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Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Daniel Huys, Sina Kohl, Juan Carlos Baldermann, Lars Timmermann, Volker Sturm, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Jens Kuhn
BACKGROUND: For more than 15 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has served as a last-resort treatment for severe treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 20 patients with OCD (10 men/10 women) were included in a single-centre trial with a naturalistic open-label design over 1 year to evaluate the effects of DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region (ALIC-NAcc) on OCD symptoms, executive functions, and personality traits...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Alessandra Cillo, Marco Bonetti, Giovanni Burro, Clelia Di Serio, Roberta De Filippis, Riccardo Maria Martoni
In economics, models of decision-making under risk are widely investigated. Since many empirical studies have shown patterns in choice behavior that classical models fail to predict, several descriptive theories have been developed. Due to an evident phenotypic heterogeneity, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have shown a general deficit in decision making when compared to healthy control subjects (HCs). However, the direction for impairment in decision-making in OCD patients is still unclear. Hence, bridging decision-making models widely used in the economic literature with mental health research may improve the understanding of preference relations in severe patients, and may enhance intervention designs...
2019: PloS One
Gail A Bernstein, Kathryn R Cullen, Elizabeth C Harris, Christine A Conelea, Alexandra D Zagoloff, Patricia A Carstedt, Susanne S Lee, Bryon A Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Foundational knowledge on neural circuitry underlying pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and how it changes during standard treatment is needed to provide the basis for conceptualization and development of novel, targeted treatments. This study explored the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits in pediatric OCD. METHOD: Medication-free youths with OCD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14) were examined at baseline and 12 weeks with resting-state fMRI...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Karin Melin, Gudmundur Skarphedinson, Per Hove Thomsen, Bernhard Weidle, Nor Christian Torp, Robert Valderhaug, Davíð R M A Højgaard, Katja A Hybel, Judith Becker Nissen, Sanne Jensen, Kitty Dahl, Ingela Skärsäter, Bente Storm Haugland, Tord Ivarsson
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the long-term outcomes of a stepped care treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and investigates whether response to first-step cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an important indicator of three-year outcomes. METHOD: This study is a part of the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment study (NordLOTS), in which 269 children and adolescents were treated with CBT. Non-responders to CBT were randomized to an extended treatment with continued CBT or pharmacotherapy with sertraline...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Umberto Albert, Francesca Barbaro, Stefano Bramante, Gianluca Rosso, Diana De Ronchi, Giuseppe Maina
BACKGROUND: The duration of untreated illness (DUI) is a potentially modifiable parameter associated with worst prognosis in several psychiatric disorders, but poorly investigated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Our aims were to estimate the mean DUI in a large sample of individuals with OCD and its impact on response to the first ever adequate SRI treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively examined records of 251 patients with OCD (SCID-I, DSM-IV) who referred to our Department and were prospectively and naturalistically treated according to International Guidelines...
February 11, 2019: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Johanna A M du Mortier, Henny A D Visser, Malinda F R van Geijtenbeek-de Vos van Steenwijk, Harold J G M van Megen, Anton J L M van Balkom
BACKGROUND: Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.AimsTo performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events. METHOD: In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Hiong Tie, Georgina Krebs, Katie Lang, James Shearer, Cynthia Turner, David Mataix-Cols, Karina Lovell, Isobel Heyman, Sarah Byford
BACKGROUND: Telephone cognitive-behaviour therapy (TCBT) may be a cost-effective method for improving access to evidence-based treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people.AimsEconomic evaluation of TCBT compared with face-to-face CBT for OCD in young people. METHOD: Randomised non-inferiority trial comparing TCBT with face-to-face CBT for 72 young people (aged 11 to 18) with a diagnosis of OCD. Cost-effectiveness at 12-month follow-up was explored in terms of the primary clinical outcome (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, CY-BOCS) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (trial registration: ISRCTN27070832)...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Anna C Domen, Sjors C F van de Weijer, Monique W Jaspers, Damiaan Denys, Dorien H Nieman
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment affects many psychiatric patients, influences daily functioning, and should be an important treatment focus. Assessment of cognitive status is crucial in cognitive remediation studies. However, current test batteries have limitations. A new, online tool, the MyCognition Quotient (MyCQ), was developed to assess cognition within 30 min. We present the psychometric properties and aim to determine the validity of the MyCQ by comparing it with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB)...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Gherardo Mannino
While psychopathological phenomena of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been well described some time ago, instead there is still need for a deeper understanding of mechanisms underlying psychopathological phenomena themselves. About this, a recently proposed concept - the 'Retrospective Identification of Motivations and Inclinations' (RIMI) - seems to have a promising explanatory capacity about different aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. For example, as shown elsewhere, it appears to shed new light on the so-called 'fear of self' in OCD...
