalia Skvortsova, Bruno Jeannin, Amel Gasc, Carl P Herbort
PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence, morphologic and functional characteristics and evolution of mild birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: Retrospective review of all BRC cases treated at the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care, Lausanne, Switzerland, with at least 3 years of follow-up since the initial symptoms. Sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone was the first line of treatment if visual field changes were unilateral, with no additional treatment if visual field returned to normal...
November 24, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Markus Bo Schoenberg, Hubertus Johann Wolfgang Anger, Jingcheng Hao, Adrian Vater, Julian Nikolaus Bucher, Michael Nikolaus Thomas, Michael Lauseker, Markus Rentsch, Tobias Simon Schiergens, Martin Kurt Angele, Alexandr V Bazhin, Jens Werner, Markus Otto Guba
OBJECTIVE: To develop criteria for safe and oncologically satisfying liver resection in case of early hepatocellular carcinoma with a 5-year overall survival (OS) similar to liver transplantation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver resection (LR) and liver transplantation (LT) are potentially curative treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma. Generally, LT achieves better OS. Due to organ shortage, however not all patients can receive a LT. METHODS: To decide which patients to resect and which to transplant we have developed biological resection criteria (BRC) as a compound out of mGPS (modified Glascow Prognostic Scale) and the Kings-Score (for HCV cirrhosis)...
December 2018: Surgical Oncology
Congai Zhen, Huipeng Yang, Shudong Luo, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
During reproduction, vitellogenin (Vg), as an egg yolk precursor, is critical in sexually mature females of oviparous species including some insects. The transcription of Vg is usually mediated by hormones such as juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids and some neuropeptides. In this study, the structure of the Vg gene from the bumblebee Bombus lantschouensis, (BlVg) was determined by sequencing and assembly. BlVg was found to be expressed at higher levels in reproductive queens than in virgins by quantitative real-time PCR analysis...
2018: PloS One
Mengsi Deng, Jiarong Li, Shuangqi Zhang, Ming Shan, Jill Baumgartner, Ellison Carter, Xudong Yang
Previous studies of solid fuel emissions in household stoves focused more on emission measurements of the overall combustion process instead of the dynamic burning rate and its connection to the emissions. This study put forward a measurement system to monitor the dynamic fuel burning rate and emission rate directly, and explored their relationships during different combustion phases. Experiments were conducted using two types of wood charcoal consumed in a small open pan (i.e. fire basin) used commonly for space heating in rural China...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sofia Salta, Sandra P Nunes, Mário Fontes-Sousa, Paula Lopes, Micaela Freitas, Margarida Caldas, Luís Antunes, Fernando Castro, Pedro Antunes, Susana Palma de Sousa, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BrC) is the most frequent neoplasm in women. New biomarkers, including aberrant DNA methylation, may improve BrC management. Herein, we evaluated the detection and prognostic performance of seven genes' promoter methylation ( APC , BRCA1 , CCND2 , FOXA1 , PSAT1 , RASSF1A and SCGB3A1 ). METHODS: Methylation levels were assessed in primary BrC tissues by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP) and in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) by multiplex QMSP from two independent cohorts of patients (Cohort #1, n = 137; and Cohort #2, n = 44)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Qianyan Li, Takamune T Saito, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Alison J Deshong, Saravanapriah Nadarajan, Katherine S Lawrence, Paula M Checchi, Monica P Colaiacovo, JoAnne Engebrecht
Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and binding partner BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) form an essential E3 ubiquitin ligase important for DNA damage repair and homologous recombination. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs, BRC-1 and BRD-1, also function in DNA damage repair, homologous recombination, as well as in meiosis. Using functional GFP fusions we show that in mitotically-dividing germ cells BRC-1 and BRD-1 are nucleoplasmic with enrichment at foci that partially overlap with the recombinase RAD-51...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Eva Janisiw, Maria Rosaria Dello Stritto, Verena Jantsch, Nicola Silva
During meiosis, the maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes must align along their entire length and recombine to achieve faithful segregation in the gametes. Meiotic recombination is accomplished through the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, a subset of which can mature into crossovers to link the parental homologous chromosomes and promote their segregation. Breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 and its heterodimeric partner BARD1 play a pivotal role in DNA repair in mitotic cells; however, their functions in gametogenesis are less well understood...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Srinivasulu Yerukala Sathipati, Shinn-Ying Ho
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and one of the most common cancers among women. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers due to their effective role in cancer diagnosis. This study proposes a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier SVM-BRC to categorize patients with breast cancer into early and advanced stages. SVM-BRC uses an optimal feature selection method, inheritable bi-objective combinatorial genetic algorithm, to identify a miRNA signature which is a small set of informative miRNAs while maximizing prediction accuracy...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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