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Rumen methane emission

Fei Xie, Lingli Zhang, Wei Jin, Zhenxiang Meng, Yanfen Cheng, Jing Wang, Weiyun Zhu
The effects of nitroglycerine (NG) on the rumen methane emission, fermentation, and microbial community of Hu sheep were investigated. Eight sheep were fed NG (100 mg/head/day); another eight sheep served as controls. NG decreased methane emission of Hu sheep by ~ 19.3% (P < 0.05) without adversely affecting the production performance or rumen fermentation (P > 0.05). The alpha and beta diversity indexes of the bacterial and archaeal community showed no significant differences (P > 0...
February 12, 2019: Current Microbiology
Festus A Adejoro, Abubeker Hassen, Mapitsi S Thantsha
Objectives: The use of tannin extract and other phytochemicals as a dietary additive in ruminants is becoming more popular due to their wide biological values such as in methane mitigation, bypass of dietary protein, control intestinal nematode, among other uses. Unfortunately, some have strong astringency, low stability and bioavailability, and negatively affecting dry matter intake and digestibility. To circumvent these drawbacks, an effective delivery system may offer a promising approach to administer these extract to the site where it is required...
November 28, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Zhaomin Lei, Ke Zhang, Chao Li, Ting Jiao, Jianping Wu, Yubing Wei, Kechuan Tian, Chong Li, Defu Tang, Delmer I Davis, David P Casper, Hui Jiang, Xiaolong Wang, Jianfu Wang
BACKGROUND: Essential Oils (EO) are complex mixtures of plant secondary metabolites that have been proposed as promising feed additives for mitigating methane and ammonia emissions. We have previously demonstrated that Essential Oil-Cobalt (EOC) supplementation resulted in increased average daily gain and improved phenotypes (cashmere fiber traits, carcass weight, and meat quality) when cashmere goats received supplementation at approximately 2 mg/kg of body weight. However, the ruminal microbiological effects of EO remain poorly understood with regard to the extent to which ruminal populations can adapt to EO presence as feed ingredients...
February 4, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Xiumin Zhang, Rodolfo F Medrano, Min Wang, Karen A Beauchemin, Zhiyuan Ma, Rong Wang, Jiangnan Wen, Lukuyu A Bernard, Zhiliang Tan
Background: Urea pretreatment is an efficient strategy to improve fiber digestibility of low quality roughages for ruminants. Nitrate and oil are usually used to inhibit enteric methane (CH4 ) emissions from ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw and corn oil supplementation to the diet on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbiota in goats...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yunlong Liu, Tao Ma, Dandan Chen, Naifeng Zhang, Bingwen Si, Kaidong Deng, Yan Tu, Qiyu Diao
Two experiments were conducted using Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes. In experiment 1, eighteen ewes were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments (a basal diet, or the same basal diet supplemented with 2.0 g tea saponin (TS)/head/day) to investigate the effects of TS supplementation on nutrient digestibility and methane emissions. In experiment 2, six ewes with ruminal cannulae were assigned to the same two dietary treatments as in experiment 1 to investigate the effects of TS supplementation on rumen fermentation and microbial flora...
January 21, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
C M Welty, B A Wenner, B K Wagner, Y Roman-Garcia, J E Plank, R A Meller, A M Gehman, J L Firkins
Nitrates have been fed to ruminants, including dairy cows, as an electron sink to mitigate CH4 emissions. In the NO3 - reduction process, NO2 - can accumulate, which could directly inhibit methanogens and possibly other microbes in the rumen. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was hypothesized to decrease NO2 - through direct reduction or indirectly by stimulating the bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium, which is among the ruminal bacteria most well characterized to reduce both NO3 - and NO2 - . Ruminal fluid was incubated in continuous cultures fed diets without or with NaNO3 (1...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Anita Kumari Garsa, Prasanta Kumar Choudhury, Anil Kumar Puniya, Tejpal Dhewa, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
Bovicin is a type AII lantibiotic, possessing two β-methyllanthionine and a disulfide bridge encoded by bovA gene hitherto unknown a couple of decades ago. Bacteriocins can be useful in directly inhibiting methanogens and/or redirecting H2 to other reductive microorganisms, in particular, propionate producers or reductive acetogens. So far, the role of nisin and bovicin to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) production under in vitro conditions has been documented. GHG emissions from ruminants are a threat to the environment, because of their role in global warming as well as in climate change...
