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Cognition and learning

Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Goutam Kulsi, Ankita Chakraborty, Subhajit Dinda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Louise Johns, Suzanne Jolley, Philippa Garety, Mizanur Khondoker, Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Juliana Onwumere, Emmanuelle Peters, Craig Milosh, Alison Brabban, Majella Byrne
Implementation of evidence-based cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) remains low in routine services. The United Kingdom Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aimed to address this issue. The project evaluated whether existing services could improve access to CBTp and demonstrate effectiveness using a systematic approach to therapy provision and outcome monitoring (in a similar way to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) model for people with anxiety and depression)...
March 8, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Euphrosyni Koutsouraki, Thaleia Kalatha, Effrosyni Grosi, Theodoros Koukoulidis, Dimitrios Michmizos
Cognitive impairment is a common phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS), occurring at all stages of the disease, even at the earliest, and can be a major source of disability, social impairment, and impoverished quality of life. Cognitive dysfunction is mainly focused on working memory, conceptual reasoning, verbal fluency, speed of information processing, attention and executive function. Additional clinical factors, including disease course, fatigue and affective disturbance, can impact the degree of MS-related cognitive impairment...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Deborah O Himes, Sarah H Davis, Jane H Lassetter, Neil E Peterson, Margaret F Clayton, Wendy C Birmingham, Anita Y Kinney
Knowledge of breast cancer genetics is critical for those at increased hereditary risk who must make decisions about breast cancer screening options. This descriptive study explored theory-based relationships among cognitive and emotional variables related to knowledge of breast cancer genetics in cancer families. Participants included first-degree relatives of women with breast cancer who had received genetic counseling and testing. Study participants themselves did not have breast cancer and had not received genetic counseling or testing...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Community Genetics
Brian D Kangas, Rachel J Doyle, Stephen J Kohut, Jack Bergman, Marc J Kaufman
RATIONALE: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with cognitive deficits that have been linked to poor treatment outcomes. An improved understanding of cocaine's deleterious effects on cognition may help optimize pharmacotherapies. Emerging evidence implicates abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission in CUD and drugs that normalize glutamatergic homeostasis (e.g., N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) may attenuate CUD-related relapse behavior. OBJECTIVES: The present studies examined the impact of chronic cocaine exposure on touchscreen-based models of learning (repeated acquisition) and cognitive flexibility (discrimination reversal) and, also, the ability of NAC to modulate cocaine self-administration and its capacity to reinstate drug-seeking behavior...
March 15, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Isabel H Bleimeister, Mia Wolff, Tracey R Lam, Derrick M Brooks, Reece Patel, Jeffrey P Cheng, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Environmental enrichment (EE) and amantadine (AMT) enhance motor and cognitive outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there are no data on the effects of combining these two therapies. Hence, the aim of the current study was to combine EE and AMT after TBI to determine if their net effect further enhances motor and cognitive performance. Anesthetized adult male rats received either a cortical impact of moderate severity or sham injury and then were randomly assigned to EE or standard (STD) housing and once daily administration of AMT (20 mg/kg; i...
March 12, 2019: Brain Research
Stephen P J Goodman, Ashleigh T Moreland, Frank E Marino
Hypohydration is generally considered to have a negative effect on cognitive function, despite several studies reporting comparable findings between hydration states. Recommendations to avoid moderate dehydration (≥ 2% loss in body mass) are commonly made to athletes, on the provision that this deficit may impair optimal cognitive performance. To determine whether cognitive function is impaired by hypohydration, and investigate the existence of the proposed critical water deficit of ≥2% loss in body mass purported to diminish cognitive performance, we conducted a systematic search of the literature and examined appropriate studies by meta-analysis...
March 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Chunliang Feng, Li Wang, Ting Li, Pengfei Xu
Loneliness is an increasingly prevalent condition linking with enhanced morbidity and premature mortality. Despite recent proposal on medicalization of loneliness, so far no effort has been made to establish a model capable of predicting loneliness at the individual level. Here, we applied a machine learning approach to decode loneliness from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity. The relationship between whole-brain RSFC and loneliness was examined in a linear predictive model. The results revealed that individual loneliness could be predicted by within- and between-network connectivity of prefrontal, limbic, and temporal systems, which are involved in cognitive control, emotional processing, and social perceptions and communications, respectively...
March 15, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
N V Latysheva, E G Filatova, D V Osipova
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of objective cognitive impairment (CI) in patients with episodic migraine (EM) during the interictal period and in the chronic migraine (CM) population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with CM and 42 patients with low-frequency EM (less than 4 headache days a month), aged 18-59, were enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Cognitive functions were evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
John W Krakauer, Alkis M Hadjiosif, Jing Xu, Aaron L Wong, Adrian M Haith
Motor learning encompasses a wide range of phenomena, ranging from relatively low-level mechanisms for maintaining calibration of our movements, to making high-level cognitive decisions about how to act in a novel situation. We survey the major existing approaches to characterizing motor learning at both the behavioral and neural level. In particular, we critically review two long-standing paradigms used in motor learning research-adaptation and sequence learning. We discuss the extent to which these paradigms can be considered models of motor skill acquisition, defined as the incremental improvement in our ability to rapidly select and then precisely execute appropriate actions, and conclude that they fall short of doing so...
