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Juan G Navedo, Claudio Verdugo, Ignacio A Rodríguez-Jorquera, José M Abad-Gómez, Cristián G Suazo, Luis E Castañeda, Valeria Araya, Jorge Ruiz, Jorge S Gutiérrez
Human presence at intertidal areas could impact coastal biodiversity, including migratory waterbird species and the ecosystem services they provide. Assessing this impact is therefore essential to develop management measures compatible with migratory processes and associated biodiversity. Here, we assess the effects of human presence on the foraging opportunities of Hudsonian godwits (Limosa haemastica, a trans-hemispheric migratory shorebird) during their non-breeding season on Chiloé Island, southern Chile...
2019: PloS One
Shan Yueming, Changlong Shu, Kanglai He, Xue Cheng, Lili Geng, Wensheng Xiang, Jie Zhang
In the recent decades, there have been increasing reports of insect resistance in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops. Alternative use of Cry toxins, with high insecticidal activity and different mechanisms of action, may be an important strategy to manage this resistance. Cry9 protein, with high toxicity to the lepidopteran pests and no cross-resistance with commercial Cry1 proteins, is a valuable relevant resource. A novel insecticidal protein MP1489, subsequently named as Cry9Cb1, with 88% amino acid sequence identity with Cry9Ca1, was identified from Bt strain SP663; it exhibited high insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella, Ostrinia furnacalis, and Chilo suppressalis, and no cross-resistance with Cry1Fa in Ostrinia furnacalis...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiangkun Meng, Lijun Miao, Huichen Ge, Xuemei Yang, Fan Dong, Xin Xu, Zhaolu Wu, Kun Qian, Jianjun Wang
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems, and are of considerable interest in insecticide discovery. The full length cDNA encoding CsGluCl was cloned from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Multiple cDNA sequence alignment revealed three variants of CsGluCl generated by alternative splicing of exon 3 and exon 9. While all the transcripts were predominantly expressed in both nerve cord and brain, the expression patterns of these three variants differed among other tissues and developmental stages...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhong-Qiang Jia, Cheng-Wang Sheng, Tao Tang, Di Liu, Kipchoge Leviticus, Chun-Qing Zhao, Xiao-Li Chang
Ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs) mediate rapid inhibitory neurotransmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and are important molecular targets of insecticides. However, components of insect GABARs remain elusive. In addition to CsRDL1 and CsRDL2, the complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of another two GABA receptor-like subunits, CsLCCH3 and Cs8916, were identified from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker in the present study. Both CsLCCH3 and Cs8916 subunits shared common structural features, such as a highly-conserved Cys-loop structure, six distinct regions involved in ligand binding (loops A-F), and four transmembrane domains (TM 1-4)...
March 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jun Zhao, Lu Xu, Yang Sun, Pingping Song, Zhaojun Han
Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes, which are involved in metabolizing various chemicals and contribute to the development of insecticide resistance. However, the possible roles of UGTs in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Chilo suppressalis have rarely been studied in detail. Based on genome data, 24 UGT genes in C. suppressalis belonging to 11 families were identified, which were designated by the UGT nomenclature committee. Synergism assay data suggested that UGTs are potentially involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in C...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chuan Zhang, Ju Luo, Geng Chen, Lanzhi Han, Yufa Peng
Cost-effective Bt resistance monitoring programmes exist to manage insect resistance to Bt crops. F2 screening is widely used in detecting rare resistant alleles. One way to establish numerous isofemale lines for F2 bioassays is acquiring many field-trapped copulated females. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient Chilo suppressalis isofemale lines because females have low mating rates and fecundity. We developed a new method to establish C. suppressalis isofemale lines with field-collected egg masses...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
María Gallardo, Luis Arias-Darraz, Juan Cárcamo
This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of breed on mRNA and protein expression levels of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) plus sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) in the subcutaneous fat (SCF) from the back of the animal, and tail fat (TF) of both Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal. Eight Chilota and six Suffolk Down 2-month-old male lambs were allocated to graze a "Calafatal", a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago, Chile...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Xiangkun Meng, Xuemei Yang, Nan Zhang, Heng Jiang, Huichen Ge, Minxuan Chen, Kun Qian, Jianjun Wang