January 2, 2019: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
M Focant, E Froidmont, Q Archambeau, Q C Dang Van, Y Larondelle
The objective of this study was to test the effects of inclusion of hop pellets (HP) and oak tannin extracts (OT) alone or in combination on N efficiency, methane (CH4 ) emission, and milk production and composition in 2 experiments with dairy cows fed low-N rations supplemented with linseed. In both experiments, 6 lactating Holstein cows were assigned to 3 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 duplicated Latin square design (21-d periods). Cows were fed a total mixed ration at a restricted level to meet their nutrient requirements...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
F Sun, M J Aguerre, M A Wattiaux
Our objectives were to determine the effects of readily rumen-available carbohydrate source (refined starch vs. dextrose), the level of rumen-degradable protein (RDP), and their interaction on lactation performance, ruminal measurements, enteric methane (CH4 ) emission, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen (N) balance in lactating dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows were used in this split-plot study. The main plots were created by randomly assigning 9 cows to diets of 11 or 9% RDP obtained by altering the percentage of soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and blood meal in the diet...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jinqiang Huang, Yongjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Tibetan sheep (TS) and Gansu Alpine Finewool sheep (GS) are both important plateau sheep raised and fed on the harsh Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Rumen methanogen and protozoal communities of plateau sheep are affected by their hosts and living environments, and play important roles in ruminant nutrition and greenhouse gas production. However, the characteristics, differences, and associations of these communities remain largely uncharacterized. RESULTS: The rumen methanogen and protozoal communities of plateau sheep were investigated by 16S/18S rRNA gene clone libraries...
December 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Pratap Pragna, Surinder S Chauhan, Veerasamy Sejian, Brian J Leury, Frank R Dunshea
The ability of an animal to cope and adapt itself to the changing climate virtually depends on the function of rumen and rumen inhabitants such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, virus and archaea. Elevated ambient temperature during the summer months can have a significant influence on the basic physiology of the rumen, thereby affecting the nutritional status of the animals. Rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) production decreases under conditions of extreme heat. Growing recent evidence suggests there are genetic variations among breeds of goats in the impact of heat stress on rumen fermentation pattern and VFA production...
December 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
A Bougouin, C Martin, M Doreau, A Ferlay
Optimizing milk production efficiency implies diets allowing low methane (CH4) emissions and high dairy performance. We hypothesize that nature of energy (starch v. lipids) and lipid supplement types (monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) v. polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) mitigate CH4 emissions and can induce low milk fat content via different pathways. The main objective of this experiment was to study the effects of starch-rich or lipid-supplemented diets that induce milk fat depression (MFD) on rumen biohydrogenation (RBH) of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and enteric CH4 emissions in dairy cows...
November 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Niloy Chandra Sarker, Faithe Keomanivong, Md Borhan, Shafiqur Rahman, Kendall Swanson
Background: Enteric methane (CH4 ) accounts for about 70% of total CH4 emissions from the ruminant animals. Researchers are exploring ways to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants. Recently, nano zinc oxide (nZnO) has shown potential in reducing CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from the liquid manure under anaerobic storage conditions. Four different levels of nZnO and two types of feed were mixed with rumen fluid to investigate the efficacy of nZnO in mitigating gaseous production...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Huiru Zheng, Haiying Wang, Richard Dewhurst, Rainer Roehe
The importance of the composition and signature of rumen microbial communities has gained increasing attention. One of the key techniques was to infer co-abundance networks through correlation analysis based on relative abundances. In this study, we proposed the use of a framework including a compendium of two correlation measures and three dissimilarity metrics to mitigate the compositional effect in the inference of significant associations in the bovine rumen microbiome. We tested the framework on rumen microbiome data including both 16S rRNA and KEGG genes associated with methane production in cattle...