March 14, 2019: Comprehensive Physiology
Jenna Morogiello, Nicholas G Murray, Tamerah N Hunt, Brandonn S Harris, Brian J Szekely, George W Shaver
Background and Aim: Executive functions are high-level cognitive processes that allow a person to success-fully engage in an independent and self-fulfilling life. Previous literature indicates that chronic pain can affect executive function, but there are limited studies that investigate the effect of acute pain on executive function. The purpose of this study was to determine if acute pain affects executive function in recreationally active indi-viduals who sustained a musculoskeletal injury...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Srinivas Chivukula, Matiar Jafari, Tyson Aflalo, Nicholas Au Yong, Nader Pouratian
Millions of people worldwide are afflicted with paralysis from a disruption of neural pathways between the brain and the muscles. Because their cortical architecture is often preserved, these patients are able to plan movements despite an inability to execute them. In such people, brain machine interfaces have great potential to restore lost function through neuroprosthetic devices, circumventing dysfunctional corticospinal circuitry. These devices have typically derived control signals from the motor cortex (M1) which provides information highly correlated with desired movement trajectories...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Osamu Ichikawa, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Nicholas Genes, Brian A Kidd, Li Li, Joel T Dudley
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Although appropriate antibiotic treatment is effective for most cases, up to 20% of patients develop post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). There is an urgent need to improve clinical management of LD using precise understanding of disease and patient stratification. We applied machine-learning to electronic medical records to better characterize the heterogeneity of LD and developed predictive models for identifying medications that are associated with risks of subsequent comorbidities...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gavin Tsang, Xianghua Xie, Shangming Zhou
Dementia is a chronic and degenerative condition affecting millions globally. The care of patients with dementia presents an ever continuing challenge to healthcare systems in the 21st century. Medical and health sciences have generated unprecedented volumes of data related to health and wellbeing for patients with dementia due to advances in information technology, such as genetics, neuroimaging, cognitive assessment, free texts, routine electronic health records etc. Making the best use of these diverse and strategic resources will lead to high quality care of patients with dementia...
March 12, 2019: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Wenxing Hu, Biao Cai, Aiying Zhang, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
Multi-modal fMRI imaging has been used to study brain development such as the difference of functional connectivities (FCs) between different ages. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been used to find correlations between multiple imaging modalities. However, it is unrelated to phenotypes. On the other hand, regression models can identify phenotype related imaging features but overlook the cross-modal data correlation. Collaborative regression (CR) is thus introduced to incorporate correlation as a penalization term into the regression model...
March 13, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Eri Nakazaki, Yasushi Yabuki, Hisanao Izumi, Yasuharu Shinoda, Fumiko Watanabe, Yukihiro Hishida, Ayako Kamimura, Kohji Fukunaga
Phospholipids are structural components of cellular membranes that play important roles as precursors for various signaling pathways in modulating neuronal membrane function and maintenance of the intracellular environment. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the most abundant cellular phospholipid. Citicoline and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential intermediates in the synthesis of PtdCho. Both PtdCho intermediates have independently shown neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia, but their combined effect is unknown...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Damla Arifoglu, Abdelhamid Bouchachia
In recent years, there is a rapid increase in the population of elderly people. However, elderly people may suffer from the consequences of cognitive decline, which is a mental health disorder that primarily affects cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, etc. As a result, the elderly people may get dependent on caregivers to complete daily life tasks. Detecting the early indicators of dementia before it gets worsen and warning the caregivers and medical doctors would be helpful for further diagnosis...
March 2019: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Laiali Alquraan, Karem H Alzoubi, Hana Hammad, Suzie Y Rababa'h, Fadia Mayyas
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can happen after exposure to a traumatic event. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among mental health disorders that include mood and anxiety disorders. Omega-3 fatty acids (OMGs) are essential for the maintenance of brain function and prevention of cognition dysfunctions. However, the possible effect of OMG on memory impairment induced by PTSD has not been studied. In here, such an effect was explored using a rat model of PTSD. The PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restraint, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1⁻2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 12, 2019: Biomolecules
Jianhui Wang, Xiaorui Cheng, Xiaorui Zhang, Gang Liu, Yongan Wang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Mounting evidence has shown that inflammation might drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and contribute to its exacerbation. Previous studies have indicated that indomethacin or atorvastatin are beneficial in treating AD; however, no significant clinical effects have been shown. Furthermore, no study has investigated the efficacy of combining these agents for treating AD. This study sought to determine the effect of a combination of indomethacin and atorvastatin in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD mouse model...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jake Spicer, Adam N Sanborn
We present a brief review of modern machine learning techniques and their use in models of human mental representations, detailing three notable branches: spatial methods, logical methods and artificial neural networks. Each of these branches contains an extensive set of systems, and demonstrate accurate emulations of human learning of categories, concepts and language, despite substantial differences in operation. We suggest that continued applications will allow cognitive researchers the ability to model the complex real-world problems where machine learning has recently been successful, providing more complete behavioural descriptions...
March 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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