The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is a primary neurotransmitter receptor in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Multiple RDL subunits have been found in insects including the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, however, comparative characterization of duplicated RDL genes in insects is still limited. In this study, comparison of the genomic sequences and the cDNA sequences revealed that both CsRDL1 and CsRDL2 consisted of 10 exons and 9 introns, and their exon-intron boundaries occur in the same position with respect to the coding sequences...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lin Qiu, Yajie Sun, Zhaobao Jiang, Pan Yang, Hui Liu, Hao Zhou, Xiaoping Wang, Wei Zhang, Yongjun Lin, Weihua Ma
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic rice expressing Cry1A, Cry2A and Cry1C toxins have been developed that are lethal to Chilo suppressalis, a devastating insect pest of rice in China. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the interactions of Cry toxins with susceptibility hosts will improve both our understanding of Cry protein toxicology and long-term efficacy of Bt crops. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that V-ATPase subunit A contributes to the action of Cry1Ab/1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca toxins in C...
February 5, 2019: Insect Molecular Biology
Yanbing Wei, Ru Yan, Qiaoling Zhou, Liya Qiao, Guonian Zhu, Mengli Chen
Chlorantraniliprole, an anthranilic diamide insecticide, is widely used for controlling lepidopteran pests, because of its high insecticidal activity. However, overuse of chlorantraniliprole has led to the selection of resistance in many insect pests, including Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera:Crambidae), one of the most damaging rice pests in China. In this study, resistance levels to chlorantraniliprole for C. suppressalis was surveyed from eight populations of three provinces in China. The levels of resistance were ranged from 34...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ruth Nyanduko Okongo, Adarsh Kumar Puri, Zhengxiang Wang, Suren Singh, Kugen Permaul
Microbial chitinases (EC are known to hydrolyse the chitinous gut epithelium of insects and cell walls of many fungi. In this study, seven chitinases from different bacteria and fungi were produced, characterized and their biocontrol abilities against graminaceous stem borers Eldana saccharina, Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis were assessed. All chitinases were stable over broad ranges of pH and temperature, however, recombinant fungal chitinases were more acid-stable than the bacterial counterparts...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Xiao-Long Huang, Lan Xiao, Hai-Min He, Fang-Sen Xue
A strong positive correlation between development time and body size is commonly assumed. However, the evidence is increasing that the correlation between the two traits can be positive, zero or negative, depending on whether the two traits are under antagonistic or synergistic selection. In the present study, we examined the relation between larval development time and pupal weight of the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis under laboratory and field conditions. For individuals reared at constant temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31°C), a longer larval period tended to result in larger pupae, showing a positive correlation between larval development time and pupal weight; whereas for those reared under field conditions, a longer larval period tended to result in smaller pupae at 23...
December 2018: Ecology and Evolution
J Max Blanc, Carlos Molinet, Patricio A Díaz, Ricardo Subiabre, Marco Salamanca, Jaclyn Duemler
Globally, Chile is the second largest producer of mussels, with 99% of production concentrated in the inland sea of the Los Lagos Region, Southern Chile. This study reveals that seasons produce a drastic difference in the cadmium concentration (Cd) in marine mussels in bay, channel, and fjord ecosystems in this area. As the global mussel industry continues its rapid expansion, a complete understanding of cadmium pathways is critical in order to minimize the cadmium content in harvests. In this study, biweekly sampling was conducted in Chiloé (Southern Chile), during five consecutive seasons from June 2014 to November 2015...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Reyard Mutamiswa, Honest Machekano, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Adaptive thermal plasticity plays a key role in mitigating the effects of seasonal and diurnal thermal fluctuations among ectotherms at various life-stages. While the role of thermal history in conferring such plasticity is widely documented, its interaction with relative humidity (RH), another important driver of ectotherm survival and activity, is relatively underexplored. Yet the potential responses to these combinational stressors across ontogeny remain largely neglected. Against this background, we used a full-factorial design to test the combined acclimation effects of RH (45%, 65% and 85%) and temperature (23, 28 and 33 °C) on various indices of thermal sensitivity of laboratory reared spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) following acclimation beginning at larval, pupal and adult life-stages...