January 2019: Rivista di Psichiatria
Douglas H Ingram
This case report sketches the psychoanalytically-informed supportive psychotherapeutic treatment of a single man through his life challenges over a twenty-year period. The decades-long challenges arise from obsessive compulsive disorder, pathologic self-effacement with insatiable and unusual erotic components, and severe visual impairment leading to blindness. Sadistically-tinged impulses arising in the countertransference are described.
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Lara Rzesnitzek, Marwan Hariz, Joachim K Krauss
In order to shed light on the first application of human functional stereotactic neurosurgery, whether it was in the realm of movement disorders, as has been claimed repeatedly, or in the realm of psychiatry, a review of the original scholarly literature was conducted. Tracking and scrutinising original publications by Spiegel and Wycis, the pioneers of human stereotactic neurosurgery, it was found that its origin and the very incentive for its development and first clinical use were to avoid the side effects of frontal leucotomy...
February 13, 2019: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Giselle Pianowski, Lucas de F Carvalho, Fabiano K Miguel
OBJECTIVE: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) posits that psychopathology is hierarchically structured. For personality disorder (PD) traits, there are five spectra: internalizing, thought disorder, disinhibited externalizing, antagonistic externalizing, and detachment. Empirical findings suggest a sixth group, compulsivity. In this research, we tried to recover the five HiTOP spectra, plus compulsivity, specifically for PD traits. METHODS: The sample was composed of 4,868 Brazilians (54...
February 7, 2019: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations including contamination fears, fear of harm, and relationship-related obsessions. Cognitive behavioral models of OCD suggest that OC symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and associated dysfunctional strategies used to manage them. OCD-related maladaptive beliefs including inflated responsibility, importance and control of thoughts, perfectionism, and intolerance for uncertainty increase the likelihood of such misinterpretations...
February 13, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Jee In Kang, Deog Young Kim, Chang-il Lee, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Background: Deficits in cortical inhibitory processes have been suggested as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined whether patients with OCD have altered cortical excitability using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also tested associations between TMS indices and OCD-related characteristics, including age of onset and response inhibition in the go/no-go paradigm, to examine whether altered cortical excitability contributes to symptom formation and behavioural inhibition deficit in patients with OCD...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Yulin Hswen, Anuraag Gopaluni, John S Brownstein, Jared B Hawkins
BACKGROUND: More than 3.5 million Americans live with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Major challenges persist in diagnosing ASD as no medical test exists to diagnose this disorder. Digital phenotyping holds promise to guide in the clinical diagnoses and screening of ASD. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the feasibility of using the Web-based social media platform Twitter to detect psychological and behavioral characteristics of self-identified persons with ASD...
February 12, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Thomas L Lowe, Matthew R Capriotti, Keith McBurnett
Background: Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset movement disorder marked by the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics. Research shows that tics associated with TS tend to fade in severity for some (but not all) affected youth, though psychiatric comorbidities that commonly accompany TS may be more persistent. The long-term outcomes of individuals with TS have not been well characterized. Objective: To characterize long-term clinical outcomes of individuals with TS...
January 2019: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Ajit Avasthi, Akhilesh Sharma, Sandeep Grover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Lavanya P Sharma, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) are known to be highly comorbid with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Comorbid OCD/OCS influences the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. There is also some evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of OCD may be associated with elevated risk for later development of psychosis and bipolar disorder. Comorbid OCD/OCS is associated with a greater severity of schizophrenia phenotype and poorer prognosis. In addition, certain atypical antipsychotics, clozapine in particular are known to induce or worsen OCS in schizophrenia...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Jon E Grant
Trichotillomania is characterized by the repetitive pulling out of one's own hair leading to hair loss and possibly functional impairment. Trichotillomania has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century. Prevalence studies suggest that trichotillomania is a common disorder (point prevalence estimates of 0.5%-2.0%). Although grouped with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5, trichotillomania is distinct from OCD in many respects...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Clara Westwell-Roper, S Evelyn Stewart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 1%-3% of children worldwide and has a profound impact on quality of life for patients and families. Although our understanding of the underlying etiology remains limited, data from neuroimaging and genetic studies as well as the efficacy of serotonergic medications suggest the disorder is associated with the fundamental alterations in the function of cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits. Significant delays to diagnosis are common, ultimately leading to more severe functional impairment with long-term developmental consequences...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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