November 2, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Eric Altermann, Linley R Schofield, Ron S Ronimus, Amy K Beatty, Kerri Reilly
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 25 times more efficient at trapping heat than carbon dioxide. Ruminant methane emissions contribute almost 30% to anthropogenic sources of global atmospheric methane levels and a reduction in methane emissions would significantly contribute to slowing global temperature rises. Here we demonstrate the use of a lytic enyzme, PeiR, from a methanogen virus that infects Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1 as an effective agent inhibiting a range of rumen methanogen strains in pure culture...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Roland Wirth, Gyula Kádár, Balázs Kakuk, Gergely Maróti, Zoltán Bagi, Árpád Szilágyi, Gábor Rákhely, József Horváth, Kornél L Kovács
The cow rumen harbors a great variety of diverse microbes, which form a complex, organized community. Understanding the behavior of this multifarious network is crucial in improving ruminant nutrient use efficiency. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge by examining 10 Holstein dairy cow rumen fluid fraction whole metagenome and transcriptome datasets. DNA and mRNA sequence data, generated by Ion Torrent, was subjected to quality control and filtering before analysis for core elements. The taxonomic core microbiome consisted of 48 genera belonging to Bacteria (47) and Archaea (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gareth Frank Difford, Damian Rafal Plichta, Peter Løvendahl, Jan Lassen, Samantha Joan Noel, Ole Højberg, André-Denis G Wright, Zhigang Zhu, Lise Kristensen, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Goutam Sahana
Cattle and other ruminants produce large quantities of methane (~110 million metric tonnes per annum), which is a potent greenhouse gas affecting global climate change. Methane (CH4) is a natural by-product of gastro-enteric microbial fermentation of feedstuffs in the rumen and contributes to 6% of total CH4 emissions from anthropogenic-related sources. The extent to which the host genome and rumen microbiome influence CH4 emission is not yet well known. This study confirms individual variation in CH4 production was influenced by individual host (cow) genotype, as well as the host's rumen microbiome composition...
October 2018: PLoS Genetics
M Wang, R Wang, M Liu, K A Beauchemin, X Z Sun, S X Tang, J Z Jiao, Z L Tan, Z X He
Hydrogen is an important intermediate that is produced during carbohydrate fermentation to volatile fatty acid and utilized by methanogens to produce methane in the rumen. Ruminal volatile fatty acid and dissolved methane concentrations are more than 500 times greater than dissolved hydrogen concentration. Therefore, we hypothesized that dissolved hydrogen might have a higher sensitivity in response to dietary changes compared with volatile fatty acid and dissolved methane. Using goats, we investigated the effects of increasing dietary starch content (maize replaced with wheat bran) and supplementing with rhubarb rhizomes and roots on the relationships among dissolved hydrogen, dissolved methane and other fermentation end products...
October 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S E Denman, D P Morgavi, C S McSweeney
Rumen microbiome profiling uses 16S rRNA (18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer) gene sequencing, a method that usually sequences a small portion of a single gene and is often biased and varies between different laboratories. Functional information can be inferred from this data, but only for those that are closely related to known annotated species, and even then may not truly reflect the function performed within the environment being studied. Genome sequencing of isolates and metagenome-assembled genomes has now reached a stage where representation of the majority of rumen bacterial genera are covered, but this still only represents a portion of rumen microbial species...
September 28, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Løvendahl, G F Difford, B Li, M G G Chagunda, P Huhtanen, M H Lidauer, J Lassen, P Lund
It may be possible for dairy farms to improve profitability and reduce environmental impacts by selecting for higher feed efficiency and lower methane (CH4) emission traits. It remains to be clarified how CH4 emission and feed efficiency traits are related to each other, which will require direct and accurate measurements of both of these traits in large numbers of animals under the conditions in which they are expected to perform. The ranking of animals for feed efficiency and CH4 emission traits can differ depending upon the type and duration of measurement used, the trait definitions and calculations used, the period in lactation examined and the production system, as well as interactions among these factors...
September 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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