January 2019: Journal of Thermal Biology
Yue Wang, Di Ju, Xueqing Yang, Dianrong Ma, Xiaoqi Wang
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a notorious pest of rice that causes large losses in China. Breeding and screening of resistance rice cultivars are effective strategies for C. suppressalis management. In this study, insect-resistant traits of 47 rice cultivars were investigated by C. suppressalis artificial infestation (AI) both in field and greenhouse experiments, using the susceptible (S) cultivar 1665 as a control. Results suggest that two rice cultivars, namely 1688 and 1654, are resistant (R) and moderately resistant (MR) to C...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qing-Hua Chen, Feng Zhu, Zhihua Tian, Wan-Min Zhang, Rong Guo, Wancai Liu, Lieming Pan, Yongjun Du
Several lepidopteran species share the same pheromone blend consisting of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) at different ratios and active doses. In rice pest Chilo suppressalis , (Z)-11-hexadecenol, (Z11-16:OH) and octadecanal (18:Ald) were identified as minor components in the pheromone gland of female moths, and these components were previously not considered as part of the sex pheromone of C. suppressalis . Z11-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald) frequently trapped other lepidopteran species, such as rice pests Scirpophaga incertulas and Mythimna separate , corn and vegetable pests Helicoverpa armigera in the field, suggesting a lack of specificity in the pheromone blend...
December 12, 2018: Insects
Mukesh K Dhillon, Aditya K Tanwar, Fazil Hasan
We investigated the effects of mating among different-aged males and females on reproductive physiology, progeny production, and longevity of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) adults under laboratory conditions. Present studies involved virgin males (M) and females (F) of three different ages namely, on the day of emergence (1D), next day (2D), and further next day (3D), thus comprising of a total of nine mating treatments (1DM × 1DF, 1DM × 2DF, 1DM × 3DF, 2DM × 1DF, 2DM × 2DF, 2DM × 3DF, 3DM × 1DF, 3DM × 2DF, and 3DM × 3DF)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Aydın Yesilyurt, Hacer Muratoglu, Zihni Demirbag, Remziye Nalcacioglu
The genome of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) has two open reading frames (ORFs) with matrix metalloprotease (MMP) domains. The protein encoded by ORF 136R contains 178 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to hypothetical metalloproteases of other viruses, and the protein 165R contains 264 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to metalloproteases of a large group of organisms, primarily including a variety of Drosophila species. These proteins possess conserved zinc-binding motifs in their catalytic domains...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Alejandro Vera, Constanza Schapheer
We describe a new genus and species of Chilean Blattodea (Ectobiidae), collected on Isla Grande de Chiloé and associated with Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae). We study the morphology of both sexes with SEM. The new taxon is brachypterous, with tiny ellipsoid tegmina and hind wings absent. The female presents strongly sclerotized genital sclerites and spermathecal plate developed. The male without tergal specializationsand asymmetrical styles. Medium phallomere with modified sclerites, compose a sclerotized complex that includes a long ejaculatory duct...
October 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Chao Xu, Jiahui Cheng, Haiyan Lin, Chaoyang Lin, Jianhua Gao, Zhicheng Shen
Management of resistance development of insect pests is of great importance for continued utilization of Bt crop. The high-dose/refuge and pyramid (gene stacking) strategy are commonly employed to delay the evolution of insect resistance. Due to the anticipated difficulty for deployment of mandatory refuge for transgenic crops in China, where the size of farmer is quite small, stacking of genes with different modes of action is a more feasible strategy. Here we report the development of transgenic rice expressing a fusion protein of Cry1Ab and Vip3A toxin...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
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